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ilp archive : journals

public lighting no. 15 vol. 4
October 1939

Editorial p109
The Postponed Conference: The conference, planned for September, has been postponed. The news was broadcast by the BBC. It was expected the conference would've been the "best. yet." As manufacturers were making Glasgow brighter by installing exhibits, the Lighting Engineer of the city was trying to "black-out" the area. On September 3rd, prior to the opening of the conference, was was declared. All the demonstration lamps were put out. "May that period arrive when a peaceful solution shall have been made between men whose words and deeds can be trusted, and when peoples of Europe shall learn to understand each other and work otegether for the furtherance of properity among all men. Let there be light.
Lighting:ARP, APLE: Conference

Street Lighting Control: Street lighting has been blacked-out. However the question is again being raised as to the possibility of instituting some modification of the existing restrictions on street lighting. Sir John Anderson, Home Secretary, is reported to have stated that he was not satisfied that advantage lay on the side of leaving the lights to be extinguished when an air raid warning was received. He announced also that that he was ignorant of the system by which streets, however brilliantly lighted, could be plunged into perfect darkness by means of central switches, but he was looking into the matter. Central control is possible for both gas and electricity, which can turn off all lights immediately an air raid warning is sounded. Such schemes are installed in: Hornsey, Morden, Wallington, Liverpool, Wigan, Croydon, Maidstone, Salisbury, Boston and Bolton. It is just a question of cost. A good case could be made for the installation of master switches in suitable areas.
Lighting:ARP, Lighting: Control

Lighting Engineers And The Emergency: Few gave thought to the man responsible for lighting the street until the Lighting Restriction Order was released and the black-out started. The order was carried out with smoothness and efficiency. It was the sudden call for members of APLE that finally made it impossible for the Glasgow Conference to be held and Public Lighting Engineers were required to be on the spot to deal with the eventuality of the black-out.

Still Useful: In Boston, a new use has been found for the two-hundred-odd street lamp standards. They are being used as direction indicators, and point the way to air raid shelters, first aid posts, fire alarms etc.

Hampstead Street Lighting p110
Description of the installation in Hampstead.
Lighting: Installations

B.S.I. Publications p110
List of British Standards Specifications (ARP Series) available for civil defence purposes.
Lighting:ARP, Lighting: Publications

Lighting Restrictions p11
Of all the necessary regulations for a period of war emergency there is none which more affects the general non-combative community than this. The basence of lighting brings home to everyone the fact that the country is at war. No-one can escape the result of total darkness, and because of its universal application, the subject must be regarded as of paramount importance.
The present conditions are extremely difficult and dangerous. What will it be in the long, dark winter nights with rain, fog and frost.
The present lighting "restrictions" were imposed for the safety of the civilian population and a relaxation of those regulations will reduce that safety. The problem is one of compromise and it is weighted in favour of safety rather than convenience. Safety takes notice only of safety from air-raids, but there is another kind of safety, which is also important, the safety which it is necessary to maintain on the roads. The later safey is not purely phiscal: there is "commercial" safety (allowing reasonable conditions for business activities) and "mental" safety.
The civil population should be induced to remain as normal as possible.
Street lighting is something of a paradox. Its presence creates danger from the air and safety on the roads, and its absence creates safety from the air and danger on the roads. Personally, I cannot imagine that our legislators will insist that the present stringent measure will be maintained thorought hostilities.
"It is not though that further experience will reveal the need for any modification of these proposals. (Darkening). If any relaxation were found to be necessary, it would not go beyond permitting between raids a certain amount of modified street lighting, carefully screened and capable of being instantly extinguished on recipt of an air raid warning in the main thoroughfares of the largest towns, and then probably only in the less exposed parts of the country." - Home Office Circular, 14th February 1938.
It can be seen that the authorities are alive to the position. However, the condition which requires "instant extinguishment" is likely to exclude a great many towns and areas. For instance, gas street lighting is generally incapable of instant extinguishment as is also electric lighting controlled by individual time switches. This should not prejudice the case of other areas which have central control.
A relaxation might be considered along the lines of allowing certain lamps to be lit provided they are carefully screened and of such a low intensity that they would not be visible from the air. This modified lighting might be allowed until 11PM as by fixing an extinguishing time, it would be possible to set time-switches accordingly. These lamps could be left on at all times if they could be extinguished centrally. The intensity might be increased when central control is available.
The present restricted "lighting" on vehicles is much too stringent. If reasonable vehicle lighting were allowed, much of the danger created by black-out conditions would be removed and the loss of street lighting not felt so much. Here the question of control is settled - drivers could switch off in the event of a warning.
The paramount need is safety and before any relaxation is permitted the whole matter would require consideration. Experts could:
  • Acertain the efficiency of control systems.
  • Assessing the amount of illumination and the method of obscuration.
  • Extent of the reduction in the safety factor.
  • Method to be adopted where central control not available.
One set of conditions which is likely to arise: assume air raid has taken place and that incendiary bombs have been used. The many fires will make the area an easy target for relay raiders but makes black-out ineffective. Street lighting would not increase the danger but would assist the transport of necessary vehicles of mercy; and assist pedestrians who had gone to the shelters, to get clear of the area quickly.

