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ilp archive : journals

public lighting no. 12 vol. 4
January 1939

This issue is dated January instead of December. This was found to be convenient for many purposes and will be especially so in connection with the official record of the APLE Conferences which are held in September. It will also be found useful, if and when, the suggestion for the bi-monthly Journal is adopted.

Ourselves p5
Public Lighting should not be restricted to just the lighting of streets and roads. The publication should also feature the lighting of civil aerodromes, swimming baths, public parks, playing fields, interiors and exteriors of town halls, public libraries, clock towers, memorials and other municipal and county edifices. This is within the remit of the APLE e.g. "to promote, encourage and improve the science of efficient public lighting, and to facilitate the exchange of information and ideas on the subject."
APLE: Journal


An Unofficial "Black-Out" p5
Electricity distribution by the grid system, and the postponement by the Government of the question of reorganisation have been in the news. A fire occurred earlier in the month at the Kingston Corporation electricity works, which caused an unplanned "black-out" within a radius of eight miles. It would've been useful if the Corporation, in preservign the gas mains of the town, had also retained a number of gas points for street lighting which could have been put into operation. The siren, which calls the town fire brigade, is located at the electricity works, and the last call it made before being put out of action, was to bring the fire brigade to the fire.
Lighting: Installations


Public Lighting Problems p6
Under the auspices of the British Electrical Development Association in conjunction with the Electric Lamp Manufacturers' Association, conferences have been held with the subject of modern developments in electric lamps and street lighting. Many conferences have taken place in London and the principal provincial cities with the most recent being held in Leicester and Wolverhampton in October and November.

Leicester
Twenty-four towns and districts were represented. A paper was read by Mr. T. Catten, BTH, on The New Era In Electric Lighting in which he outlined the recent developments in tungsten filament and electric discharge lamps. Mr. S. S. Beggs, M.A., GEC, dealt with the principles of street lighting and their application to modern road lighting schemes with special reference to the recommendations of the Ministry Of Transport report. A discussion opened by Mr. T. Wilkie then followed on the economic and administrative aspects of street lighting and he said that practically the whole of the central streets were lit by electricity and were controlled from the central office. They could all be lighted in 3 seconds and extingushed in 86 seconds. A tour of some installations concluded with a visit to the city's public lighting headquarters and an inspection of the control room in which 90% of the main roads are switched on. The test laboratory was also inspected.

Wolverhampton
Mr. N. L. Harris, B.Sc., F.Inst.P. read The New Era In Street Lighting. Recent developments had been in the direction of increasing the volume of light without increasing the consumption of current. A talking film on Modern Street Lighting was introduced by Mr. R. Maxted which demonstrated the principles of street lighting and their application to modern road lighting schemes. It was designed to show how the recommendations of The Final Report could be implemented with economoy and efficiency. A general discussion on the economic and administrative aspects of of street lighting followed. The most important feature on street lighting, from the safety point of view, was that it should be uniform. Whether the light was a high or low standard was unimportant compared with this uniformity and the avoidance of dark and light patches. The type of road surface had an improtant bearing on road surface brightness and it was essential that it should be of a uniform colour and roughness. In the evening the delegates made a tour of street lighting installations at Wolverhampton and Walsall.
Lighting: Installations, Lighting: Lamps, Lighting: Theory


Lincoln p6
Picture of new gas street lighting.
Lighting: Installations


A Rare Monument At Lymington by C. I. Winstone, M.Assn.P.L.E. p7
Details of a monument and lamp column in Lymington.
Lighting: History


Torquay Lighting Policy p8
Details of a report on street lighting which was delivered to the Torquay Town Council.
Lighting: Installations


A Peek Into The Future p8
Details of historical, current and future lighting in Leicester.
Lighting: History, Lighting: Installations


Swmming Bath Lighting p9
Other


A.M.C And M.O.T. p9
The Association Of Municipal Corporations last March asked the Minister Of Transport to defer coming to any decision on the Final Ministry Of Transport Report until the Association had an opportunity of laying their views before him. The Law Committee Of The Association now report that surveys show that considerable financial burdens would be imposed on local authorities if their street lighting were brought up to the standard suggested. The Committee accordingly recommended, and the Council Of The Association agreed, that the Minister Of Transport should be asked whether he would be prepared to contribute towards the increased annual cost of lighting.
Lighting: Funding, Lighting: Specifications


