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ilp archive : journals

public lighting no. 13 vol. 4
April 1939


Contents p35


Editorial p35
Conference is to be held in Glasgow from September 4th to 8th. A public lighting tour of Glasgow is planned for the 5th. It is hoped that the splended attendence of last year's Conference will be surpassed.
APLE: Conference


Bury Claims To Have Best Lighted Street in Lancashire p36
The installation in Manchester Road, Bury is the "best lighted in the country" has been made by Mr. W. E. Greenhalgh, A.M.I.Fire.E, Chief Officer, Bury. He supports his claim with the following statement:

Type of Road: Residential
Fittings: Silvered Mirror Reflector
Lamps: Sodium Vapour
Light Source: Central Suspension
Mounting Height: 23'
Spacing: 120'
Width of Road: 35'
Illumination: Class D (nearly Class C)
Average Illumination: 0.56 foot candles
Diversity Ratio: 2.24 to 1
Consumption: 150W per point

A motorist travelling along this roadway can see an obstruction 300 yards distance. No fatal accident has occurred on the roadway since the installation. Mr Greenhalgh states: "I think I am right in saying that the averaging of foot candles on a given length of roadway is retrograde in application since one could have a shocking example of street lighting which, measured under this system, could have excellent results on paper. I think our Association of Public Lighting Engineers should insist on the diversity factor in all computation and comparisons."
Lighting: Installations


Should The Government Play? It is suggested they should. p36
At a conference in Leigh Town Hall of local authorities interested in the East Lancashire Road, several borough councils, district councils and rural district councils attended. Representatives from the Lancashire County Contabuluary, the Divisional Road Engineer and Deputy Divisional Road Engineer of the MOT were also present. The following resolution was passed: "That his conference is strongly of the opinion that the East Lancashrie Road should be illuminated over the whole of its length; that the confernece is of the opinion that the whole of the cost should be borne by the MOT; and that the Town Clerk of Leigh communicate with the MOT enclosing the resolution and the argument in favour of it." The length of the road is 30 miles. It is only lit at the Liverpool end and in the Swinton and Pendlebury portion.
Lighting: Funding, Lighting: Installations, Lighting: Legal


In Parliament p36
Mr. R. C. Morrison asked the Minister Of Transport what steps were being taken to secure reasonable uniformity in the lighting of portions of traffic routes as recommended by the Departmental Committee on Street Lighting. Captain Austin Hudson replied that "before making agreements with the responsible lighting authorities for the lighting of trunk roads, my right hon. Friend satisfies himself as to the adequacy of the installations proposed. He has no control of the lighting of other roads, but has brought the committee's report to the notice of all the principal lighting authorities, and the systems which have recently been installed show that regard is being had to the committee's recommendations."
Lighting: Legal


Finance Is The Crux Of Efficient Lighting p37
Mr. E. A. Stewart, Surveyor to the Urban District Council of Wardle, near Rochdale, reports that his authority have installed sodium lighting on the main road of the town. He points out that the traffic generally is of a through nature, yet district ratepayers have to pay for lighting which is mainly for the benefit of others."In days gone by, the lighting of towns was thought to be sufficient if pedestrians could find their way home after visiting the local hostelry. Traffic could, and did, take care of itself. Gas lighting came and was a great improvement over the oil lamps whose curiously wrought lanterns were their main attraction. Observation shows that some towns have excellent lighting but there are also lengths of highways where the lighting cannot said to be good. This, to the driver, is as bad or worse, than complete darkness. Drivers of heavy lorries have often expressed the opinion that they would rather drive in complete darkness by their headlights tahn by what passes for lighting on some highways. The crux of efficient lighting is finance. But finances will not allow the efficiency desired by Parliament, as local authorities have to provide many other services. It may be argued that ratepayers should not be asked to provide first-class lighting for people whose rate contribution is nil. People who need uniform lighting are those who drive many miles by night on roads which should be national highways. The lighting on these roads is not uniform as ten or more local authorities may be responsible for it. It is not reasonable that they should be required to light the national highways. The remedy for ill-lighted highways is uniformity. This cannot be obtained where there are several authorities responsible for public lighting. The highways used by long distance traffic - the main roads of the country - cannot be called "local". They are national. Therefore the public lighting of national highways should be undertaken by the nation and financed by the National Exchequer."
Lighting: Funding, Lighting: History, Lighting: Installations, Lighting: Legal


