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ilp archive : journals

public lighting no. 22 vol. 6
July-September 1941

Editorial p37
Light Up And Smile p37
"Light Up And Smile" is the new advertising slogan for a lamp manufacturer. Summer-time has again passed, dark and long nights are upon everyone again, and many of those responsible for the well-being of their fellow-citizens deem it wiser to extinguish lights. But the great need of the people today is light and still more light. War-time lighting has its limitations but rather let the people enjoy a little lighting, that provides a sense of comfort, security and safety to the road users, than have no lighting at all. A recent questionnaire revealed two disappointing facts: (1) In many important districts no war-time street lighting whatsoever is installed; (2) In equally important areas a large amount of money has been expended in installing special fittings which have remain unlighted - the excuse being that public opinion is against lighting in any form for fear of attacting the enemy. BS/ARP 37 is so designed that it cannot be seen from the air. In those areas where the streets are installed with war-time devices, the curve of street accidents after dark has dropped considerably, the feeling of security among the people has increased, the sense of safety and satisfaction has become apparent to all.
Lighting: ARP

Those Steel Columns p37
No one in these days will deprecate the enthusiasm of those who are encouraging the public to surrender all scrap metal to help the national effort. There are limits to which the disposal of all things metal should be made, even though the items classed "useless" be at present failing to serve the purpose for which it was created. There is, for example, the mistaken urge made in certain quarters that steel lamp columns should be rooted up, broken up and used for guns. Such a suggestion should be "scotched" at once. Whilst it is granted that many thousands of street lamp columns stand idle, it will be agreed that the order for "lighting up" will come immediatedly after the cessation of hostilies - the public will demand it. It will be an outward and visible sign that peace reigns again. It must not be overlooked that a lamp column represents heavy capital expenditure - it is of specialised design and manufacture, it is equipped with fittings that are of essential public service, and its removal and dismantling would mean a waste of public money far outweighing its value as scrap metal.
Lighting: ARP

National Illumination Committee Of Great Britain p22
Owing to the war it has not been possible for the National Committee to carry out any active work during the past year. The year 1940 should've seen the introduction of the new candle; and the International Committee Of Weights And Measures should've met in October 1939 and would've authotised the use of the new candle.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Theory

A Useful Addition To Your Bookshelf p22
Electric Discharge Lamps has been issued by the GEC written by V. J. Francis, B.Sc. F.Inst.P and H. G. Jenkins, M.Sc., F.Inst.P. It is divided into five parts: (1) A broad discusssion on the production of light; (2) an exhaustive treatise on various types of Osira high pressure mercury vapour lamps; (3) a section on Osira sodium lamps; (4) details of colours available with Osira colour floodlighting lamps and (5) the appendices.
Lighting: Lamps, Lighting: Publications

