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ilp archive : journals

public lighting no. 26 vol. 7
July-September 1942

Editorial p31
The Fuel Question p31
"Use less coal" is the anxious cry from the Ministry of Fuel and Power, yet strangely, at the same time, an urge is made for householders to "stock-up" with fuel for winter use. Therefore, in many houses, the stocks of coal at the present time are in excess of normal requirements. The public lighting engineer in consequence of the prevailing conditions is forced to economise.
It is wondered why the Ministry of Fuel has not brought home to the imagination of the people the greate advantages of carbonising coal. Apart from obtaining as from coal, over 50% is left as saleable coke, whilst several valuable by-products are procured, including lubricating oils, benzol, tar, ammonia etc. all of which are wanted now. It would appear that for domestic requirements, the urge from the Ministry Of Fuel should have been, not merely to use less coal, but to use no coal at all. If the supplies of coal now stored in tens of thousands of homes could be diverted to gas and electrical undertakings - one fuel problem would be solved immediately.
Cheap gas and cheap electricity are the results of using fuel wisely and economically. The slogal to be learnt by householders should in our opinion be "Don't burn coal to waste - turn it into gas and electricity!"
The public lighting engineer does not waste fuel - even if he is compelled to leave his very limited war-time street lamps burning by day and night, the gas or electricity used is so small that it would be extremeley wasteful in labour charges to "turn-on" and "turn-off" lights each day.

Keep Your Lamps Bright p31
A question asked in a contemporary journal: "Will the people of this country, accustomed to 'synthetic lighting' or no light at all, hold public lighting in less esteem in future?" They certainly will not! Of the many questions on the lips of people today concerning the return of peace-time priviledges, lighting surely stands first. With the long nights of "black-out" passed, the cry will go up for light and still more light. To be prepared for that time is the duty of all public lighting engineers - and now is the time to prepare. A useful pamphlet has been issued by the Association for distribution among members of lighting committees. It is set out succinctly and clearly and includes all the "Do's" and "Don'ts" for the engineers' instruction. The people mau have cause to thank those authorities who with wisdom and foresight gave them "synthetic lighting," but they still look to those same authorities to restore full lighting as soon as war-time rstrictions are withdrawn.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Publications

A.R.P. Street Lighting In The USA p32
Opinion seems to have definitely confirmed the view reached in this country that there is no object in using blue light under black-out conditions. Low intensity white light is considered best for the majority of purposes. Orders for outside illumination similar to those familiar here are being studied.
Los Angeles had practical experience of a complete black-out on December 10th. In the hour preceding the black-out, 2 persons were injured in motor-car accidents, which is considered normal. During the subsequent period of the black-out, about three hours, 38 people were injured. When the lights came on again, the injuries subsided to 4 during the hour. This test is instructive in illustrating what is indeed accepted in this country - that one can scarcely practise a complete black-out without an increase in accidents.
Lighting: ARP

G.E.C. Birmingham Branch p32
After 46 years service with the company, Mr. F. Boyes, Manager of the Birmingham district of the GEC is retiring on September 30th. He has been manager for 33 years. Mr. N. M. Hill, M.I.E.E. has been Assistant Manager since 1927 and will succeed him.
Lighting: Personnel

Ministry Of Fuel And Power Announcement p32
Details about the new Gas (Special Orders) Rules, 1942.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Legal

"Starlight" Gas Saving p32
The fixing of clockwork and by-pass controllers to Manchester gas "starlight" street lamps during the last few months will result in substantial saving of gas during the winter. Before the war these controllers were working on all gas street lamps. When street lighting ceased they were dismantled, with the result that when the department began to feel the shortage of staff the "starlight" had to be left on all day. During the double summert-time period the extra use of gas had been offset by a reduction in the number of lights in use. Now these are being restored and the controllers will eliminate any waste. There's no intention of reducing the number of electric starlights.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Control, Lighting: Installations

Take Extra Care Of Vehicles In Cold Weather p32
The Minister Of War Transport wishes to call attention to the importance of taking fullest possible precautions against the danger of damage to their vehicles through freezing. The best anti-freeze device is an empty water system. There is very little anti-freeze available in this country for the coming winter, and certain spare parts for motor vehicles may be in short supply. The small existing supplies of anti-freeze available will be allocated by the Regional Transport Commissioners of the Ministry Of War Transport. These arrangements apply to all goods vehicles, public service vehicles and vehicles operated by public utility undertakings.
Lighting: ARP, Other