Gas Lighting In Brentford p10
Details of an installation in Brentford.
Lighting: Installations


Dual Carriageway Lighting In Essex p10
Details of an installation in Woodford.
Lighting: Installations


Keith Raising And Lowering Gear p10
Keith Blackman, Ltd. have evolved a new and alternative winch fitted with "Staybrite" tape instead of wire rope usually employed. This type has many advantages as the tape is immune from corrosion. Twisting is prevented entirely and a device is provided to avoid coiling the tape on the drum in the wrong direction. A special winch handle can also be supplied fitted with an overload release to prevent the overstraining of the rope, tape or gear.
Lighting: Columns


Floodlighting p11
Lighting: Floodlighting


Floodlighting Of Playing Fields: What The National Fitness Council Is Doing p11
Lighting: Floodlighting


Rotary Compressors For Gas p11
Keith Blackman Ltd have just issued a booklet describing the special features of their rotary compressors which embody a number of unique features and which are suitable for high-pressure gas lighting.
Lighting: Lamp Auxiliaries


Institution Of Gas Engineers: Lighting Research Work During 1937-38 p12
At the 10th Autumn meeting in London on the 1st and 2nd of the Institution Of Gas Engineers, the Fourth Report of the Research Executive Committee was submitted. Particular consideration had been given to the maintenance and extension of Public Lighting by gas. The committee had continued to examine the possible initiation of research relating to Gas Lighting, with particular reference to increasing the efficiency of gas burners, mantles and switches. The committe maintains close contact with the Air Raid Precautions Department of the home office. The Final Report of the MOT which was published in 1937 was circulated to all gas undertakings, together with a booklet Light On The Roads prepared by the British Commercial Gas Association and which dealt with the MOT Report. A draft standard specification for low-pressure gas mantles had been completed by the committee and passed to the British Standards Specification. A committee of the British Standards Specification was set up and had issued a draft specification. A revised British Standand Specification for Street Lighting had also been issued in draft form for comment. The committee sponsored a paper by W. J. G. Davey and A. R. McGibbon on Public Lighting By Gas at the Vienna Sectional Meeting of the World Power Conference. The reading of a paper by W. Hodkinson on Public Lighting By Gas In Small Towns at the APLE's annual conference was mentioned.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Publications, Lighting: Specifications, Lighting: Theory


A Floodliit Town p12
Nearly 25,000 lamps were erected by the Barnsley Corporation's electricity department for the Christmas illuminations. The Town Hall was flood-lit until the 31st December and the cost, nearly 1000, was borne equally by the Corporation and the tradesmen in the areas concerned.
Lighting: Events


A New Street Lighting Guide p12
BTH have issued a booklet, Planned Street Lighting, of over seventy pages, fully illustrated which describes the various types of lamps, lanterns and accessory equipment manufactured by the company. The booklet is much more than a mere catalogue or list of BTH street lighting products; it is a guide to correct methods, as approved by the latest practice. Prolonged laboratory work has enabled the company's engineers to establish basic principles and to ascertain the most suitable sources of light and the most effective systems of light distribution for general requirements. Then comes the application of the knowledge, thus gained by practical tests on roads and streets. The results of this wide experience is embodied admirably and lucidly in the new booklet. Details are given of the Mercra range of electric discharge lamps, and of several lanterns designed for different classes of road. The Sodra electric discharge lamps are also described; and the County Junior lantern, which is low priced and suitable for either Mercra or Mazda lamp, is exceptionally effective for side roads. A description is included of BTH photoelectric relays and their action in street lighting control; of the foot-candle meter for testing; and finally a couple of pages are given to illuminated traffic signs and guard posts; all models conforming to MOT requirements. In brief, Planned Street Lighting covers all the principle needs of authorities who may wish for information on the subject.
Lighting: Lamps, Lighting: Lanterns, Lighting: Publications


Public Lighting p12
This issue is dated January instead of December. This was found to be convenient for many purposes and will be especially so in connection with the official record of the APLE Conferences which are held in September. It will also be found useful, if and when, the suggestion for the bi-monthly Journal is adopted.
APLE: Journal


