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ilp archive : journals

public lighting no. 1 vol. 1
March 1936


Foreword by the Rt. Hon. Leslie Hore-Belisha (Minister Of Transport) p3


Notes From The President by A. Maurice Bell, A.M.Inst.G.E p4
Appointment of H. O. Davies as new Secretary (replacing J. Stewart Dow), request for articles for the journal, telegram to H. M. Queen Mary.
APLE: Organisation


The Association Of Public Lighting Engineers' Conference p4
To be held at Cheltenham after an invitation from the Cheltenham Corporation.
APLE: Conference


Public Lighting: Its Necessity And Administration by E. C. Lennox, A.M.I.E.E. p5-20
Includes discussion.
Paper previously read at the Public Works, Roads and Transport Congress (1935).

Traffic increasing steadily including during dark hours. Heavy goods traffic once taken by rail is being carried to an ever greater extent on roadways at night. This, together with enormous development in omnibus services, has lead to an "18-hour nation." Number of accidents remains at an appalling figure. A study of results as are available indicates very conclusively that the accident hazard at night is several times greater than during daylight. From accident statistics the following conclusions can be drawn:
1. Over 46% of total accidents occur during winter months when traffic is less heavy than in summer months.
2. In winder months 52% of accidents occur during dark hours.
3. In summer months 20% of accidents occur during dark hours when traffic is at a minimum.
4. Over the full year over one-third of accidents occur during dark hours.
5. Although the number of "vehicle-miles" in mid-summer months must be more than twice that of mid-winter with an even greater relative accident risk the proportion of accidents in dark hours varies from 12% in summer to 67% in winter.
6. Accident rate during dark hours varies from an average of .31 per hour in mid-summer to .95 in mid-winter.
7. In winter months the accident rate at night is double that of daytime.
8. Average number of accidents per hour in the non-built-up areas in winter is small compared with built-up-areas, but it must be remembered that the density of traffic is also small, and it will be seen that the percentage of accidents at night is as high as that for built-up-areas. Even in mid-summer traffic density in non-built-up areas is still lower than built-up-areas, but the accident rate per hour during dark hours is similar to that for built-up areas.
9. High accident risk during dark hours in non-built-up areas in both winter and summer months does not seem to justify the general assertion of motorists that headlights are bettern than an efficient lighting scheme.

Simpson shows that the accident rate at night is double the rate in daylight. Simpson comes to the conclusion that the community pays for efficient public ligting whether it is provided or not, and that it would be better to pay something more for lighting and considerably less for accidents. Lennox estimates a (low) figure for the cost of an accident at 130, and with an estimated reduction in accidents by public lighting of 10%, then the annual savings to the community would be at least 2.5 million.

Lighting also a source of civic pride to the local community; and is a deterrent to crime.

However, local administration and the organisation of local Lighting Authorities prevents the provision of good public lighting. Smaller authorities may be unable to comply with legal red-tape (parishes) or be unable to raise enough funds through the rates (urban and rural districts). Uniformity of lighting along long lengths of roadways will never be achieved. There are 35 Lighting Authorities in London alone, with around 8,000 around the country. Surveys include the North Circular Road in London and a detailed and extensive survey of part of the Great North Road (A1).

A contribution from the Road Fund with a corresponding reduction in the lighting rates would be a fair suggestion. But the Road Traffic Act, 1934, Section 23 is unlikely to help as a County Council could be blocked in any scheme by an existing lighting authority.

Conclusion:
1. The proportion of accidents by night is unduly high.
2. They have risen progressively during recent years due to the increase in the use of roads during dark hours.
3. The increase in accident rate at night is due to lack of visibility.
4. The pedestrian suffers more heavily than the driver as a result of lack of adequate visibility.
5. Good visibility obviating use of headlights could be achieved by provision of efficient public lighting.
6. Crime at night would be materially reduced by providing efficient public lighting.
7. The cost of efficient public lighting would probably be less than the saving it would effect on reduction of accidents and crime.
8. Public lighting is for the benefit of the community as a whole, and its cost should not be borne parochially.
9. No hope of efficient schemes of uniform lighting can be entertained unless public lighting is handled by a Central Authority as in the administration of Roads, Transport, Education, etc.
10. No smaller unit than a County Borough should be a Lighting Authority. In Rural and Urban Areas the County Councils should be the administrative Authority.
11. As in the construction and maintenance of all Public Properties, Street Lighting Installations should be under the control of competent Public Lighting Engineers with a Central Authority, e.g., the Ministry of Transport, to classify roads for lighting purposes, and to set up standards of lighting for various classes of roads (bearing in mind traffic density) with a view to obtaining uniformity.
12. Public lighting is necessary during 46 per cent. of the year, and is more vital to-day than ever before.
[1] National Safety First Association, Survey July-December, 1932
[2] MOT's Report Of Fatal Road Accidents, 1933
[3] Home Office Road Statistics (Fatal and Non-Fatal Accidents), 1934
[4] Victoria Embankment Road Accident Data, 1928
[5] Victoria Embankment Road Accident Data, 1930
[6] Public Safety As Affected By Street Lighting, R. E. Simpson, National Bureau Of Casualty And Surety Underwriters Of America