Staybrite Steel For Gas Units p37
The properties of "Staybrite" steel render it very suitable for gas lighting equipment as it possesses a high power of resistance to tarnishing in the atmosphere and scaling by heat. It is homogeneous throughout, takes a brilliant and lasting mirror polish and resists ordinary atmospheric corrosion. It has undoubtedly enabled the gas industry to hold its position in many places where alternative forms of illumination might have been adopted. "Staybrite" is manufactured by Firth Vickers, Ltd. and should be specified as there are other stainless steels of inferior qualities.
Lighting: Luminaires, Lighting: Materials


Modern Designs For Lamp Columns p38
Pictures and brief descriptions of various cast iron, steel and concrete columns.
Lighting: Columns


The Importance Of The Lamp Column p39
A visitor to the metropolis cannot fail to notice the different treatment of lamp columns and standards as between the twenty-eight borough councils, the London County Council and the City Corporation. More care is being exercised the in the design of columns suitable for the standard mounting heights of the MOT Report. The Fine Arts Commissioners have taken, and are taking, a keen interest in this question and are in close contact with the manufacturers. The British Standards Institution are also working on specifications for different types of lamp columns. For tubular steel columns, the most common design is a larger diamenter tube to form the base portion where there is room to house the gear. This is complete with a hinged door and the general finish has a pleasing effect as there is no boxing protuberance at the base which was the practice in the past. The upper portion is generally fluted, stepped and equipped with a bracket arm of required projection. The tubes are made from steel of a specially selected tensile strength and the manufacturers include in their calculations such factors as weight of lantern, projection of bracket height about ground, and wind pressure on the pole and lantern. The matter of special roots has also to be dealt with. As regards concrete columns, the height depends on the moulds available, but there are in existence moulds for all the standard mounting heights, and also numerous designs and different types of finishes. Cast iron columns are not commonly utilised for the taller mounting heights, althgouh they are still used extensively for installations of comparatively short mounting heights.
Lighting: Columns, Lighting: Materials, Lighting: Installations


Sodium Lighting And ARP p40
The City Of Nottingham Auxiliary Fire Station is being used as an ARP training centre in the city. Most of the instruction is given out of doors and during the evenings. Therefore sodium lighting was very necessary. The installation consists of eleven 140W and six 85W Philips sodium lamps in Sora dispersive reflectors. The control gear, although housed in separate cast-iron boxes for each lamp, is mounted on one main panel. From this panel the wiring to the lamps is carried out in screwed galvanised conduit, tough rubber covered cable being used. The distance from the control panel to the most distant lamp is 70 yards. The installation was carried out by the electrical staff of the Corporation Fire Brigade under the supervision of Superintendent Petter and Inspector Hardstaff.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Installations


The Late Professor Van De Wefhorst p40
Died on the January 7th in Vught, Holland, at the age of 50. Since 1928, he was connected with N. V. Philips in Eindhoven, where he gave advice on problems connected with lighting. In November 1934, he was appointed Professor of lighting science at the State University of Utrecht. He had done pioneering work on the problems of road lighting. He took an active part in the introduction of road lighting by sodium lamps.
Lighting: Personnel


Personalia p40
Various retirements and promotions.
Lighting: Personnel


A Brighter Dublin p41
Includes details of the history of the lighting of Dublin and the installation of the new concrete columns along O'Connell Street, College Green and others.
Lighting: History, Lighting: Installations


The Annual Conference At Glasgow p43
Details of the forthcoming conference in Glasgow which was to be held on September 4th-8th, 1939. The programme was still to be completed and a prelminary programme is given.
APLE: Conference


The Excursion Down The Clyde p43
Details of charting a special steamer down the Clyde for those attending conference. given.
APLE: Conference


Mercury Vapour Lighting In Malay p44
Mercury vapour lighting installed in the main road at Ipoh, State Of Perak, Malay, has been so successful that the system has been extended to illuminate an important bridge in the vicinity. The installation concerns Brewster Road which is lighted by forty 250W Osira lamps in GEC Di-fractor lanterns. The bridge has been illuminated by filament lamps during the past seven years. To bring it into conformity with the adjoining thoroughfairs its lanterns - spherical in shape and moutned on concrete columns - have now been equpped with 80W and 125W Osira lamps.
Lighting: Installations, Lighting: Luminaires


