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ilp archive : journals

public lighting no. 10 vol. 3
June 1938

Editorial p31
The President Said So!
Mr. C. I. Winstone stated at the Folkestone Conference in 1937 that "There are people driving vehicles today who have eyes which cannot see properly in such degress of illumination as are provided under Classes 'C', 'D', 'E' and 'F' although they can see perfectly well in normal daylight. Every driver of a vehicle should be compelled to pass what one may describe as a night seeing test." The press were divided: some doubted the truth whilst others thought it was true. In October 1937, the result of experiments conducted by the Medical Research Council proved that a deficiency of vitamin 'A' produced a degree of night blindness whereby poorly lit objects could not be seen. In May 1937, a case was reported in which a motorist was prohibited from driving in the dark and would have to pass night driving tests before allowed to drive at night.

A Knotty Problem p31
To protect pedestrians, local authorities have erected posts or bollards on island refuges which are illuminated by night. By doing so, authorities have rendered themselves liable to financial costs if the light goes out during the night and an accident is caused by a passing vehicle. This has occurred in the case of Polkinghorn vs. the Lambeth Metropolitan Borough Council who have been fined - the Court Of Appeal deciding that the borough council having erected the refuge and bollards were under a continuing duty to keep the latter adequately lighted. Lord Justice Slesser said: "it mattered not that it was impossible to explain how the light had come to fail. The obligation to keep the post lighted was a continuing one." Local authorities were faced with either facing the risk or removing the bollards.

A Case For Uniformity p31
The lighting of roundabouts has progressed - not only are central islands surrounded by posts, white lines and whitened kerbs, but floodlights and reflectors have also been installed to an almost overwhelming profusion. Added to this the placing of signposts and "Keep Left" illuminated bollards. There does seem to be a strong case for some centralising and control in uniformity of design of layout.

Birmingham p32
Comment about current and historical information about Birmingham's street lighting as reproduced in the Corporation's Handbook of 1938.

N.I.C. Report p32
The Report for 1937 of the National Illumination Committee of Great Britain draws attention to the valubale work which the A.P.L.E. has a close concern. It is this National Committee which makes the British preparations for the meetings of the International Commission of Illumination; and it carries the decisions of the Commission into effect in this Country through the Sub-Committees. There has been preparation of a new "Street Lighting Specification, with special reference to the recently published final report of the Departmental COmmittee on Street Lighting." This Sub-Committee and others prepare British Standard Specifications as Technical Committees of the British Standards Association.

Examination Scheme p32
A Conference, called by the National Illuminatin Committee, considered education in January. It was attended by about thirty individuals, representing all sixteen academic, administrative and industrial bodies and as a result the City And Guilds of London Institute has appointed an Advistory Committee to consider the question of whether examinations should be offered through the Institute in the subject of Illuminating Engineering. The National Committee was invited to appoint a representative and nominated Professor J. T. MacGregor-Morris. A syllabus has now been prepared and examinations will commence in two or three years' time.

No Can Do! p33
Evidence is accumulating that county authorities are not only indisposed to act on powers contained in section 23 or the Road Traffic Act 1934, but are flatly refusing to incur an expense in this direction. With the increasing obligations which Parliament continues to place on local bodies, it is small wonder that they jib at expenditure on road lighting to the generous standard laid down in the MOT Report. The cost involved in raising the lighting to this standard is 400 - 500 per mile. So long as the attitude of the Government towards the lighting of non-truck roads is a negative one, so lighting committees will decline to respond to the invitation of the MOT.

This Cut-Throat Business p33
For some time there has been concern at the inordinate lengths to which the respective claims of gas and electricity have gone to "get the business" from public lighting authorities. Sometimes quotes had been made which are wholly uneconomical and financially unsound. Obviously this pratice of undercutting one another has its repercussion on the balance sheet and severely limits, if not postpone indefinitely, the natural expansion of the business and improvements in design and progress in research. Surely such a lamantable state of affairs should not be allowed to go on any further.

A Screen Of Light p33
In a recent case of a fatal accident to a pedestrian in Doncaster, it was urged on behalf of the motorist that the glass studs at the Belisha crossing threw back a screen of light which made it difficult to see anything on the road. In defence of this client, the eminent K.C. asserted that the amount of lighting provided on the road to assist the public was almost startling. Some places, he said, were littered up with signs which obscured everything else. The charge of careless driving against the motorist was dismissed.