British And American Public Lighting Patents by S. T. Madeley p33
We will more particularly consider the United States, but pretty much thesmae conditions apply in general to Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa.
In 1933 a good deal was done in teh way of discharge lamps and glas bulb photo flash lamps. The year 1935 saw considerable invention with electric discharges, and the employment of powders and other substances to raise the electric discharge radiation.
There was interest in 1937 in the luminescent type of discharge lamp while, as one would expect, in 1939 inventors turned their attentions to shades for street lamps and lighted signs.
Although they came into the war later than we did, the powers of the United States Government are even more drastic than the possessed by ours as regards patents. The importance of the American situation, when considered from the British angle, lies in its effect on United States patents and pending patents owned by British nationals.
For purposes of the war, the British Government can do practically what it likes with any invention or process of which it is aware, on terms either to be settled now or by a post-war tribunal. It can grant emergency licences or revoke or vary existing licences under patents owned by enemies or enemy-subjects and override existing agreements and licences. It can direct possessors of relevant information to impart the same to its agents and protect the agents in their use thereof. Purchasers of surplus Government war stock are protected. Patent proceedings have been suspended, except as regards paying renewal fees, in teh case of practically all patents owned by enemies and enemy subjects. Any pending patent application can be made secret by the Government. Finally, no patent application can be made abroad without its permission.
Let's assume then, the applicant has invented a street lamp, and wishes to apply in the USA. The applicant must go to the Comptroller for permission to apply in the USA, sending copies of his British specification and drawings, if any. In reply he will get a letter granting permission subject to his agreeing the following conditions: He must be free to grant any licence required by the British or American Government in respect of manufacture in the United States for war purposes. The Department's written authority must be obtained before any assignment takes place of any patent rights to any party outside the jurisdiction of the British Government.
In the case of inventiosn made secret under section 30 of the Acts, there are the following probable conditions. The applicant must offer his invention to the United States Government when the United States Commissioner of Patents issues a secrecy order. With the United States documents he must include copies of the Comptroller's permit and prohibition publication. In very secret csaes he must agree to the department's selecting the United States' patent attorney and to pay his charges.
When a U.S. patent has already been applied for or issued, any negotiations as to patent rights hsould bot be concluded without consulting the British Government.
No assignment of American patent rights can take place without permission of the United States Treasury. For this purpose copies of the specification and drawings have to be sent to the Federal Reserve Bank.
In the case of British patentees, all claims for remuneration under their U.S. patents should be made through the British Government Department concerned which will try to settle the claim, taking into consideration all the facts involved, such as novelty, merit and utility of the invention. Claims should not be made directly against U.S. Government or its contractors.
If the U.S. contractor is not working under licence from the patentee a claim against him hay have to be made in the United States Court of Claims. This is a process which takes time and money.
The American Governmetn can authorise any contractor to make use of any invention for war purposes. Where a foreign patentee is unable owing to the war to exercise his rights, the American authorities can grant licences under the patent. The Alien Property Custodian has the power to seize any U.S. patent in which an enemy national has an interest. united States patent ttorneys cannot, except in very exceptional cases, communicate with patent agents in enemy countries.
Royalties relating to foreign patents must be disclosed when asking for an extension of term for the basic British patent.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Lighting

Salvage Of Lamp Caps p34
Since issuing a shocard to encourage lamp-cap salvage a short time ago, E.L.M.A. has received a number of inquiries concerning the method of procedure. (1) Hands should be protected from splinters of glass by thick gloves and googles shoudl be worn. (2) Hold the cap and strike the glass sharply with a screwdriver. (3) Leave the glass foot and interior cement (as this provides reinforcement against crushing and denting). (4) Caps should be packed into barrels or other rigid containers, the gross weight which should not exceed 2 cwt. per package nad return to any branch of E.L.M.A.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Lamps