Annual General Meeting The Royal Society For The Prevention Of Accidents by Captain W. J. Liberty p39
The AGM was held on July 9th at the Connaught Rooms, London. The past year had been the busiest and most important in the existance of the movement. The change of title (from the National "Safety First" Association) was unanimously approved. The present casualty list of the roads was a disgrace. Part of the work of the Society during the past year was to find an answer to the question of why war-time road casualities had increased to such an abnormal extent in face of reduced traffic. The results of the investigation had recently been published in a series of Road Accident Bulletins. To some extent war-time raod safety seems to be an insoluable problem which military necessity imposes. The standard of road behaviour can, however, be vastly improved. The chief difficulty is psychological. Road manners are getting worse, not because are consciously neglecting them, but, because there is a subconcious idea that the ordinary securities of life do not matter any more. In pre-war days men talked of their narrow escapes on the road, now they compare bombing experiences. We are all far too inclined to tlay the blame for road mishaps on the 'other fellow'. We want to do just as we liked, and rely too much on other people giving way to us. There are two main obstructions to road safety: one the one side, apathy, and on the other, selfishness, and we must try to cultivate more of that spirit of 'sweet reasonableness.' In the last twelve months there had been an alarming increase in the number of children killed on the roads. This increase was not the product of the "black-out" and seemed to be largely a matter of weakened parental control.
Some Remedies For War-Time Road Accidents
1. Aids To Movement
1. Pedestrian crossings should be identifiable at night by motorists, cyclists and pedestrians.
2a. Pavement obstructions should be kept white painted or removed.
2b. Wherever possible, footpaths beside main roads should be conditioned and the edges of carriageway kept clear of accumulations of loose gravel.
2c. To aid pedestrians at night, wherever there is much pedestrian traffic, the edges of roads or paths, not otherwise identifiable, should be marked in a manner similar to the old coastguard paths.
2. Road Usage (a) All Drivers And Riders Of Vehicles
3. Special measures should be taken to impress upon the drivers and riders of all vehicles:
3a. The importance of carrying the regulation lights during the hours of darkness, and of making use of as much light on their machines as is permissible.
3b. Their resposibility for adjusting their speed so as to be able to pull up within the distance they can see ahead.
3c. The importance of observing the provisions of sections 24 and 72 of the Highway Code in respect of giving way to pedestrians when drivers or cyclists are turning into any road.
3c. The importance of leaving their vehicles only in positions where they will not endanger or invonvenience other road users.
Further suggested reminders are contained in No. 12 Accident Bulletin.
The Ministry Of Transport is giving the Society a grant of £1000 a year for three years, or the duration of the war, towards its road safety campaign. The Ministry Of Information also commissioned the Society to produce and distribute posters dealing with the "black out".
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Safety

An Early Advocate Of High Mountings p40
Reproduction of a lighting design which appeared in Gentlemen Magazine from February 1763. This high mounted lantern was designed to light an entire town. It describes four oil lamps, mounted in concave paraboloid reflectors, arranged at 90° to each other. This assembly would then be placed at a moderate height.
Lighting: Theory, Lighting: Luminaires

A Method of Converting Gas Panel Lanterns To Illuminated A.R.P. Signs p41
The widespread erection of public shelters, first aid posts and other premises associated with the A.R.P. has led to greate demand for direction signs. Such signs may be illuminated or non-illuminated. As most serious air riads have taken place during black-out hours, it seems that illuminated signs are of greatest service. Frequently the choice of type of sign is governed by the presence or absence of a suitable supply. Where the street lighting is by gas, in tapered panel lanterns, then they may be converted by a methods which as been adopted in Glasgow.
It was first necessary to obtain sample lettered panels. A reference to BS/ARP 32 shows an approved design. The development of the sign was directed by three main requirements: (1) the use of existing equipment; (2) the simplicity of design and (3) reasonable cost. With these in mind the ultimate aim was to produce a sign having (a) uniform surface brightness and (b) a value of brightness within limits specified by BS/ARP 32.
It was decided early in the work to use a swan-neck burner, consuming 1¼ cubic ft. per hour. Prior to the war this type was in fairly common use for the lighting of back lanes and in other situations where low candle-power source was sufficient.
Then various methods were tried to produce the desired panel brightness. At first an effort was made to utilise light reflected from the top porcelain reflector by surrounding the mantle with a cylindrical opaque metal screen, suitably baffled, which permitted the emission of upward light only. This proved unsuccessful, as it resulted in a very uneven distribution of brightness from the top to the bottom of the pane.
In the next attempt, the burner was surrounded by a metal cylinder 4" in diameter, mounted vertically so it's uper and lower rims were 2" from the top reflector and lantern floor, the latter being blanked by a small sheet of steel, whitened inside. This method certainly showed some improvement but the brightness variation still provided too great.
Other modifications were tried, which lead to the final design.
The cylinder is of sheet iron 17" long and 4" in diameter. Its upper end carries three right-angled lugs mounted symmetrically around the rim. These lugs are clamped between the porcelean reflector and the top funnel and server to hold the cylinder rigidly in position in the lantern. The right-angled lugs attached to the bottom of the cylinder act as feet and rest on the lantern floor. They also serve as spacers, raising the cylinder approximately ½in., thus permitting the entrance of primary air to the burner. Two longitudinal slots, each 4in. by ½in. are cut diametrically opposite to each other in the sides of the cylinder. The centres of these sltos are 8in. from the lower rim of the clinder and they roughly correspond with the height of the mantle. The two panes not carrying any lettering are sprayed inside with a coat of white cellulose paint. Their outside surfaces are painted a weather-resisting black in order to exclude all light.
Light from the mantle is emitted through the slots and falls on the whitened surfaces of the blank panes, which in turn, serve as secondary diffusing surfaces illuminating the lettered panes.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Levels, Lighting: Luminaires, Lighting: Signs

