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ilp archive : journals

public lighting no. 28 vol. 8
January-March 1943

Editorial p7
"Lighten Our Darkness!" p7
This appeal cannot be repeated too often - it is heard from all districts and from all parts. Why should certain towns ignore the opportunity of installing star-light lighting? As far as the journal is concerned, it has been urged continually that for the safety of motorists and pedestrians, street lamps on main thoroughfares should be installed and lighted to the standard of ARP/37.
Lighting: ARP

Road Accidents In Black-Out p7
Statistics published by the Ministry Of War Transport are alarming. To what extent black-out is the cause is difficult to define. In Spetember-December 1942 "only 46% of fatalities occurred during the blackout." Only 46% during black-out when fewer people use the roads and when traffic is reduced. It is an improvement over similar periods: 67% (1939), 56% (1940) and 51% (1941) - but the "black-out" period is definitely a primary cause of fatal accidents. Anything which can be done to alleviate the road user's dread of journeying in totally blacked-out streets should be done, and done now.
Lighting: ARP, Statistics: Accident Data

Glasgow Conference p7
Mr. E. J. Stewart, M.A., B.Sc., President of the A.P.L.E., addressed a Joint Conference of Scottish Members of the A.P.L.E. and of the Scottish Centre of the I.E.S. Personal invitations addressed to local authorities in Scotland, were sent out by the A.P.L.E. and a large number of officials attended.
APLE: Conference

A.P.L.E. - Should Be The Authority p7
In most matters of local government administration definite rules and instructions are available. In the case of street lighting, such conditions do not exist. To a great extent each local authority is a power to itself in the detail of lighting the roadways within its boundaries. Such lighting may be good, or too good - and some is bad, or very bad.
This journal has emphasised the need for greater uniformity in street lighting, an opinion that is endorsed by lighting engineers from all parts of the country. The A.P.L.E. is becoming stronger each year in its membership. If that membership could embrace all lighting authorities in the country, then the Association, through the appropiate Government Department, could exercise its representation and its technical knowledge by enforcing the correct interpretation of the "Report On Street Lighting" and alterations as and when required.
If the A.P.L.E. is to be that voice of authority to whom all lighting engineers couid turn in order to solve their street lighting problems, it is necessary for each local authority to encourage their lighting engineer to apply for membership.
Lighting: Authority Organisation

Public And The Black-Out: Airdrie Action Dismissed p8
The pursuer sued the Burgh Of Airdrie for 750 damages for injuries he alleged he had sustained on December 5th, 1940, through falling on a pavement in Motherwell Street, Airdire, which was badly constructed and inadequately lit. The Sheriff who dismissed the action, said there is an extra duty upon pedestrians to exercise reasonable care in the black-out. Stating that the pavement was well constrructed and well lit in pre-war times, and that the black-out was the crux of the case, Sheriff Gillies said "It would not have been possible, when the black-out came into force, to light with some form of danger signal every rise and fall, every kerb, every baffle and obstruction, nor is it possible now. The pursuer has failed to prove that the defenders were in any way to blame for the accident which happened to them."
Sheriff Gillies finds that the pursuer had not exercised the extra care required for his own safety in the black-out, and as solely to blame for the accident.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Legal

Light The Crossings p8
Lord Justice Scott, in his judgement of Sparks vs. Ash Ltd., observed that the lighting arrangement for pedestrian crossings should be improved and the regulations generally revised. (In the early days of the war pressure was brought to bear on the authorities for some form of illumination to be provided for uncontrolled pedestrian crossings. Unfortunately the appeal met with little or no success).
Under existing lighting restrictions, ideas have been turned down. The time for this matter.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Legal

"Sieray" Fluorescent Tubes p8
"Seeing Under Natural Conditions" is the new brochure issued by Siemen's Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd. in which fluorescent tube fittings are illustrated. Three typical examples are illustrated. F9159 has an open top, allowing upward throw of light, and is constructed in lead-coated sheet steel, finished stoved-enamelled glossy white inside. F9163 is more rounded with a pleasing contour. F9160 is a high-class reflector, with the control gear housed under a cover, and can be suspended by chain or conduit.
Lighting: Luminaires

The Late Chas. H. Woodward (Past President 1938-1939) p9
Obituary of Chas. H. Woodward who was the Public Lighting and Electrical Engineer to the Bournemouth Corporation, for whom he worked for nearly forty years.
Lighting: Personnel

The Late W. Dundas p9
Obituary of W. Dundas who was the City Electrical Engineer of Bradford.
Lighting: Personnel

