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ilp archive : journals

public lighting no. 25 vol. 7
April-June 1942

Editorial p15
The A.P.L.E. Annual Report p15
Within twenty-four hours after the completed copies of the Annual Report left the printers, the factory fell victim to the Luftwaffe. All members of the Association will have now received their copies. The publication has been well received and the Press has spoken highly about the usefulnes of the information it contains.
Whilst the list of towns containing statistical information, there are still several important towns missing. It is hoped they will be included in the future.
Lighting: Statistics

Lighting Of Roundabouts p15
In July 1940, it was reported to Essex County Council that, arising out of an accident at a road junction, one of the illuminated bollards was damaged, resulting in the lights of the remaining bollards being extinguished. The County Surveyor suggested the desirability of alterations being made to the lighting systems of traffic roundabouts in order that in the event of a single bollard being damaged, the ligthing of the remaing signs would not be affected. The Council agreed to the Surveyor's recommendation, provided a grant of 60% was made by the M.O.T.. Subsequently the Ministry Of War Transport stated that it thought the alterations was hardly justified and could not be regarded as either economical or urgently required. The County Council passed a resolution to undertake the work at their own expense.
Lighting: Funding

Safety Of "Starlighting" p15
Writing concerning the desirability in certain quarters for war-time street lighting to be increased beyond the limits of BS/ARP 37, Mr. Stewart, the President of the A.P.L.E., has intimated that it is desirable to have the public and the local authorities reassured that street lighting, to the standard, has the confident support of the Ministry Of Home Security and the associated experts in defence and illuminating engineering.
It was at the meeting of the A.P.L.E. in November 1940, that Mr. Percy Good, Chairman of the Joint Lighting Committee, Ministry Of Home Security, stated that starlighting could not be seen by enemy aircraft and military authorities were thoroughly satisfied ith it.
A letter from the Ministry Of War Transport, recently quoted in the technical press as submitted to a Highways Committee, stated that the Ministry was in favour of starlighting and the Ministry Of Home Security, which was primarily concerned, was doing all it could to encourage the extension of this lighting.
Some towns discontinued modified lighting in doubt of safety, in spite of official assurance. Bristol, which has 10,229 lamps lit, later discontinued these; but in September 1941 it was announced that "much-blitzed Bristol" had decided to restore the modified lighting. Similar lighting had been in use in several other cities despite air attack, and its absence in Bristol had not given immunity.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Installations

A Pre-War Project Completed p16
At the outbreak of the war, one of the principle municipal swimming baths in a Midland distrct was being completely rebuilt; materials had been ordered and most were "on site". But, owing to the war, construction was suspended. It became evident, that something would have to be done to alleviat the pressure on other swimming pools. Accordingly a decision was reached by the Council for the completion of the contract. The bath is now completed. The scheme includes both overhead and underwater lighting equipment. The overhead lighting consists of twelve 500W flush ceiling floodlights, each comprising a front spun copper, chromium-plate rim carrying a 500W size parabolic mirror reflector and diffusing front screen. They are so arranged that an evenly diffused light of high intensity is spread over the whole of the bath area. Maintenance is carried out from the "catwalk" above the ceiling.
The under-water lighting system includes twelve parabolic mirror-backed reflectors located behind rectangular watertight portholes. The source in all units is a 500W horizon-type Osram lamp.
The work was designed by engineers of the GEC.
Lighting: Installations

Fluorescent Light Source And Their Application p16
This paper was read before a meeting of the Illuminating Engineering Society on April 14th by Mr. J. N. Aldington, B.Sc., F.Inst.P. It is reproduced in pamphlet form and is available from Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Limited.
Lighting: Publications

Lighting (Restrictions) Order p16
The Advertisement Lighting (Restrictions) Order 1942 came into force on May 18th. The chief object of this Order is to prohibit the use at any time of electricity or other artificial illuminants for such purposes as the lighting of shop windows.
Lighting: ARP