War Problems Of Public Lighting Engineers by F. F. Middleton, F.I.E.S., Assoc.M.A.P.L.E. p35
It can be assumed that an instant demand will be made immediately after the war for therestoration of these amenities. Steps have been taken in some areas to maintain efficient apparatus ready for immediate utilisation and many engineers have scrapped obsolete material to help the war effort; but in many other areas apparatus has been left in service positions without cleaning or painting to check the enormous depreciation from corrosion etc. (A state of affairs imposed usually by lack of labour and storage space). The chief problem confronting the engineer concerned with the immediate installation of adequate lighting on the termination of hostilities will be the provision of finance, labour and suitable equipment.)
Responsible authorities should be approached for the formulation of programmes for street developments that could be prepared with with foresight ready to put into operation immediately the opportunity is presented. Strong arguments should be advanced by lighting engineers for more generous allocation of funds than in pre-war years. For example, in America more than four times the cost of adequate street lighting can be saved to the community in wealth alone by the reduction in the accident rate during darkness hours.
After the declaration the peace, it is expected that (1) the labour situation will be regulated by release from service from the Forces; (2) he will be assured of funds; (3) he will be able to utilise his skill and experience in selecting the illuminant and efficient equipment for his light sources. With this plan in place and approved, he would then be ready to put in operation of well thought-out scheme of illumination, instead of having to maintain in operation, with difficulty, an uneconomic system of inadequate and obsolute units, possibly corroded and depreciated through exposure.
It is expected that no revolutionary systems of lighting will at first be installed - the re-installations will follow the practice in vogue prior to the outbreak of war. This means that the types of lighting units will be those from before the war. There will in all probability be very keep competition with other production demands for the restricted amount of raw material available from which new lighting equipment will be have to be produced. Those engineers with foresight who have planned their requirements in readiness will be more favourably situated than others to palce orders and obtain deliveries.
Since the outbreak of war the only new source is the Electric Mercury Discharge Fluorescent Tubular Lamp, which has been used for decorative effects in street lighting abroad. No opportunity has been presented for trying it out here. There's no doubt it can be effectively employed for utilitarian street lighting when the opportunity arises.
The Final Report's recommendations will be incorporated in many reinstallation schemes. But there is a divergence of opinion as to the effectiveness of the visibility obtained by the adoption of these features, very strong opinions having been expressed in favour of entirely eliminating the glare from succeeding light sources in the field of view by advocates of "cut-off lighting". It is contended that any advantage obtained by increasing the background brightness by the methods advocated is discounted by the well-known fact that glare sources definitely depreciate the power to see - such glare has been defined as "light out of place."
The anti-glare system of lighting has been standardised in Liverpool for many years. It is in direct conflict with the principles that form the basis of the Final Report, yet it has proved vey successful during the time when the prevalence of road accidents was rising at an alarming rate all ove the country. It installed an improved "cut-off" system of street lighting on many miles of main thoroughfare. It is noteworthy that during a period of three years prior to 1939 only one accident was recorded.
The APLE Conference in 1937 (at Folkestone) demonstrated a variety of installations. Yet in the opinion of many unbiased observers, the tow installations of outstanding merit, both in comfort and clarity of vision, were the "cut-off" installations in Christ Church Road and Cheriton Gardens using Mercury Discharge lamps and Incandescent gas mantles respectively. These can be quoted with excellent service records in this country and abroad, provide evidence that there is no good ground for the condemnation of the "cut-off" system of lighting.
This condemnation appears to be entirely illogical for the Ministry Of Labour Departmental Committee on Lighting In Factories has condemned with no uncertain voice the deleterious effects of glare on the worker and his visual task, so much so that the exposure of light sources above certain angles of view, relatively similar to those at which street lighting equipment cuts off, is now prohibited by the Factory Acts, and it is reasonable to assume that glare will hae a least equal, if not greater, influence in street lighting where exposed sources offer a more intense contrast with their darker background than in a factory.
Finanical considerations regard the greatest possible contrast between objects on the ground and a brighter background as the principal economic aim, and to ignore the established fact that a low background brightness without glare is much more favourable condition. This revealing power is of paramount importance, yet we have nothing but the judgment of our lighting engineers to determine how well others can see.
It is regrettable that standardisation for street lighting should have been attempted before any satisfactory method has been devised to measure the effectiveness, and performance, under which it serves. We are far from reaching the stage in design and utilisation of equipment that one system is of sufficient outstanding merit to be solely selected for a standardisation that will be applied to a much wider field than main traffic routes. The allocation of a grant from a National Fund, conditional on the adoption of these recommendations, will be a strong discouragement to most authorities from those enterprising experiments and developments which have resulted in the past in the very remarkable progress made in this most essential of peace-time public services.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Distribution, Lighting: Specifications, Lighting: Theory

New Fittings For Fluorescent Tubes p36
A new series of trough reflector designed to mitigate the tunnel effect in lighting installations employing the 80W fluorescent tube has been produced by the GEC. The principles are
  • It has an open top, thus permitting the radiation of light in an upward direction.
  • The amount of steel used is considerably less than in previous models.
  • It is less expensive than its prototypes.
It is available in three forms. The F.16955 is fitted with a control unit consisting of an 80W open-type choke with 10V tappings and the starting switch and radio suppressor. These are arranged in one complete unit, housed on top of the reflector. The F.16954 is the same but also has a power factor correction condenser. The F.16956 includes the starter switch and radio suppressor only.
The reflector is fitted with two loops at 24" centres for suspension by chains. A small hook with a cleaning hole for ¾" conduit is also provided.
Lighting: Luminaires