The Late Capt. H. G. Tingle, M.C. p9
Obituary of Capt. H. G. Tingle who was killed whilst on active service with Bomber Command of the R.A.F. Was a street lighting engineer in the Tyneside area.
Lighting: Personnel

The Late Tom Colquhoun p9
Obituary of Tom Colquhoun, son of J. F. Colquhoun, wo was killed whilst on active service with the R.A.F. He was a technical assistant with the General Electric Company in Sheffield.
Lighting: Personnel

Street Lighting After The War by D. G. Sandeman B.Sc., A.M.I.E.E p10
It is the difference in brightness between the object and its background which reveals its presence. If we wish to see clearly we must either keep our range low or work on a higher range with more striking constrasts. These two systems lead to two systems of public lighting: (1) Cut-off where all the light is indirect, and the eye should be able to adjust itself to a low range of working, a moonlight effect. It is a very fine idea but very disappointing in practice, as there are always stray beams of light from passing vehicles, shops, even someone lighting a cigarette. It also requires high powered lamps at close spacings. (2) The other system (non-cut-off) recognises the presence of bright beams of light and raises the silhouette contrast by increasing the surface brightness of the street. This compensates for having to work the eye on a higher range. (3) This method is a mixture of the two, the "controlled cut-off", whcih gives good visibility from selected viewpoints out of the main beams. It bears so little resemblance to true "cut off" lighting that it possesses neither the advantages or disadvantages. It processes a special disadvantage of its own in providing a bright recurring beam of light. The author believes that this is fatal to the system and there is no way of overcoming it. The best distribution is the one outlined by the writer in Public Lighting June 1936. For the distriubution curve, no matter where the observer is relative to the lamp, the eye range will be the same. The curve also produces a very bright street surface. And can also be reproduced from an entirely different consideration: to keep the reflection from the road surface constant.
Lighting: Distribution, Lighting: Theory

Conservation Of 5-ft Fluorescent Lamps p10
They must be conserved for work essential to the war effort. Members of the Electric lamp Manufacturers' Association have agreed to limit their sales of lamps for use in new lighting installations of an essential nature, or to replace lamps for existing installations. Wholesalers and resellers are requested to adopt a similar attitude.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Lamps

Preliminary Preparations For Full Street Lighting by E. J. Stewart, M.A., B.Sc. p11
Full report of a highly successful Conference held in Glasgow under the A.P.L.E. and I.E.S.

Post-war reconstruction is in the air: possibly too much so. People in the country tend to take victory for granted.

Overhaul And Preparation
Press reports that some local authorities are not discussing star-lighting, but preparing for speedy resumption of normal street lighting on cessation of hostilities.

No Rash Hopes
To suggest that we ought to try to be ready to resume full lighting could be helpful. We are not suggesting the war - or the black-out - will be over this year, or next year. I consider it dangerous to believe that full lighting will be authorised by next winter. Yet I should like to be in a position to resume it then. Even a month or two preparation will be enoguh time if no preliminary preparation and no overhaul or regular oversight of the pre-war plant has been carried out, everything left to put into order, men and materials both to seek.

Post-war Street Lighting
What kinds of lamps and fittings should be used in the years to come? Some possibilities are suggested in G. H. Wilson's paper last year to the Illuminating Engineering Society in London. These problems are not our theme. We are concerned with the first lighting after the black-out. This means practically putting back the lighting of the 31st August 1939.

Obviously More Light
What the public will expect wil be more light than prevailed in war-time. If that is provided in the quickest possible way, the something still better may be delayed until its form is finally decided.

Relighting, then, rather than new lighting, will be sought on removal of the black-out. Exceptions will be streets which require complete reconstruction. We will proceed with new lighting once the tradesmen return and other equipment is made available. For existing installations, the idea is that if the black-out was lifted tomorrow, then all the main thoroughfares could be relit that evening.

Preservation Of Existing Plant
The existing plant should not go to ruin. In Glasgow we have 90,000 lamps in stairs and 28,000 in streets which have been converted to A.R.P. lighting. In addition 4,000 lamps in stairs and 7,000 in streets have not been lit since before the war. We shall further be expected to light quickly about 12 miles of new streets with occupied houses where no poles have yet been erected. Removal of gas lanterns in certain towns saved many for the peace as well as helping the appearance and safety of the war-time street. The same applies to the removal of glassware from low-mounted electric fittings. High-mounted electric lanterns had less need to be removed.