Lighting Engineer Honoured p16
Lieut. Charles Henry Midson, a junior member of the A.P.L.E. has been awarded the M.B.E. for gallantry in hazardous work with the Royal Engineers. He was employed by the Sheffield Corporation Lighting Department, served in the last war, rising to the rank of sergeant.
Lighting: Personnel

The Maintenance Of Electric A.R.P. Street Lighting Fittings by F. M. Hale, B.Sc., F.I.E.S. (Lighting Department, Glasgow) p17
Over two years have elapsed since the introduction of A.R.P. street lighting fittings conforming with BS/ARP 37. In that time, there has been ample opportunity to study their performance, as assessed by the amount of maintenance necessary to keep them serviceable. Unfortunately, the present shortage of labour has resulted in far too little attention being paid to the fittings once they have been installed, apart from lamp renewals.
There is nothing in BS/ARP 37 to regulate the fitting's performance in service. It may be assumed that light output diminishes during life. If such deterioration is allowed to continue unchecked, a system loses its "amenity" value and may serve no useful purpose at all. If ARP stret lighting is to continue to serve a useful purpose, the equipment must be cleaned and overhauled at regular intervals. Such attention, routine in peace-time, becomes equally necessary under present conditions when the initial luminous output is so drastically reduced. Unfortunately shortage of staff may render impossible any regular cleaning and inspection schedules.
When BS/ARP 37 was first issued in January 1940, the early types of units were hurriedly produced to satisfy a pressing demand. At the time, it was imposible to estimate the life required from the fittings. Since then, some of the earlier types have been superseded by improved patterns of more durable character, there still remain in service some of the original types which, after 2½ years, would show a marked improvement in peformance by a thorough overhaul in addition to routine cleaning. This appears to those types with ordinary painted surfaces, certain for which have been superseded by vitreous enamelled designs.
In Glasgow, a total of 17,500 electric ARP street lighting fittings of all types have been installed. They are to found in all areas, embracing industrial, commerical and residential districts, so ample opportunity have been afforded to note the effects of weather and atmosphere. Before fittings were purchased, a sample of each type under consideration was submitted to the Lighting Department, where a complete examination was made in the test room. This examination incldued photometric performance and mechanical stability, while attention was paid to details of design which were to affect maintenance and life of the fitting. In this way it was possible to compare the merits of each type and purchase accordingly; though certain featuers of design have not shown the advantages expected, while others have given more favourable service than anticipated.
No general routine cleaning of high-mounted electric A.R.P. fittigns had been attempted. Before the war all electric street lanterns were cleaned regularly every three or four weeks. The work was carried out at night when traffic conditions were quiet an when tower wagons could be released from regular maintenance work. Since tbe beginning of the black-out, night cleaning has become an impossibility and by day the wagons have been fully employed on repairs to the overhead wiring, to control gear, and the erection and maintenance of hundreds of A.R.P. and traffic signs. For these reasons, coupled with the continual transfer of men to the Forces and other work, the maintenance of any regular cleaning schedule has been found impossible.
Possibly the experience of Glasgow isn't shared by other districts. When A.R.P. lighting is in operation, there is at least some incentive to give fittings the attention they require. Where there is no such lighting, the question arises whether many normal street lanterns and fittings are being regularly inspected, being overhauled wherever necessary, so they will be instantly ready when the call arises. Unused street lighting equipment is likely to suffer through neglect in the present need for economy, and in the intensive salvage drives. The trend is reflected in the requests, voiced in certain newspapers, that idle columns should be "scrapped".
It is intended to describe an examination, carried out in Glasgow, of a number of A.R.P. fittings of different types, all of which had been in continuous service in the streets for periods ranging from eighteen months to two years, during which little or no cleaning had been done. All were of the 20-ft. type and were removed from the central business area of the city. First, a polar curve of light distrubtion was drawn for each fitting as brought in. Both this, and all subsequent photometric tests were made using calibrated pearl lamps of appropiate wattages so all the results obtained were on a comparable basis. After the intital polar distribution measurements had been made, the fittings were (a) throughly cleaned with soap and water and (b) clearned by wire brush and painted. Further photometric readings were then made to ascertain whether or not the new light distrubtion conformed with BS/ARP 37.
A number of the fittings showed signs of extensive corrosion, especially those with painted surfaced. In some cases this seriously affected the light distribution. Fittings with vitreous enamelled surfaces showed little or no corrosion and could, by a thorough clean, could be restored to almost new condition. Corroded fittings were wire brushed and repainted - this resulted in a light distribution curve with was similar to the original, but the peak candle power was smaller. There is a startling drop in light output due primarily to dirt and deterioration. In most of the fits, the peak intensity had fallen to little more than 0.2 candle. This was true for fittings which used glassware and those with vitreous enamel reflectors.
Fittings where a metal gauze had been used to control their light distribution maintained their original intensity and distribution remarkably well. An early criticism, not confirmed by this investigation, was that the gauze would choke with dirt and reduce the light output.
In some of the fittings examined there had been rusting of the screws, particularly steel. Lamp replacement becomes very tedious when rusted screws, or nuts carried by them, have to removed. Experience has shown that captive wing nuts very considerably simply the operation of lamp replacement. Improvemetns in A.R.P. fittings are not now to be expected but there will be sufficient opportunity to apply in post-war development the lessons learned.
One of the most common causes of failure had been separation of a rigid adaptor from the body of the fitting. In many cases, this has been due to insecure fixing. In others, failure has occurred with E.S. and G.E.S. rigid adaptor types through too much force being used when screwing the cap into the lampholder. Where the reflector has a large diameter, a powerful torque can be applied by careless fitting. A number of fittings mounted in exposed positions, and those subject to abnormal vibration, separated from their adaptors - a safety chain or guard now became a necessity. The wire globe-net of the supporting lantern has been found quite satisfactory.
Adequate attention to modified A.R.P. street lighting fittings is essential if anything like the permitted ground illumination of 0.0002 foot-candle is to be maintained, because if cleaning and overhaul are neglected, the peak candle-power may fall to one-fifth or less of its original value. It is appreciated that present shortage of suitable labour may render any general overhaul difficult to carry out. With most types of fittings, cleaing is an easy process. Painted surfaces may require touching up, or even repainting. Such treatment should ensure a marked increase in the ground illumination without in any way trangressing the requirements of the regulations.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Maintenance