The B.I.F. At Castle Bromwich p44
Describes the GEC stand at the British Industries Fair. Four street lighting units were on view along with examples of wax-filled chokes and transformers for use with Osira lamps; all chokes and transformers are now totally enclosed and immersed in wax, rendering the settings permanent and the chokes completely resistant to damp, abrasion and mishandling.
  • The Difractor Lantern: Suitable for use with 250W and 400W vertical burning Osira lamps is a new development. It is constructed of light alloys and provided with a novel method of attachment to brackets at the side of tbe body; the prismatic bowl is secured in a simple way enabling quick access to the interior.
  • The Horizal Lantern: Designed for use with 250W and 400W Osira lamps burning horizontally. The lantern is totally enclosed, the same mounting system being employed as with the new Difractor type; the refractor plates are so arranged that all external surfaces are smooth, the prism surfaces being on the inside of a sandwich.
  • The Wing Lantern: Intended for use in side streets where 80W or 125W Osira lamps or Osram lmaps up to 200W are employed. It has a light alloy gallery and a one-piece blown-glass silvered reflector, where the weight is very small, being only 5½lb.
  • Uni-Directional Lantern: Just introduced, utilised for experimental lighting on the Great Chertsey Road, London. The principles were demonstrated by means of a model.
Lighting: Luminaires


Flexible Candlepower Distribution At Bends by K. F. Sawyer, B.Sc., A.M.Inst.Gas.E. and W. C. Chater (The Gas Light and Coke Company, London)
Considerable attention is being given to correct siting of lanterns at bends. But many of the advantages of siting and be seriously prejudiced if the candlepower distribution, especially in azimuthal direction, cannot be adjusted to suit the bend. Most lanterns have a fixed angle of separation of the main beams of about 160° This fixed distribution is reasonably satisfactory on straight roads or where curvature does not call for single-side mounting. In execptional circumstances the beams may need to be separated by as little as 100°-120° Daylight pictures and examples of bends and the required amount of beam "bias" are then given i.e. the amount by which the main beams require rotating in azimuth. If light distribution is to be adapted to the lighting of bends with the same care and precision as is given to their position in perspective, some degree of azimuthal adjustment in addition to any vertical adjustmetn must be provided.
Lighting: Distribution, Lighting: Theory


Floodlighting Playgrounds p50
As an experiment, the playgroudn of Queen Mary School, Manor Estate, Sheffield is to be floodlit at the cost of 130, and the children allowed to play there after school hours until 7PM. If the scheme is successful other playgrounds in the city wil be provided with floodlighting before next winter.
Lighting: Floodlighting


Lighting Improvements By Gas p50
The first gas street lighting scheme for trunk road lighting to qualify under the Trunk Roads Act, 1936, has now been approved by the Ministry and will be carried out on 1¼ miles of the Newport-Shrewsbury Road. It lies in the area of the Abergavenny Corporation and the Corporation Gas Department is in charge of the lighting. The new installation, which is a term of ten years, comprises 54 gas lamps, each of which has 10 mantles. They will be mounted on 25' steel columns, with 6' overhang on the roadway, and will be spaced between 120' and 150' (allowing for bends, junctions etc.) Automatic lighting and extinguishing devices are fitted to all lamps. The contribution from the MOT is 50% grant for capital charges and a similar grant for annual maintenance and supervision. The Abergavenny Corporation Gas Department is also carrying out a number of improvements in the town's street lighting.
Lighting: Funding, Lighting: Installations, ting: Legal


National Illumination Committee Of Great Britain p50
Subjects dealt with by the Committee relate to glare, classification of light distribution, lighting of public ways, visual photometry and colour-matching of artifical daylight lamps. Definite progress has been made in course for diplomas in Illuminating Engineering, offered by the City And Guilds Of London.
Lighting: Education, Lighting: Theory


Illuminated Foutains For L.C.C. Jubilee p50
Two fountains on the terrace of County Hall, Westminster, have been illuminated by the G.E.C. in connection with the L.C.C. jubilee celebrations. Each fountain is illuminated by twelve specially designed floodlights. Each floodlight is equipped with Gecoray reflectors, each containing 200W lamps.
Lighting: Floodlighting


"Super" Gas Lighting In Holborn p51
Description of the new installation in Russell Squre, London which uses Keith's Magnalux lanterns.
Lighting: Luminaires, Lighting: Installations