Beautiful Lamp Posts p34
Sir Cyril Hurcomb, chairman of the Electricity Commission, speaking at a conference of street lighting, urged the importance of securing a good design, for the posts from which lamps would be suspended. The new wide roads afforded particular scope for the united efforts of the designer and the manufacturer. The services of the Royal Fine Art Commissions had been freely placed at the disposal of Government Departments and of local authorities in advising upon the aesthetics of bridges and other engineering structures.

Decorative Street Lighting For Edinburgh p34
Details and a picture of a new decoratative lighting scheme in the city.

Street Lighting In Southport By Electricity p34
Details and a picture of improvements in Southport.

New Bridge Will Have Many Coat Of Arms On Lamp Standards p34
Proposals for the new lighting on Chelsea Bridge, London.

Lighting: Education, Lighting: Funding, Lighting: Health, Lighting: Installations, Lighting: Legal, Lighting: Specifications, Lighting: Theory, Statistics: Road Data

Planned Street Lighting: The Lighting Of Rochester Road, Gravesend p35
Detailed description of the lighting of Rochester Road.
Lighting: Installations, Lighting: Luminaries

Minimising Risk Of Failure In Street Lamps p36
Sheffield Corporation Lighting DEpartmetn has reduced the possibility of lighting failures by installing plant to test every electric light bulb. In 1937, 32,691 lamps were tested and 1,641 were rejected. Mr. J. F. Colquhoun, the lighting engineer, stated that testing of lamps was only one way to secure 100% efficiency in street lighting. Another test, made on occassional lamps, was to see if they retained their light efficiency throughout "life", and a check wa skept on all lamps to ascertain the length of "life". Statistics showed that 100W and 150W lamps had an average "life" of 907 burning hours. Bigger lamps, between 300W and 1000W, had 1,474 burning hours of "life".
Lighting: Lamps

Road And Bridge Lighting In Johannesburg p36
Seventy decorative type lanterns, equipped with Osira lamps, have been installed in Eloff Street, fixed to tramway standards. In one part of the street, the standards are placed down the centre of the road. Two fittings are fitted to each pole, mounted at 23', and spaced about 80' apart. In other parts of the thoroughfare, the fittings are placed in staggered formation, being mounted at 24'. These are from 120'-130' apart on the diagonal. The lighting of a bridge has also been effectively carried out with Osram 300W tungsten filament lamps. These are contained in ornamental lanterns fixed on pillars of the embankment wall and in totally enclosed dustproof Wembley lanterns suspended from standards at the kerbside.
Lighting: Installations

Correspondence p36
C. H. Dobell points out the problems with centralised control systems and the clause in the MOT Final Report that states: "that the best times of lighting up and extinguishing in any particular area depend to some extent on the latitude and longitude and on such circumstances as the clarity of the atmosphere and the presence or otherwise of high buildings, and must be decided in the light of these factors." The two appear to be at odds with each other.
Lighting: Control

Gas Improvements In Paddington p37
Details of gas lighting improvements made in Paddington.
Lighting: Installations

He Still Has Faith In Gas p37
Mr. Harold C. Smith, M.Inst.G.E. in his Presidential Address before the Institution of Gas Engineers on 31st May stated: "My company has never lost its faith in gas as the finest medium for lighting public lamps and has always endeavoured on assuming control of a new aread to improve street lighting by offering additional service to the local authority concerned. These efforts have been marked by considerable success."
Lighting: Installations

Gas Lighting - Denton p38
Picture of the new gas lighting at Denton.
Lighting: Installations

Gas Lighting - North Circular Road p38
Picture of the new gas lighting along the North Circular Road.
Lighting: Installations

Gas Improvements At Galston And Armadale p38
Details of new gas lighting at Galston and Armadale.
Lighting: Installations

A Useful Lighting Information Service p38
H. L. Juliusburger, Consulting Engineer of Lighting, has published General Lighting Information Service No. 5 which is full of interesting and valuable data.
Lighting: Publications

Revision Of B.S. Specification p38
For vitreous-enamelled steel reflectors for electric light (open dispersive type) B.S. No. 232-1938. The efficiency of reflectors from 100 - 1,500W has been increased from 60-70%. A method for the determination of the distribution of light has been included and well as a number of minor modifications.
Lighting: Publications, Lighting: Specifications

Lighting At The Empire Exhibition, Glasgow p39
Description of the lighting of the Exhibition, grounds and Tait's Tower. There is also a description of the upgraded street lighting around the roads near the event.
Lighting: Floodlighting, Lighting: Installations