New Fittings To Comply With Revised Specification p42
BS/ARP 16 specification issued in September 1939, which dealt with methods of providing low values of illumination for outdoor use during black-out, was based solely on a maximum of 0.002-ft candles with a minimum space-mounting height ratio of 4:1.
The revised issue (dated February 1941) now introduces details of fittings for a 2:1 space-height ratio.
New fittings to comply with these regulations have been announced by the GEC. Type F 17029 is of the standard pattern with 1 1/8 in. mounting hole. F 17030 is weatherproof.
These 2:1 space electrical fittigns are designed for three mounting heights, namely 10ft. 15ft. and 20ft. The necessary variation in the distribution of light is governed by the use of various translucent and/or perforated screesn. Thus at a mounting height of 10ft. the maskign would consist of one opal screen and a black perforated sheet; at 15ft two opal screens would be used; and at 20ft. only one opal screen is specified.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Levels, Lighting: Luminaires

Lamp Globes Help The War Effort p43
The Borough Electrical Engineer for Cheltenham, Mr. Walter J. Bache, M.I.E.E., states that up to about 1910 there were nearly 400 Brush-Vienna arc lamps in use for street lighting. The arcs were contained in oval-shaped opalescent globes about 16in. long. These lamps were replaced by tungsten fittings but nobody wanted to buy the globes so they remained in the stores. Eventually some were given to the Corporation gardens superintendent and were used for propagating plants and they were very satisfactory for this purpose. They have now run out of globes.
Lighting: ARP

Experience Teaches: Star-Light Lamps In Leeds p43
Leeds has a large installation of war-time street lighting.
Lighting: ARP

C. H. Kempton p43
Brief mention of the passing of C H. Kempton who founded C. H. Kempton And Co. Ltd.
Lighting: Personnel

More Light On THe Road by "ARP" p44
Why should the streets be kept in utter darkness? Why should the death toll caused by this darkness continue unchecked? Why should glaring motor headlamps, caused by badly fitting ARP regulation shields, be permitted? Moscow's streets are well-lighted until the siren sounds the air-raid warning and then, within the space of a few minutes, all is blacked-out, the street lamps remaining alight, being those of the low-intensity variety, designed for war-time service.
Why isn't "lighting of streets" centralised in each area, controlled by a high command, who during a state of emergency would instruct the extinguishing of street lamps upon the approach of enemy aircraft. There are cities where centralised control has been in operation for many years. What is there to hinder the widspread adoption of such systems? It cannot be a question of cost? It certainly cannot be doubts as to the efficiency of the systems as they have proved themselves in several towns in this country and abroad. It is quite possible, it is desirable.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Control

Paper Shortage p44
As in common with other journals, the number of pages has been reduced considerably. Many members of the APLE have asked for hte journal to be kept alive, as it is the main link between public lighting engineers and the manufacturers.
Lighting: ARP, APLE: Journal

Correspondence p44
In a number of towns, a mechanical device has been fitted to traffic lights, thus enabling the police or other appointed authority to "open up" the apertures; thus in daytime the full benefit of the traffic signal is available to the road user, whilst at night the coloured lenses are "crossed up", leaving only the regulation crosses visible.
This should become more universal. The present method of leaving an altogether inadequate-sized coloured lens visible to the motorist is unfair, who at times becomes quite unwittingly a danger to others. - F. McDonald, Warwick.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Signs

Adverts: The General Electric Co., Ltd, William Sugg And Co., Ltd., Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd., Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd, British Commercial Gas Association, The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd., British, Foreign And Colonial Automatic Light Controlling Co., Ltd., APLE, Public Lighting and Engineering And Lighting Equipment Co. Ltd.