Invisible Light p51
Philips Lamps Limited have recently introduced a sign which is capable of extensive adoption. These fluorescent signs i.e. "Trafalgar Square" or "Air Raid Shelter" appear as ordinary name plates under street lighting, but when lit in "invisible light" i.e. ultraviolet, with ordinary lighting extingushed, the vital message shows up clearly and distinctly. The message changes under the ultraviolet light i.e. "Trafalgar Square" shows up as "Air Raid Shelter"
Lighting: ARP


Colour Distortion p52
The Poster Colour Census Committee set up by the British Poster Advertising Association was formed in October 1938. Its terms of reference require it to: (a) produce a table of colour combinations which are par value by day and by night; (b) to explore the various means of off-setting or reducing colour distortion by mercury or sodium vapour lamps.
The report states that:
  • For mercury vapour lamps, the lamp manufacturers have now solved the problem (by using fluorescing powders).
  • Every public authority should be convinced of the necessity of using corrected lighting in the interests of public amenity and local trade.
  • Where uncorrected mercury vapour lamps are in use, floodlighting indiviudal hoardings with a reasonable amount of tungsten will also destroy colour distortion (although the cost probably would often make this prohibitive).
  • In the case of sodium lamps, which drain away all colours save black, brown or yellow, the only possible method of correction is the use of additional tungsten lamps to floodlight the hoarding.
The committee stressed the urgent necessity for lamp manufacturers o work on this problem, and shorten the period of general distortion from which the public as a whole issuffering.
Lighting: Colour


Publications Of Special Interest To Lighting Engineers p52
The Reflector (No. 1, Vol. 39): 24-page booklet published by Benjamin Electric Ltd.. Includes details of the firm's lighting activities. Both indoor and outdor illumination are portrayed.
Philips' Technical Review (No. 9, Vol 3): Produced by the firm's laboratories. Contains a specially important contribution on low-pressure luminescent tubes.
Reflectors And Illumination Data: Edison Swan have issued a new industrial reflector catalogue. Their reflectors are called Industra, and about fifty types of industrial unit are detailed. Fluorescent and electric discharge lighting are discussed.
Lighting: Publications


Interesting Types Of Concrete Columns p53
Pictures of some concete columns manufacturered by Concrete Utilities.
Lighting: Installations


A Good Gas Lighting In Surrey p53
Night picture of an installation in Addlestone, Surrey.
Lighting: Luminaires, Lighting: Installations


Sodium Lighting At Wimbledon p54
Description and night picture of the installation along Hartfield Road, Wimbledon.
Lighting: Luminaires, Lighting: Installations


Mobile Aerodrome Landing Floodlight p54
One of the most impressive exhibits at the British Industries Fair was a new 4KW mobile aerodrome landing floodlight, which was shown complete with petrol engine, alternator, exciter and switchgear. Includes picture.
Lighting: Installations, Lighting: Floodlighting


Some Aspects Of Modern Street Lighting by E. C. Lennox, M.I.E.E. p55
Resume of a paper read by Lennox before the Electrical Power Engineers' Association on the 10th January 1939 at Caxton Hall, London.

Although sactioned by legislation for more than 100 years, it is only comparatively recently that national attention has been focused on the need for effective street lighting. Older public services e.g. water, sewage, have been developed from national and municipal funds, but street lighting, is still a parochial matter.
Its prime necessity is justified on the score of
  • Convenience and safety of road users
  • Policing
  • Convenience of residents
  • Need for lighting special places e.g. shopping centres and civic centres.
Greatly improved lighting is also required for (a) increased vehicular traffic (b) its increased speed and (3) increased incidence of pedestrian traffic on streets at night.
The author and others is convinced that better street lighting would be justified by a reduction in road accidents, of which more than half occur in hours of darkness.

The MOT Report: This enuniciates the essential principles of good street lighting. The standards are higher than those currently prevailing.