Street Lighting: Past, Present And Future p20
Before an attendance of lighting engineers, Mr. G. H. Wilson delivered a formative address in which he received the technical progress of street lighting over the past 15 years. It was the Annual Meeting of the I.E.S. which was held in the Lecture Theatre of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers on May 12th.
His pictures of the experimental installations at Sheffield in 1928 revealed not only the value of the work but the remarkable strides that have since been made in street lighting.
Even though Wilson is an electrical engineer, he showed the great strides in gas street lamp fittings which makes the gas lamp of today as efficient as its rival.
Looking back, the period from 1928 to 1938 is seen of one of great technical progress. The following are the more important events:
The outstanding event was the erection at Sheffield of 50 street lighting installations illustrating the eight classes of the British Standard Specification first published in 1927. It showed the limitations of a classification based on illuminating values. One quite minor installation gave remarkable evidence in favour of the growing opinion that road surface brightness was a factor of prime importance. This resulted in a departure from the traditional uniform spacing of posts and the placing of lighting units on the outside of bends. The light distribution from many types of lantern was arranged so that the road reflection properties could be used to obtain high and uniform brightness. There was some discomfort glare and it was realised where an adequate amount of light could be afforded, the inherently more costly cut-off installation with high-mounted shielded light sources had merit.
In this same ten year period two entirely new light sources, the sodium and mercury vapour lamps were applied to street lighting. Towards the end of the decade, the new tubular fluorescent lamps were first devised.
In 1934, the Minister Of Transport appointed a committee to examine and report on street lighting and in the recommendations of that committee a standard of lighting for traffic routes were made.
In the design of lighting units, the advent of the discharge lamp caused a break from traditional form which resulted in sounder engineering designs. The appearance of the units and poles was in line with developments in industrial art in other spheres. With both gas and electrical sources, optical systems of high precision became common. Discharge lamp units were eventually produced with an accurately controlled distribution so that glare could be reduced to a minimum whilst still utilising the helpful reflection properties of the road surface.
Present day black out lighting is necessarily an example of the control of light by absorption.
The future? The fluorescent lamp may find application and there may be new sources. There may be new materials available for reflectors and refractors. The future of street lighting depends on the extent to which the scientific attitude of mind is employed in the application of the achievements of research.
Lighting: History, Lighting: Theory