Street Lighting Models p40
The vast possibilities of a system for centralised control of street lighting and air raid signals, developed by the GEC, were demonstrated by a model at the I.M.E.A. Convention at Torquay. The system employs carrier currents of musicial frequencies superimposed upon the supply network conductors. Pilot wires are not required. A variable speed motor-alternator set at the substation provides the range of frequencies from which one can be selected to operate various tuned relays installed at the controlled points. (These frequencies range from 200 to 800 cycles per second and are chosen to avoid the harmonics and resonant frequencies of the power network.) Usually six to eight frequencies can be catered for without difficulty. In light of ARP schemes, and in addition to the advantage of controlling street lights, buzzers can be installed in all houses of air raid wardens and operated from the control point. It would be possible to apply the system to the control of water heaters throughout the supply area if any project should be entertained involving the provision of cheaper current subject to the power for this service being cut off during peak periods. The demonstration model consists of a primary substation feeding a secondary substation, both situated on roads illuminated by street standards. At the primary substation is fitted a small control panel, at which street lights can be switched on or off, either completely or in groups. The model also includes a buzzer as a warning signal in the house of an air raid warden.
Lighting: Control

Alexander Forbes, Presentations Upon His Retirement p40
Details of presentations made to Alexander Forbes, manager of the Lighting Department, Aberdeen, and former past president of the APLE.
Lighting: Personnel

The Fifteenth Annual Conference Bournemouth 1938 p45
Details of the forthcoming annual conference of the Public Lighting Engineers. Includes a timetable of events, description of papers, details of the gas and electric concerns and general information about the conference and hotels.
APLE: Conference

Artistic Lamp Standards In Dublin p48
Details of new lighting to be installed along the main streets of Dublin.
Lighting: Installations

New Lighting At Hornsey p48
Picture and brief description of one of the largest contracts for sodium lighting placed in the country.
Lighting: Installations

Radiovisor Dusk-to-Dawn Street Lighting Unit p48
A special exhibit was shown at the I.M.E.A. Exibition in Torquay of the Radiovisor Lighting Unit for the control of the illumination of traffic islands and bollards. This unit is designed to brign on, or leave on, the lighting should any component become damaged. The Radiovisor Smoke Indicator And Recorder for boiler plants and the Radiovisor Smoke Alarm were also exhibited.
Lighting: Control

New Road Lighting On The North-East Coast p48
Picture and brief description of new lighting installed in Whitburn.
Lighting: Installations

Lighting Trunk Roads - A National Liability? p49
A suggestion that the lighting of main roads should become a national responsibility in an effort to reduce the number of road accidents at night was made at a street lighting conference in Glasgow, held by the Scottish Area committee of the EDA. Mr. E. C. L. Lennox in his chair as chairman said that highways had not kept pace with the increase in traffic. It seemed resonable to suggest that either speeds at night should be considerably reduced by law, or legislation introduced for hte provision of adequate and properly installed street lighting. In one instance, on a two-mile stretch of highway, the night accident rate had been reduced by 40%. Why should not the responsibility of these roadways be a national responsibility?
Lighting: Authority Organisation, Lighting: Funding

New Gas Lighting Scheme On Northern Main Road p49
Details of new gas lighting in Davyhulme.
Lighting: Installations

Nuneaton p49
Details of criticisms of the new sodium street lighting in Nuneaton.
Lighting: Installations

Electric Street Lighting p50
Details of the booklet Electric Street Lighting by the EDA.
Lighting: Publications

Report On Road Accidents p50
The Report On Road Accidents revealed that there are more fatal accidents in winter than in summer and the ratio of fatal accidents is considerably higher in winter, notwithstanding a lower overall traffic density. The highest proportion of fatal accidents occurs between 10 and 11PM. Whilst more accidents occur in summer than in winter, a winter accident is more likely to have fatal consequences..
Lighting: Publications

Street Lighting And ARP p50
A recent Home Office circular dealing with lighting indicates that whilst all ordinary external lighting will be prohibited in the event of hostilities, exceptions will be made in certain cases.
Lighting: Publications

Street Lighting With Electric Discharge Lamps On D.C. Supplies p51
Details of new installations in Southwark.
Lighting: Installations

Street Lighting Notes p52
Brief description of the installations at Banstead, Bolton, Cirencester, Colchester, Coleraine, Dunster, East Dean, Fife, Finchley, Folkestone, Girvan, Hawick, Morecambe and Heysham, Ramsgate, St. Pancreas, Sunderland, Wellington, Whitburn and Worcester.
Lighting: Installations

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