Three Highway Lighting Systems p37
Maximum Revealing Efficiency has been the main principle in the design, production and installation of REVO Street Lighting Fittings. They're craeted to operate with all types of modern electric light sources.
These fittings effectively and economically provide the best possible control of light emitted in pre-determined directions, which will produce the maximum revealing power that can be obtained from the lumens employed in any of three main systems of lighting which experience has proved effective.
In pre-war street lighting the practice was to concentrate the light from the source, normally, into magnified beams in each direction along the highway by means of reflectors, refractors or both.
Semi cut-off: Efficiency is dependend on widespread beams limited to their extension along the horizontal surface of the highway, the concentrations from one source being considerably reduced where they extend beyond the space to the next unit in a series, to minimise glare and, at the same time, to illuminate the area between the units to the highest possible uniformity. Adjustment was provided to suit wider or closer spacing usually limited to not more than six times the height of the source.
Cut-off: A similar beam production and illumination result was aimed at except that longitudinal extension of the beams was reduced, the illumination value on a smaller area being higher, and within certain angles to the horizontal, light from the source was entirely cut off to suit predetermined spacing, ususally between three and five times the mounting height.
Non Cut-Off: Similar to Semi cut-off in beam production, except that the peak intensity was located more nearly approaching the horizontal, with the designed obejct of extending its influence along the highway to approximately four times the spacing to create bright areas of reflection on the more or less specularly reflecting surface of the road. It is claimed for this system that obejcts are in stronger contrast against the limited but brighter background. The avoidance of pronounced glare is safeguarded by a mounting height of 25 ft. and a limited peak intenstiy ratio.
(Units illustrated include the REVO C.6869, REVO C.10644 and REVO C.10782)
Lighting: Distribution, Lighting: Luminaires, Lighting: Theory

Post-War Lighting p38
The problems of Public Lighting Departments: some have no lighting; some have no staff; most have diminishing staff; where there is modified lighting, there are difficulties of labours and material; fuel-saving is bringing more difficulties.
Post-war lighting will come and bring other problems. The public will be crying out for instant light. It is suggested that preparations are made for Post-War Lighting and normal lighting plant and A.R.P. fitting maintenance.
Watch for corrosion and disrepair. Clean glassware at least once a year to prevent pitting by acid-containing dirt. Clean vitreous enamel, polished metal and other reflecting surfaces. Stop rust - so paint. Keep it gradual and steady.
If you have ARP/37 lighting then keep it in good order. For may need them longer than this winter. Keep your pre-war and post-war plant in trim.
Even one man in the street or at a test-bench can do much useful work.
Don't scrap poles or pillars. Protest, through the A.P.L.E. and other means, if an official demand is made for wholesale scrapping. There is no such demand yet. They will be needed to carry lights for a long time after the end of the war.
Consider how you would change over quickly from A.R.P. lighting or no lighting to more or less full lighting. Arrange how to do it.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Future, Lighting: Maintenance

Unmasking Traffic Signals p38
The question of unmasking automatic traffic light signals, in order to redner them of real service, especially through the day, is continually being brought to the notice of the Authorities. Includes a letter from M. P. Bregazzi (Borough Electrical Engineer of St. Helens) who argues for uniformity of mask and manual operation.
Lighting: ARP, Other

Scottish Lighting Service Bureau p38
The E.L.M.A. Lightign Service Bureau of Scotland came to Glasgow in 1925, but it wasn't until 1931, wen the rapid expansion of electrical development began in Scotland, that it was taken over by E.L.M.A. since when it has been a constant source of service and advice to engineers, contractors and kindred bodies.
The activities of the Bureau are modelled on the London Bureau and during the years before the war, no less than 800 lectures had been given to 45,000 people. Now, after 3 years of war, the demonstation rooms have been reconstructed to illustrate the various Factory Lighting Regulations.
In the comparatively small display space it is possible to show levels of illumination from fractions of a foot-candle up to very nearly 100 foot-candles, including an installation giving the mandatory minimum for factory lighting of 6 foot-candles. All forms of electric discharge and tungsten filament lamps are available.
The new exhibition opened on September 30th.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Lamps

Obituary p38
Obituary of Mr. A. J. McColgan, H. M. Deputy Senior Inspector of Factories. He took an active part in research work on several A.R.P. street lighting problems.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Personnel

Adverts: The General Electric Co., Ltd, William Sugg And Co., Ltd., Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd., Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd, British Commercial Gas Association, The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd., British, Foreign And Colonial Automatic Light Controlling Co., Ltd. and Engineering And Lighting Equipment Co. Ltd.