Government Control Of Patents Relating To Public Lighting by S. T. Madeley p21
In the previous article (Public Lighting #24) we considered the various forms of relief accorded to inventors and patentees under the Patents Act. This article is about the Government demands in return.
Section 18 (6) of the Patents Act, as amended by the Act of 1942, enables patentees to apply for an extension of term up to ten years on the sole ground of loss or damage due to hostilities or active serive.
The Patents, Etc. (Emergency) Act, 1939, empowers the Comptroller to revoke or vary a licence granted under a patent owned by an enemy to grant an emergency licence under a similar patent. It also enabels an enemy to apply for a patent in the country, and a British national to apply in an enemy or other country abroad. Patent Office work has practically ceased in regard to applications emanating from enemy countries. Patents are granted if emergency licences are required and renewal fees are dealt with.
The Emergency Act allows the Comptroller to grant extensions of time for filing patent documents and paying patent fees under certain circumstances. Part of this right is incorporated in section 91 (B) of the new Act. Section 91 (C) safeguards subsequent application for a patent when exchange of confidential information e.g. street lighting during air raids, has taken place between our own and a foreign Government e.g. United States.
Sections 29 (1A) of the Patent Acts 1907-42 make it clear that the Government has power to do what it likes with regard to any invention or patent on terms to be settled by agreement now or by a post-war tribunal; it can direct anyone having knowledge of an invention to disclose such knowledge for the purpose of the war to any person selected by the Government. Such disclosure is prevented by section 3 (4) of the Rules from invalidating a subsequent application for a patent.
Buyers of surplus Government stock of patented articles manufactured under the previous sections are protected by section 4 of these rules.
Section 3 95) of the Rules also renders inoperative any agreement or licence dealing with the payment of royalities in so far as this affects Crown contractors. Unders Rules 73/1942 anyoen desiring to grant a new licence subsequent to an Emergency Licence must first obtain the Comptroller's approval. The actual situation appears to be that a patentee may have a disagreement with the Government over the royalty payment question and this may be shelved for post-war decision by a Tribunal. But this disagreement will not prevent the patentee from obtaining a Government contact "ex-royalty" in competition or not with others.
A patent application may be made secret, under section 30 of the Acts, at teh request of the Government, and under section 3 (1) of the Rules the Comptroller may forbit publication of any information relating thereto. Under this section 3 (2) no patent appliction may be made aborad without the Comptroller's permit.
Consider a American patent. In a large number of cases, British applications are made corresponding to basic applications in the United States. Under Public Law No. 239 American inventors are not allowed to do this without first obtaining a permit; nor can they send out of the USA information for amending a pending British case before so doing. Executive Order No. 8785 demands that American Treasury sanction be obtained before an assignment of the U.S. patent can take place. In the case of secret patents emanating from the United Kingdom official sanction must first be obtained which will not necessarily be given.
No direct claim on the United States Government or contractor should be made by British nationals having patent rights. This is in order that there should be no hold-up of production on account of the claim. British patentees should not approach the United States Government contractors or others about licences or assignments of patent rights. All claims should be referred to the British Government which will try to settle the case.
British patentees may dispose of their patent rights abroad subject to British Government consent. Secret applications are subject to both American and British control as regards to filing and payment of charges.
The United States, we are told by the Press, is going to seize all enemy patents and permanently hold them. The President is setting up a Commission to study how invention and patents may best be harnessed to post-war reconstruction.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Legal