Benefit From War Time Lighting
The proposals for relighting must be concerned with quick ways of changing from A.R.P. lighting to full lighting. This will time. Nevertheless, war-time lighting is of great benefit: it ensures the plant in the street is seen more or less regularly, it compels some attention to be given to the pre-war plant, it discovers defects in fittings, switchs etc. before they go too far for remedy, it keeps gas controllers moving, it may detect gas obstructions and cable faults, knock-downs and other accidents receive attention. In Glasgow alone, 870 cast-iron pillars have been knocked down and 31 steel poles damaged by vehicles since the war began.

Labour Difficulties
With A.R.P. street and stair lighting there is reason for keeping some workforce. Men are still going away, and when substitutes are obtainable they tend to be less satisfactory. If any labour can be kept to maintain the A.R.P. lighting then that labour is also available for maintenance to normal lighting plant.

The Immediate Aim
The man in the street will be ready to accept light which is simply brighter. So if we remove screens from the 1.7 cubic-ft gas burners and 15W filament lamps and replace them with 4-6 mantle burners and 100-300W lamps, then we will have achieved our immediate aim. So long as we can get the happy "feeling" of more light. For a time a bare 500W lamp would satisfy most folks. The use of rough-and-ready methods as a first stage will appeal if there is a minimum of time. Direct transition to complete pre war lighting may be made if more time is granted by announcement weeks before the ending of the black-out or if the end comes in summer.

Present Tasks
Details of items which should be given attention in pre-war lighting were given in the A.P.L.E.'s leaflet "Prepare NOW to Light Up Your Streets" and a useful article by Mr. Schofield. The short summary of the leaflet is:
Clean glass and reflecting surfaces
Grease parts that would corrode and 'stick'
Paint corrodible metal
Store parts not in use that would take harm if left in the streets
Overhaul and repair

Don't Scrap Poles
Elsewhere in the leaflet it states "Don't scrap poles or pillars." If the national situation became desperate then they might have to go but there's no demand yet. It would be a long time before new columns could take their place. About a sixth of them are carrying war-time lighting. And all have gas piping or cable, underground or overhead, which would need to be disconnected and sealed if the columns were removed.

Examine And Repair
Having examined all lanterns, fittings, columns, plant and stair lighting, have everything overhauled as thoroughly as possible, repaired where possible, missing parts restored where possible, and the fittings, burners, mantles, electric lamps, globes and the rest set aside ready for use in stores.

Stop Rust
This includes steel poles, brackets and clamps. Screws, nuts and nipple pipes may break when loosened. Other parts to watch are metal parts inside gas and electric lanterns.
The concrete poles erected in Glasgow in 1939 for test/demonstration have stood well.
Some local authorities have overhauled the chokes and transformers for discharge lighting.
Gas by-pass tubes and controllers would have to be greased otherwise they will jam tight.

Bad Condition
Bad condition of the reflectors does not interfere with relighting the full lamp. Porcelain generally suffers litte, vitreous enamel has proved its value although can be chipped, but plated steel, aluminium and paint tarnish and are difficult to bring up again. Square lanterns left on columns probably have broken panes, defective burners and broken clay nozzles. Mantles still have to be fitted.
In general, the most common defects found have been missing screws and immovable parts.

One of the most used ways of keeping down rust. The difficulties of labour and materials for painting are great. Glasgow used aluminium paint on lanterns and gas burners and other items - this is now unavailable - so green and grey paints are used.

Records And Instructions
They show what fitting was used pre-war, and where it is now, and where its accompaniments are. Especially important if post-war personel are different from pre-war. Trials for relighting from none, or conversion from war-time lighting, can be done during the day.

Good Maintenance
We are just now concerned with correcting faults and deteriorations. However necessary labour cannot be obtained or spared. So, when the provision of labour in some towns for even the minimum of duties to light street lamps, or keep them lit, is the result that no war-time lighting is provided; while in others it is difficult to carry out more than these duties. And the securing of suitabel workers at, and after reversion to full lighting, will also be a problem, since the previous ones may still be held in the Forces or on national work.

Material Not Obtainable
Material is the other great difficulty. The firms who used to cater for public lighting are on Government work. In Glasgow, we have been able to make for ourselves some parts not otherwise obtainable. Some departments have preserved high wattage electric lamps taken down at the beginning of the war, but they have probably burned up to 600 hours, and further use may be erratic. New higher wattage filament lamps and discharge lamps can be obtained.

Glasgow Overhaul
This includes the systematic overhaul of street and stair lighting, both modified and normal, which has been undertaken since the compleition of the war-time lighting. It was carried through as quickly as short staffing and work on civil defence signs permitted.