Road Lighting: The C.C.A, A.P.L.E. And The M.O.T. p17
Street lighting was the subject of a report by the County Councils Association on the 23rd November. It was stated that consideration had been given to:
A letter from the MOT in reply to a letter they wrote on the Final Report of the Departmental Committee Of Street Lighting.
A letter dated from the 26th July, 1938 from the Durham County Council refering to Circular No. 511 which deals with the lighting of trunk roads. They suggested that the Ministry should bare the whole cost and not just 50%.
A letter, dated 11th October 1938, from the APLE expressing their wish to join any representations that may be made to the MOT for the purpose of emphasising the financial burden which will be imposed upon local authorities by the provision of street lighting on the lines recommended by the Departmental Committee.
On the part of the Ministry's letter which related to the question of illuminated advertisement signs in proximity to traffic lights, the Chairman referred to the provision of section 667 of the Merchant Shipping Act 1894 which allowed lighthouse authorities to alter interferring lighting schemes. This gave useful precedent.
It was resolved:
That the question of confusion and danger caused by the widespread use of coloured lights, especially close to traffic lights, should be bought to the notice of the MOT. Section 667 of the Merchant Shipping Act 1894 could act as precedent.
That the Ministry should be written to about this matter.
The part of the letter which dealt with public grants, and the Durham letter, should be deferred.
That the APLE should be thanked for their letter and the Association would be glad to consider their offer.
The letter received from the MOT was published in full.
Lighting: Authority Organisation, Lighting: Funding, Lighting: Legal


Gas Grid For Yorkshire p18
The construction of a Yorkshire gas grid has strted by the erection at Hemsworth of the first of some new gas producing plants. When the grid is complete it will include Castleford, Drighlington, East Ardsley, Elland, Fetherstone, Harrogate, Knottingley, Malton, Sherburn, Normanton, Otley, Pudsey, Rothwell, Yeadon and Guiseley, York, Easingwold, Garforth, Hemsworth and Kippax. The schem is sponsored by the United Kingdon Gas Corporation who control 73 gas undertakings in contiguous groups in various parts of the country. Systems will be linked with miles of high-pressure pipe, the trunk pipelines being 18" in diamenter. The installations necessary to supplement existing gas supplies are to be placed near pitheads in teh area. They will be both gas-producing and purifying plants. No completition date has been given. In the first place, attention will be paid to the needs of industries. This is the first gas grid to receive Parliamentary sanction. The Corporation visualise a further set of grids throughout the country.
Lighting: Installations


GEC Lamps At Blackpool p18
Picture of two lanterns on a concrete bracket and column.
Lighting: Installations


Measuring Street Surface Brightness p19
One of the most important factors is the brightness of the street surface, which should be as high and uniform as possible. The background can be may different surfaces e.g. footpath or buildings, but the surface of the carriageway is most important. Even if no objects are present, then the brightness of the street surface adds to the cheery appearance of hte installation and the confidence it inspires in the driver. Street surface brightness depends upon a number of variables and is not so stable as the illumination which falls upon it. The brightness of any point on the surface depends upon:
The amount of light reaching it.
The directions from which that light reaches the surface.
The directions in which it is viewed.
The reflection properties of the surface (which also changes with amount of wear and dryness)
In street lighting installations, the brightness of the road surface will vary according to:
Position and height of the observer.
Nature and wear of the surface.
Whether it was wet or dry.
The configuration of the road in the distance.
The arrangement of the light sources.
Measurement of surface brightness therefore are not required to be of high precision. However, measurements of brightness are very usefu, and the Lighting Engineer can draw valuable conclusions as to the visibility expected and how to improve it. A brightness meter does not give a direct numerical measurement of the excellence of an installation: its readings are much more closely related to visibility than other measurements. Several units for brightness have been proposed at various times:
Brightness expressed as intensity (candlepower) emitted per unit area so is expressed as candles per sq. in. or candles per sq. cm. (the latter unit is called stilb.)
Brightness expressed as equivalent illumination i.e. brightness is equal to that of a perfectly matt object receiving a stated illumination and having a reflection factor of 100%. The brightness may be expressed in equivalent foot-candles, or equivalent cm-candles, or equivalent meter-candles. The second unit is called a lambert, whilst the equivalent meter-candles is known as the apostilb.
For street lighting purposes, the equivalent foot candle is convenient and has been adopted for the GEC Brightness Meter. The brightness of an object can be conveniently measured by matching it with the brightness of known brightness. (There follows a description of the use of the GEC Brightness Meter.) When taking measurements in actual installations, the observer is advised to stand in a position which the driver of a vehicle would normally occupy in the road. The intermediate values of brightness, particularly at the positions against which objects will be seen when they are 150' to 300' ahead of a car, have a large effect in determining visibility, and it is most useful to measure this "effective" brightness. The measurement of "effective" brightness is of more practical value than either the maximum or minimum brightness. The meter is capable of giving more useful information as to the visibility obtainable by different systems of street lighting than can be deduced from readings of foot-candles on a horizontal test plate.
Lighting: Colour, Lighting: Distribution, Lighting: Levels