Lighting And Reconstruction by Mr. R. O. Ackerley, F.I.E.S. p22
Newly-elected Ackerley addressed the Annual General Meeting about post-war reconstruction. "Many suggestions have been sent to me on this subject, some of them dealing with specific methods of street lighting, some dealing with questions of control, coordination and standardisation. On the latter, there seems to be general agreement as the desirability of greater uniformity of practice between one district and another. Different systems, different colours of light are often mixed together and the height of absurdity is reached when one finds the opposite sides of a single street lit by two different systems. How far would it be for the Ministry Of Transport to lay down compulsory standards for the various classes of roadway, based on the nature of the surroundings, class of road and volume of traffic? How far can guidance be given towards standardising heights and spacings? Have we anything to learn from the traffic in the black out? Can we produce a statement of fundamental requirements relating to different classes of highway? What are the merits and demerits of different unorthodox methods of street illumination such as lighting by reflection off flood lighted buildings? Luminous kerbs or panels let into the street? Luminous panels let into the faces of buildings? Should we in our built-up cities do away with posts and mount illumination equipment on the buildings or on span wires? How are we to indicate cross-roads and turnings? Shoudl all street names be illuminated and house numbers, too? Can we light shopping streets with the light escaping from shop windows? Are we to expect two-floor streets with walkways and shop windows at first-floor level and a kind of loading and parking arcade beneath? How would we light such a street? Should our front gardens and building faces receive some illumination? Should we coordinate such lighting as may come from floodlighting or shop windows with the scheme of lighting in the street? How far can we educate the building owner to recognise his responsibility for the general amenities of the street in which his building stands.
After street lighting comes public amenity lighting. To what extent should all beautiful and historic buildings be floodlighted? Should street lighting systems be provided with facilities to convert them temporarily with facilities to convert them? Can we not install more illuminated fountains and floodlight the statuary in our public squares? Illumination for outdoor sports must also not be forgotten.
The place of illuminated signs in our new cities will have to receivevery serious consideration, so that they become a definite attraction in the night life of our cities.
"It may be argued that we are all too busy winning the war to be able to give time to preparing for the peace, and that we should wait till peace seems nearer. This might well be a fatal policy which would result in having won the war, we should lose the peace. On at least two separate occasions the Prime Minister has told use the end may well come sooner than we now have the right to hope. The Prime Minister has proved himself a very good prophet so far. Let us, therefore, not relax our efforts to win the war, but be preapred to put the same extra intensive effort into the reconstruction problem as we put to ARP. Let us do it now, and we shall then, I am sure, be able to feel we are contributing something towards the better world which we all hope will come out the present situation."
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Future