Lighting: Authority Organisation, Lighting: Installations, Statistics: Accident Data and Statistics: Road Data


Road Lighting And Safety p20
Letter published in the Morning Post arguing that the Road Fund should be used to finance more lighting.
Lighting: Authority Organisation


The Exhibition At Cheltenham p20
Details of the exhibition and a reminder to manufacturers wishing to display their equipment. Arrangements are also being made for equipment to be installed along various thoroughfares.
APLE: Conference


The Kingston Bypass p20
Extensive improvements are to be made to the Kingston Bypass and Malden Council has applied for a grant towards the estimated cost of 4,000 from the M.O.T. to light its three mile section of the new road.
Lighting: Installations


Progress In Electric Street Lighting p21
Review of the paper The High-Pressure Mercury-Vapour Lamp in Public Lighting. It was noted that it was the first paper on street lighting read for many years before the IEE. The paper dealt with the lamp, its auxiliaries, its characteristics (under both starting and running conditions), the new types of street lighting lanterns developed for it and the new brightness theory of street lighting. The brightness theory and the lighting of roadways was covered - also the problem of lighting curves, bends, intersections and roundabouts.
Lighting: Lamps, Lighting: Distribution, Lighting: Control, Lighting: Luminaires and Lighting: Theory


Osira Street Lighting In Wales p21
Details of new GEC Osira installations in Port Talbort, Aberavon and Bridgend.
Lighting: Installations


Lighting Scheme At Oxford p21
Information about the first installation of its kind in this country. Over 80 GEC Oxford lighting lanterns are installed along Banbury Road, Oxford. They take 500W GLS lamps. The resulting illumination is greater than that recommended in the Interim Report.
Lighting: Installations


An Interesting Gas Installation At Harrow p22
Several of the main streets of Harrow are being relit by Sugg London gas lamps. These lamps were adopted after most exhaustive tests.
Lighting: Installations


Ruislip-Northwood p22
Details of the new Ruislip-Northword ten-year contract for improved gas street lighting.
Lighting: Installations


Dual Purpose Lighting p22
Description of the seven REVO Dudley Decorative Cast Iron Standards and Dudley Lanterns which have been installed around the newly built Municipal Buildings.
Lighting: Installations


Raising And Lowering Traversing Gear p23
The Interim Report of the Deparment Committee on Street Lighting recommends that lamps should be suspended at 25 ft. for main traffic roads. At this height lamps cannot be cleaned and maintained economically in position, so a typical raising, lowering and traversing gear system is described (made by Keith Blackman.) It is for gas and the supply is disconnected from the lamp as it is lowered for maintenance.
Lighting: Columns


Street Lighting Notes p24
Brief details of new installations and contracts signed in Edinburgh, Harrow, Leeds, Swanage, Preston, Rothwell, Ramsgate, Southwark and Southport.
Lighting: Installations


The Arterial Lantern p24
Description of the Arterial Lantern by ELECO.
Lighting: Lanterns


Light-Actuated Apparatus For Control Of Lighting p24
Brief description of the Radiovisor Lighting Unit.
Lighting: Control


New Colour-Sprayed Decoration Lamps p24
GEC introduce a new range of decorative lamps. These are 15W and are designed for 200-260V mains.
Lighting: Lamps


Lighting Of Hertford p24
Concrete Utilities reinforced Concrete Lamp Columns are being installed in Hertford.
Lighting: Installations


Well-Lighted London Streets p24
Night pictures of Gower Street, London; Blackfriars Road, London; Piccadily, London; and Lambeth Road, London.
Lighting: Installations


APLE Details p26
Members of the current council, consultative members and secretary are listed.
The objectives of the Association are given.
Persons elegible for membership: members, junior member and associate.
Details of the education scheme which is under consideration.
List of new members to the association.
APLE: Organisation


Adverts: Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd., REVO Electric Co., Ltd., Foster And Pullen Ltd., William Sugg And Co., Ltd., Holophane, Ltd., The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd., Gowshall Ltd., Walter Slingsby and Co., Ltd., W. Parkinson and Co., British Commercial Gas Association, Hobbs Offen Co. Ltd., Engineering And Lighting Equipment Co. Ltd., Concrete Utilities Ltd., C. H. Kempton and Co., Ltd., James Keith And Blackman Co., Ltd., Radiovisor Parent Ltd., William Edgar and Son Ltd, British Electrical Development Association and The General Electric Co., Ltd.