Fog! p21
Letter from a motorist from Croydon about driving in fog. The motorist argues that staggered installations cause the motorist to zig-zag along the road as they follow the beams of the lamps; however centrally suspended installations are far better in foggy conditions as the driver just has to follow the lamps in a straight line.
Lighting: Installations, Lighting: Weather


Electric Lamp Museum - An Historic Collection p21
An electric lamp museum which will be permanently open to the public has been installed in the premises of the Edison Swan Electric Company Limited by Dr. A.P.M. Fleming, president of the Institute Of Electrical Engineers. It begins with Swan's famous laboratory lamp, exhibited at Newcastle in 1878, and ends with a showcase of artifical flowers and foliage demonstrating the latest application of the principle of fluorescent under ultra-violet light. The neon-sign type of discharge lamp is traced back to 1890, when also the first electric advertising sign was made in the form of a bulb for each letter shaped by the carbon filament. The "Pearl" and "Opal" lamps were also introduced the same year. There are 250 exhits in the museum which includes: the first commercial electric lamp from 1881, the first "pipless" lamp made in 1883, the first electric street lamp produced in 1891, a lamp made in the likeness of Queen Victoria for the Diamond Jubilee, miner's lamps, ships' lamps, railway lamps, gunsigh lamps, and surgical and ophthalmic lamps.
Lighting: History


The Bath Road's "Golden Mile" p21
Night picture and brief details of the recently installed Bath Road installation.
Lighting: Installations


Street Lighting Notes p22
Brief description of the installations at Aberlady, Axbridge, Berwick, Blackburn, Birmingham, Bishops Waltham, Bolton, Bristol, Bromsgrove, Chatteris, Cheltenham, Colchester, Coleford, Consett, Crofton, Dewsbury, Dublin, Dunkinfield, Dunster, Edinburgh, Essex, Farnhill, Garforth, Goring-On-Thames, Grayshott, Guildford, Hawick, Houghton-Le-String, Isle Of Man, Jarrow (Durham), Keighley, Kenilworth, Kent, Lanarkshire, Leamington, Leatherhead, Leicester, Lewisham, Llandovery, Lyndhurst, Malaya, Newton-In-Makerfield, Pontypridd, St. Pancras, Salop, Sheffield, Shipley, Shotton (Co. Durham), Sittingbourne, Southport, Surrey, Tewkesbury, West Lothian, Widnes, Winsford, Wokingham, Wotton-Under-Edge and Yorks.
Lighting: Installations


New Unidirectional Method Of One-Way Street Lighting p26
Night pictures of the installation. Revolutionary new street lighting has been installed on the Great Chertsey, Twickenham. 250W Osira lamps are housed in GEC Unidirectional lanterns. Looking in the reverse direction, no light sources are visible and the road is dark. Two diagrams show how a dual carriageway can be light either either with UniDirectional lanterns with normal lanterns on the central reservation; or with just UniDirectional lanterns.
Lighting: Installations


Adverts: British Electrical Development Association, Inc, William Sugg And Co., Ltd., Walter Slingsby and Co., Ltd., Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd., Gowshall Ltd., Radiovisor Parent Ltd., Johnston Brothers (Contractors) Ltd., REVO Electric Co., Ltd., The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd., British Commercial Gas Association, British Sangamo Company Ltd., Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd, Philips Lamps Ltd., Engineering And Lighting Equipment Co. Ltd., Concrete Utilities Co., Ltd., The Horstmann Gear Co., Ltd., Gas Meter Company, Foster And Pullen Ltd., Bromford Tube Co. Ltd., James Keith And Blackman Co., Ltd. and The General Electric Co., Ltd.