Re-Lighting by N. Schofield Public Lighting Dept., Sheffield p23
Whilst the change from war-time to peace-time conditions will be a slow process, the refitting of lighting installations will be required immediately during that period. The public will expect a speedy resumption of lighting. In this sense, Post-war Lighting becomes a war-time problem. A contingency that Lighting Engineers must be prepared for is the cessation of hostilities in Europe with a consequent relief from the black-out before the ultimate end of the war. It is clear that whatever can be done now to lesse teh cost or increase the speed of relighting, will be a valuable contribution to the post-war life of the nation.
During the first few months of the war, some authorities used the quiet period before man-power difficulties became acute to dismantle lighting plant and carry out a systematic clean-up. Some brought into store only the more fragile and more expensive equipment, while others merely shut off the supply and left the whole plant standing unattended on the streets. This attention, or lack of attention since 1939, will determine the amount of repairs required, and therefore the readiness with which refitting can be , and it will be profitable to consider the depreciation caused by present methods of handling plant, in the light of the probable availability of materials.
Owing to the reduction in Service requirements, iron, steel, copper and brass should be in fair supply when needed, but the change-over of manufacturing processes, and the completion of existing contracts may cause some delay. Probably the greatest difficulty will be encountered in connection with glass, gas mantles and electric lamps, all indispensable and not capable of being substituted. Any shortage of these would be aggravated by the fact that they are peace-time requisites, and street lighting demand would be in competition with that for rebuilding. Indeed the demand for sheet glass is likely to be so great that reglazing may be a serious bottle neck.
Where lanterns have been safely stored when not in use, this problem will be avoided.
Pr-war stocks of gas mantles should receive some attention during storage - a dry, airy space is essential and frost should be avoided. Electric lamps are not so susceptible to atmospheric conditions, but still require some care, particularly those reclaimed from service. Vibration from nearby bombexplosions was expected to cause loss among the more delicate filaments of the 60W and 100W sizes, but these may have been groundless. This also applies to fireclay nozzles and by-pass tips; and to clockwork controllers and time switches.
Storage conditions should be free of damp, frost and insects. A country site is an advantage in view of the decreased risk of bomb damage, and the lesser cost of rent and rates. Stocks should be divided between two or more stores. The expenditure on labour and the running costs of storage will be amply repaid by the saving of valuable materials. One criticism that is foreseen is that to lay up gas mantles and electric lamps, or other items not manufactured excusively for street lighting, is to keep out of circulation a certain wealth of material which could be used for the war effort.
Differences of opinion are found on many aspects of our work. While some may consider that this article is an unncessary statemetn of the obvious, others will say that to spend any thought or labour on the preservation of plant which has, no war-time use, is to put a brake on the war effort. The fact that such opposites are possible is an indication of the lack of attention that has been given, and adds weight to the conviction which was gaining ground before the war, that some measure of national control should be exercsied over public lighting. This feeling has been justified by the way in which A.R.P. lighting was installed. In spite of an assurance in 1939 that Star lighting is safe, we still find that responsible persons have formed a judgement on this point, merely on the strength of limited observation on the group, or their own personal inhibitions and prejudices, with the result that although some cities have been completely relighted, others have dealt only with the main thoroughfares after hesitant experiments on a small scale. Perhaps some national policy in lighting will be formulated after the war, but one cannot expect that any guidance will be given in time to affect the first rush to relight.
This lack of a controlling influence is responsible for suggestions that lamp pillars should be reclaimed for scrap matal. This would never be seriously entertained by anyone with a knowledge of lighting conditions, and its hysterical advocates ought never to be given a public hearing. To dismantle railings which are neither useful nor ornamental for the manufacture of munitions is a commendable enterprise, but this cannot give any reason why lamp pillars shuold go into the same melting pot. The replacement of stadnards under the conditions likely to be imposed at the end of hostilities would be slow and costly: any authority that commits itself to this fully deserves the inevitable criticism, for while the removal of pillars might be applauded now by a few short-sighted popele, the mor short-memoried members of the public would not afterwards admit any resposibility.
Wastage of pillars through accidents, and through war damage, creates a reconstruction problem, and cases of gaps left in lighting installations for years after the last war will be remembered.