Principles Of Good Street Lighting. All vision is by contrast. At low intensities, colour plays a decreasingly important part, until at very low intensities, as in street lighting, vision is virtually entirely by intensity contrast. It is essential to build up conditions for good constrast; therefore make the road, or background, as bright as possible, and objects are seen in silhouette. Background brightness is dependent on a suitable road surface and varies widely - mere intensity of illumination is no criterion of a well-lighted road as only light reflected to the oncoming vehicle is of value. "Test Point" comparison of illumination is therefore only of value to check adequate maintenance. Road user must see the road 300-600 feet ahead, and only light reflected by glancing angles will help him. Therefore most useful light from the installation reaches the road at similar angles - angles which also cause the light sources to "desnsitise" the eye by glare. In all installations a compromise must be drawn between brightness and glare; this is achieved by adequate mounting height, suitable spacing and correct lantern design. Glare can be avoided by completely shielding the light sources by a skirt but complications ensue.
  • Each street lamp produces a T-shaped bright area with elongated vertical stroke.
  • These merge with others to produce even brightness.
  • The tail of the T is produced by light which also causes glare.
  • The size of the T depends on (a) the amount of light (b) the mounting height and (c) the nature and state of the road surface.
  • The merging of successive T's depends on spacing.
Successful installatiosn are those in which the above points are suitably correlated. In the case of "cut-off" schemes, the tail of the T is foreshortened. This means that spacing must be closer than in ordinary schemes if dark patches are to be avoided.
General rules for the siting of lamps:
  • Straight roads - staggered.
  • Bends - on the outside and ata spacing to give an angular separation of about 5° when seen from 200-500' feet back.
Avoid the following:
  • Central - leaves kerbside relatively dark.
  • One-side - leaves opposite side dark.
  • Inside of bends - leaves whole road dark.
Electric Discharge Lamps. Some 2½ tiems more efficient than filament lamps. Very few lighting authorities have not some of one or other of the two types available.
  • Sodium Discharge Lamps: Emit monochromatic light. Their reception was sceptical at first, but well designed installations have subsequently met with general approval. Efficiency is extremely high. Used more on the Continent than UK, but have been associated usually with Continental lighting practice (cut-off). Such installations are satisfactory until a source of glare is introduced such as oncoming headlights. Later installations have been fitted with open or refractor type fittings with much more cheery results.
  • Mercury Discharge Lamps: Lumen/watt efficiency is a little less than sodium lamps. Usually burn vertically but means are now available to permit horizontal burning - by magnetic deflectors or my slightly lower vapour pressure, the former being more efficient.
  • Sieray-Dual Lamps - Consist of a filament in series with the mercury lamp, avoiding the need for auxiliaries. An excellent blending of the light is available.
  • Higher Pressure Mercury Lamps - Consists of a small quartz tube in which an arc is maintained at a pressure of 5 atmospheres. Efficiency is very high and the light has more red content.
Fluorescent Lamps. Mercury lamps have the advantage that they emit radition in the ultra-violet region. This has made possible the production of lamps with a higher proportion of red radiation by coating the inside of the outer glass envelope with fluorescent or luminescent powder. Fluorescent lamps are rather larger than their non-fluorescent types and present greater difficulties in light control. Discharge lamps require auxiliary chokes and condensers for current limitation and power factor improvement. These auxiliaries account for 10-20 watts. Capital cost is increased and provision must be made to accomodate this equipment.

Annual Cost. In assessing annual cost, account must be taken of the initial installation cost, which should be spread over a period of years, with interest, based on the estimated useful life of the equipment. Energy costs around 0.8d per unit for lamps of all wattages during dusk to dawn for 12 months (3860 hours). Lamp replacement costs must also be assessed, allowances being made for special discounts on ELMA lamps. On a strictly lumen basis in the lower wattages, sodium is cheaper than mercury; but fialment lamps have better lumen maintenance than discharge lamps. Smaller wattage discharge lamps offer little or no advantage over filament lamps in cost per lumen.. The commercial value of discharge lighting is considerably reduced by heavy lamp renewal costs which assumes too high a proportion of total annual cost.

Competition. Little has been published regarding competition faced by electricity supply authorities. With electricity, it is only necessary to consider the following:
  • Voltage at lamp terminals.
  • Type of fittings - distribution and cleanliness.
The variables affecting gas installations are:
  • Pressure
  • Type of fitting (a) calorific value of gas (b) Size of burner or orifice.
  • Burner cleanliness
  • Air adjustment
  • Correct adjustment of mantles
  • Correct opening of gas cock
  • Atmospheric humidity
  • Barometric pressure
Selling Street Lighting. The value of erecting demonstration installations is emphasised. Alternatively organised visits to installations erected for nearby authorities are a valuable means of promoting interest and are much less expensive than trial installations.