From The London "Daily Express" p111
"I feel sure that in the future people will not be so ready to grumble about their rates and taxes demands. Never until the present black-out have I appreciated so much the social service of street lighting."
Lighting: Social Comment

Lamp Column Design: Growing Demand For Concrete Lamp Standards p112
Lighting engineer of progressive sea-side towns are faced with special problems, including the erosive effects of sea air. Blackpool, Southport, Morecambe, Torquay, Worthing and Hornsea have been pioneers using concrete lamp standards.
Concrete columns eliminate maintenance costs, as painting is unncessary, but the surface of the concrete does not deteriorate with the passing of time. Columns can be smoothed off by means of rotary grinders or emery wheels. A centrifugal method of manufacture, such as used by Stanton, produces a column or great strength and density, the spinning action consolidating the concrete to a greater extent than tamping. The reinforced concrete column is able to withstand sever impacts. A case was recently reported in which a heavy lorry got out of control in Alfreton Road, Nottingham, and collided with a Stanton column. The shock smashed the lantern but the column was only superificially damaged, not displaced from its position, and the reinforcement was unharmed.
Lighting: Columns

Trading With The Enemy Act p112
The GEC states that the Osram companies referred to in the list of enemy concerns are subsidiaries of Osram G.m.b.H. of Berlin, and have no connection with the GEC. Osram lamps and valves are made in England.
Siemens or Siemens And Halske and Siemens Schukert Werk are not connected with Siemens Brothers of London which is a British owned firm nor its subsidiary Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies of Preston.
Lighting: ARP

The Presidential Address p113
Summary of the The Presidential Address.
In view of the possible limited number of members likely to attend the Statutory Annual General Meeting which will be called now in London, it has been decided to publish the President's address in this issue.
The whole address, with the exception of the introduction and acknowledgements, is reproduced.
Lighting: Colour, Lighting: Funding, Lighting: Levels, Lighting: Users

Modern Gas Lighting For Gloucester Streets p119
Description of the installation in Gloucester.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Installations

Some Outstanding Gas Contracts Recently Completed p119
Description of the various installations entered into before the outbreak of the war in Garforth, Galashiels, Bolsover, Framlingham, Wing, Malton, Ledbury, Penistone, Thurlestone, Annan, Thrapston, Killamarsh, Charteris, Bangor, Harlow, Chipping Ongar, High Ongar, Braintree, Bocking, Battle, Houghton-Le-String, Saffron Walden, Lisburn, Featherstone, Great Cornard, Read and Padiham, Kingswood, Hellifeld, Henley-In-Arden, North Petherton and Darlington.
Lighting: Installations

Mirfield's New Gas Lighting Qualifies For MOT Grant p121
Description of the installation on the Huddersfield-Leeds road.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Installations

Invisible From The Air p121
Experiments are being made in various quarters to ascertain the practicability of installing dim emergency lights which couldbe extinguished by a master switch. In Liverpool, the electrical engineer Mr. P. J. Robinson, has been trying out a new type of electric lamp that gives an adequate light which is invisible from the air, and these lamps have been submitted to the Home Office for investigation and test. The MOT Committee are co-operating with the Home Office in an investigation of systems of remote control of street lighting.
Lighting: ARP

"Wask" Gear p121
It was arranged to demonstrate on Great Western Road, Glasgow, two of Siemens' lamps fitted with the usual "Wask" Patent Short Arm type Raising and Lowering Gear. With this gear the electricity supply is connected ot the lamps by cables running inside hinged tubes which lower with the lamp. This arrangement is absolutely weather-tight and allows the lamp to be lowered in bad weather without fault. This gear is becoming increasingly popular for lamps on roundabouts planted with shrubs or flowers or in rural districts where use of ladders is costly.
Lighting: Columns

Aids To Help With Local ARP Lighting p122
It is necessary to retain a measure of illumination in an emergency without permitting any visible light rays to be seen from the outside. Special lighting equipment devised by Philips offer a number of alternatives:
  • Specially sprayed lamps giving various low intensities of localised illumination.
  • For factories or municipal premises, is to use Philora sodium discharge lamps and paint the roof lights and windows with a special blue varnish. It works because sodium lighting is practically monochromatic and the varnish, being a complementary colour, will not allow the sodium light to pass out, but will admit the blue component of daylight, the amount depending on the number and thickness of the varnish coatings. The advantages are: Philora sodium lighting is very efficient and economic; No moving parts i.e. blinds or shutters, are necessary.
  • The same complementary colour principle can also be employed for industrial purposes using Philips orange-sprayed Tungsten lamps in conjunction with the blue varnish.
The blue varnish is a standard varnish to which blue dye has been added with special properties for absorbing certain light rays and reflecting others. The average effective life is 18 months.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Lamps

Chingford's Big Sodium Scheme Completed p123
Description of the installation in Chingford.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Installations, Lighting: Lamps, Lighting: Luminaires