Whilst some cities have extensive BS/ARP 37 installations in use, and doing their utmost to fill the places of "departed" lamps by having new pillars cast, and welding old ones, it seems ridiculous to conser uprooting unused plant in other areas for melting down. Let's have national unity on this point at least.
A variation on this them was recently introduced through the editorial columns of a trade periodical, where it was suggested our cast-iron standards were out of fashion, so why not take the plunge and be rid of them so that they could be replaced by modern concrete pillars? But we should not make war-time conditions an excuse for improvements which peace-time economy would not allow.
The supply of labour for relighting will be of secondary importance, although it is perhaps the most uncertain factor, and cannot be dealt with until the need arises. In larger cities, where women have been employed on the maintenance of war-time lighting, little difficulty should be encountered. Demobilisation of works from the fighting services is expected to be slow, but the existance of a large Civil Defence Army, whose release should be almost immediate, would certainly mean less toruble than was experienced by many authorities in 1918-1919.
Funds for relighting would be forthcoming in ratio to the local demands for light. It is certain that in the more densely populated areas, the public need for release from both the danager and the inconvenience of the black-out would be one of the first cares of the governing bodies. There would be little time to discuss colour, glare and distribution characteristics of the new installations. However, we must not aggravate any future financial difficulties by lack of care now. The cost of relighting will depend upon what materials are in hand is to state the obvious but it is necessary to count the cost. Each pane of glass shattered, each lamp filament broken, will represent an additional expenditure which will have to be faced, probably at prices far in excess of the pre-war value of the material destroyed.
Where lighting is maintained by the local authorities' only starff, the expenditure will probably be fairly easily covered and sanctioned out the saving expected in other directions. The matter cannot be dismissed so easily, when the contact is held by an independent body. In some cases, contracts were suspended at the outbreak of war, whilst in others a toekn payment have been made to cover essential maintenance. Suspended contractors may required lengthy negotiations before they can be reopened, unless agreement is reached now. Token payments for maintenance during the war will generally have put the responsibility of planning for relighting upon the contractors. It will be their duty to themselves to see that they are not obliged to make an expenditure in excess of income.
Providing that the three fundamentals - material, labour and funds - are assured, the act of relighting should be fairly simple. The most fortunate are those authorities with extensive systems of war-time lighting. With lanterns aready in situ, gas and electric services in working order, controllers and switches already functioning, and a nucleus of staff to carry out their job, their work may be limited to replacing A.R.P. fittings by electric lamps and gas burners. In other cases, if precautions have been taken, sufficient material should be on hand to make an immediate start of lighting the more important places. It is hardly to be expected that no snags at all will be encountered.
Electric lighting installed under BS/ARP 37 where war-time fitting is an addition to the peace-time lantern, and is connected through a loose adaptor, will be easily dismantled, and will not require the service of trained electricians - but more time and skilled labour will be rquired to install lanterns which have been replaced by ARP fittings. Trobule will almost certainly be experienced with B.C. lampholder contacts where lamps have been put out of commission and left exposed to the weather. A useful practice to reduce the effect of exposure would be to stop up the lampholder with a "dud" lamp or lamp cap. It is feared that overhead services will have suffered in "blitzed" towns and the amount of work involved should have been noted.
These remarks apply in a very similar way to gas lighting, except that, in low pressure installatiosn, stoppages wil be confined to single lamps. Escapes of gas, due to corroded services, will have to be dealt with as they arose.
Central areas will generally be lighted first and the service extended as materials become available. Slow progress will probably encourage the lighting of only alternative lamps or street junctions, but this makes for very uneconomic maintenace.
The treatment of existing starlighting equipment at the time of relighting will depend on the prospects of continued peace. Salvage for peace-time requirements will be restricted to the mantles and nozzles, and B.C. lampholders and adaptors. For the rest, the material should not be scrapped out of hand. They might have some future use.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Future, Lighting: Management

A Gas Lighting Installation In Surrey In Readiness For The Great "Re-Light" p25
Peace-time night-time picture of a Sugg 8 No.1 Mantle London installation in Surrey.
Lighting: Installations

Adverts: British, Foreign And Colonial Automatic Light Controlling Co., Ltd., William Sugg And Co., Ltd., Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd., Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd, British Commercial Gas Association, The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd., APLE, Annual Report of Lighting Undertakings, Engineering And Lighting Equipment Co. Ltd. and The General Electric Co., Ltd.