Future Policy. Electricity has the benefit of the most efficient source of artifical light. Reform of financial administration is urgently needed. The policy of inviting quotations for individual roads should be deprecated. Road lighting should be met in the same way as road construction and maintenance, and should have the benfit of similar grants, control and supervision.
Lighting: Comparisons, Lighting: Distribution, Lighting: Funding, Lighting: Lamps, Lighting: Levels, Lighting: Specifications, Lighting: Theory


No Loan For Main Road Lighting Walsall Protests p57
Walsall Town Council have decided to protest against the action of the Ministries of Health and Transport in withholding sanction to a loan of 5380 for improving the lighting of several main roads in the borough, and thereby endeavouring to force on the Council the adoption of a standard of lighting laid down by a Departmental Committee making no grant towards the extra cost involved. Councillor Whiston said that the Borough Surveyor prepared a scheme in accordance with the amount of money the Council was prepared to spend, but when it was sent to London notification was received that loan sanction was refused. Councillor Whiston said he believed the increased cost of bringing the lighting to the Ministry's standard would be about 300 per mile.
Lighting: Funding


A Useful Voltage Indicator p57
The new Philips pocket type voltage indicator, no larger than a pencil, gives an instant indication of both AC and DC from 100V to 150V with complete safety. It comprises a robust Philips insulating case enclosing a resistance and neon tube. The neon tube will glow if the conductor is alive. It retails at 2s. 6d.
Other


Floodlighting p57
Picture of Norwich City Hall floodlit with units supplied by the GEC
Lighting: Floodlighting


National Fitness Grant For Floodlighting Playgrounds p57
The National Fitness Council announces a provisional of 1250 to the London County Council towards the cost of installing floodlighting at seven of the Council's dry playgrounds. The balance of the cost is to be made by the Council. The playgrounds are: Meath Gardens, Bethnal Green; Tabard Gardens, Southwark; King Edward Memorial Park, Stepney; Highbury Fields, Islington; Wapping Recreation Ground, Stepney; Archbishop's Park, Lambeth and Kennington Park, Lambeth.
Lighting: Floodlighting


Change Of Address p57
Notice of change of address of Radiovisor Parent Limited and Keith Blackman Limited who are both moving into larger premises.
Lighting: Manufacturers


Street Lighting Notes p57
Brief description of the installations at: Aberdeen, Abercarn, Accrington, Acton, Banstead, Barrow-In-Furness, Bedford, Bedwelty, Belfast, Benfleet, Berwick, Blaby, Bootle, Bradford, Buckfastleigh, Chemlsford, Chester, Chigwell, Cirencester, Clifton, Corby, Croydon, Denbigh, Devonshire (Rural), East Ham, Eltham, Epsom, Failsworth, Feltham, Fordingbridge, Gainsborough, Galton, Gateshead, Great Yarmouth, Guernsey, Halifax, Hammersmith, Hawkhurst, Hebburn-On-Tyne, Heckmondwike, Huntingdon, Jarrow, Kendal, Kirby-In-Ashfield, Kirbymoorside, Kirkburton, Leicester, Lewisham, Linwood, Llandovery, Lurgan, Muirkirk, Nantygo, Newcastle, Nuneaton, Oxford, Peterhead, Pontypridd, Portsmouth, Prestatyn, Ramsey, Rayleigh, Reading, Rochester, Rotherham, Rothesay, St. Marylebone, Seaford, Shipley, Solihull, Southend, Southport, Staveley, Stourport, Tolton, Tralee, Uxbridge, Windsor, Wirral, Woolwich and Wolverhampton. (with a correct to Leatherhead).
Lighting: Installations


Adverts: British Commercial Gas Association, William Sugg And Co., Ltd., Walter Slingsby and Co., Ltd., Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd., British, Foreign And Colonial Automatic Light Controlling Co., Ltd., Gowshall Ltd., Engineering And Lighting Equipment Co. Ltd., REVO Electric Co., Ltd., Hobbs, Offen And Co. Ltd., Standard Telephones And Cables Ltd., The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd., Poles, Ltd, Philips Lamps Ltd., Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd, British Electrical Development Association, Inc, The Horstmann Gear Co., Ltd., Concrete Utilities Co., Ltd., Public Works Exhibition, Automatic Telephone And Electrical Co., Ltd., Gas Meter Company, Foster And Pullen Ltd., Peebles Co., Ltd., James Keith And Blackman Co., Ltd. and The General Electric Co., Ltd.