Remote Control Reduces Costs p123
An interesting exhibit which was planned for the Glasgow exhibition was an extensive installation of close lighting at Clydebank and also several miles of street lighting in the same district, both employing the remote control principle. The former had been working satisfactorily for several years and was responsible for considerable economies. Both successful schemes employ the Sharborn Remote Control Relays which are available in 30A and 60A, single and triple pole units. Other areas where Sharborn Relays have been used are at Bishopbriggs, Glasgow and Shettleston, Glasgow, Hillington Industrial Estate, Glasgow and smaller installations at Ladybank Burgh, Leslie and Strathmiglo, Fife. The relays are manufactured by W. T. Henley.
Lighting: Control

New Combination Diffuser Lighting Fitting p123
Picture and description of a new GEC fitting specially designed for combining Osira high-pressure mercury vapour and Osram lamps. The light is blended by the diffusing glass globe and the resulting illumination is of a "daylight" quality. For industrial and commercial use.
Lighting: Luminaires

"Rythmatic" Control At Morden, Surrey p124
Description of the installation in Morden which used Rythmatic control. Its use for ARP was also stressed.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Control, Lighting: Installations

Retirement Of Deputy City Lighting Engineer p124
Details of the retirement of Mr. R. E. Rogers who was leaving the position of Deputy City Lighting Engineer in Liverpool. Rogers had taken part of the share of modernising the street lighting of Liverpool, including the introduction of Sodium lamps, and his unique solution to the difficulty of the lighting of the roads abutting Speke Aerodrome. Also brief note on the appointment of Mr. J. H. Clegg to gas engineer and manager at Marsden.
Lighting: Installations, Lighting: Personnel

Electric Installations At Margate p125
Description of the new installation at Margate.
Lighting: Installations

Darkness Without Curtains p126
A method of darkening the windows of hospitals and other buildings where curtains would be neither practical or desirable has been perfected. This black-out system is based on complementary colours. Samples of the material, a cellulose acetate derivative which has been developed by May And Barker Limited has undergone tests at the Government's Building Research Station at Watford, and the Bradford Royal Infirmary has been chosen as the first hopsital for trials. Here, the ARP Committee have chosen a room adjoining the board room where all the lamps were specially made for this purpose. When there is no danger of an air raid, windows can be left open to admit daylight which eliminates the blue tint. At night, with the lights on, not a glimmer can be seen from outside. By day or night, if warning of an air raid is received, all that is necessary is to close the windows and fasten the pink shades. By means of special wiring arrangements, illumination can be instantly switched from white to pink as soon as the warning is heard.
Lighting: ARP

Improved Lighting In The City Of Salisbury p127
Description of the new installation at Salisbury.
Lighting: Installations

Street Lighting In Egypt p128
New lighting has been installed in Egypt on a section of the Corniche: a road running from Alexandria to Glymenopoulo. The lighting extends over ten years, and was carried out by Tractor And Engineering Co. Ltd. of Cairo. 500W Osram tungsten lamps in large modified GEC Oxford lanterns have been used. One modification is the provision of copper outer reflectors, this metal being highly resistant to corrosion, which easily occurs on this coast. Nearly 300 lanterns are installed. They are mounted at 26'. The columns are made of style and have an original bracket design.
Lighting: Installations

Ediswan Tungar Ensur-a-lite p129
It is essential that all Shelters, Casualty Stations, Fire Stations, Warden Outposts etc., should be equipped with suitable apparatus capable of providing light in the event of mains interruption. The Ediswan Ensur-a-lite is a complete Emergency Lighting Unit, small in size and capable of producing a satisfactory output. It consists of a battery and charger, enclosed in a grey metal case. The battery, which can either be 6V or 12V, is normally supplied dry charged, so that in the case of emergency, it would merely be necessary to pour acid into the battery. The acid is supplied in bottles carried in an auxiliary container screwed to the main framework of the unit, so that when the acide has been used the container can be discarded. A charging current of 5A can be delivered to the battery. During an Air Raid, the battery could be left on charge with the emergency lights on, and should the mains fail and later resume, the emergency lights would not be affected.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Lamp Auxiliaries

Ministy's Grant For Improved Trunk Road Gas Lighting At Hendon p127
Description of a planned new installation at Hendon.
Lighting: Installations

Street Lighting Notes p96
Brief description of the installations at: Bottle, Bradford, Burnley, Colne, Denby Dale, East Challow, Ellesmere Port, Galston, Glasgow, Gosport, Hailsham, Hazel Grove, Heston And Isleworth, Holbeath, Huntingdon, Kettering and Keynsham. (This only appears to be half the list - I suspect urgent ARP articles took preference.)
Lighting: Installations

Adverts: The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd., Bromford Tube Co. Ltd., William Sugg And Co., Ltd., Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd., Gowshall Ltd., Foster And Pullen Ltd., Standard Telephones And Cables Ltd., W Parkinson And Co., Walter Slingsby and Co., Ltd., Engineering And Lighting Equipment Co. Ltd., Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd, Automatic Telephone And Electrical Co., Ltd., Public Works Exhibition, British, Foreign And Colonial Automatic Light Controlling Co., Ltd., Hobbs, Offen And Co. Ltd., Peebles Co., Ltd. and The General Electric Co., Ltd.