Glasgow Report On Relighting
This is a report called "Immediate Post-War Relighting Arrangements" submitted by Mr. Hale of the Glasgow Testing Section. "There will be an instant demand for light, which would need to be satisfied, if only for reasons of public safety. The rate at which relighting to full peace-time standards is likely to progress will depend, on: "
(1) Staff: Shortage of labour will slow relighting. Additional labour will not be as skilled, especailly when dealing with gas lamps.
(2) Materials: All stocks of materials, new or partly used, should be made available to complete the essential requirements.
(3) Transport: It may be necessary to hire extra vehicles so that the wagons can be fully utilised on the actual job.
(4) Government Restrictions: It is not likely these will be unconditionally relaxed immediately after an armistice and this applies especially to fuel control. To prevent sudden increases in load, the public demand for more light would be met - at least for a few weeks - by reverting to normal in the main streets only.

Work Immediately After Relaxation Of Restrictions
I may comment here that lighting of common stairs is important in Scotland. In Glasgow experience demand is greater there than the streets. Coloured electric lamps may be scraped or changed for the pearl lamp of the wattage used before the war - if available.

Street Lighting - Electric
There are the high-mounted types of A.R.P. fitting, including those with rigid adaptor and those having disc mounting with flexible adaptor. Fittings in these groups can easily be removed and replaced by lamps, no rewiring being necessary. Streets requiring "priority" treatment e.g. in the central area and main roads, should be dealt with separately. At first, new lamps should be fitted, to reduce as far as possible the number of casualties during the first few weeks of the transition period. For discharge lanterns, filament lamps would firstly be used for full lighting.
Next are the low-mounted types with nipple fixing. The most expeditious temporary method would be to remove the bottoms of the fittings and replace the 15W lamp by a 40-60W lamp. Polar curves show that these easy means of adaptation provide a good distribution for light on the ground.

Later Work
For Stair-lighting, no further changes would be necessary except to absorb stocks of used and new 15W pearl lamps before fitting the standard 25W.
Gas street lighting would require the total removal of war-time burners and the fitting of our normal horizontal 3- or 4-light burners. Arrangements are in hand for the overhaul and checking of all the governors.
For electric street lighting, it is suggested that partly used lamps, removed at the outbreak of war, can be fitted in high-mounted units. Glassware should now be fitted. In low-mounted units, final conversion to the original fittings would be carried out.

Arrangements Now
This is nine suggestions for immediate attention on the lines already shown, including preparation of the workshops, trials of conversion, preparation of priority lists of streets, and discussions with the lamplighters' superintendents and tradesmen's foremen.

Stocks for Relighting
This includes disposal of A.R.P. Equipment and plans for re-glazing and re-fitting in the street.

Traffic Signs
Illuminated traffic signs will need to brighter after black-out ends. During the war, only 15W neutral-sprayed lamps were fitted in some of the holders, with external hoods or louvres. All hoods would have to be removd and the lamps altered to pre-war wattages, and all holders occupied.

Traffic Signals
The lamps of pre-war type and wattage have been maintained throughout the war. All that is required will be the removal of the masks. Complaint about difficulty of seeing masked signals has been in daytime. For that, the removal will be welcome.

A.R.P. Signs
What is to be done with the shelter, first aid post etc., illuminated signs. Some might be used for revealing street names at night. Some might be adapted as traffic signs. Some might advertise municipal activities.

New Streets
The ligthing of the formed but unlit new streets will next demand attention. There will be a pre-war poliy for gas or electricity. We ought to follow the recommendations of the Final Report of the Ministry Of Transport and to allow for easy improvement. If the materials cannot be obtained after the war, it may be necessary to put up something else that will give light.

Limitation Of Lighting
Restriction of the use of fuel for a year, or years, may limit comsumption per lamp, or number of lamps lit, our hours burning. The war-time lighting has encouraged, and public criticism has compelled, extinguishing in summer and on moonlit nights even in towns. Shall we tend, for a time, to continue the extinguishing practices? Certain pre-war side-street installations had little effect in June or in moonlight.

Another war-time effect on public lighting which is likely to remain and to extend is Government intervention. At a recent meeting in London of the IES, the general view, according to one reporter, appeared to be that the only early legislation on lighting to be expected was for street-lighting.

Financial Provision
Lighting authorities ought, if at all possible, to allow some expenditure in war-time on maintenance of the existing plant. Lighting authorities have to cover the sudden costs of mass relighting, and if left to accumulate, the mass re-conditioning, also the increased costs of maintaining the re-lit lamps. And there will be the cost of the new lighting in housing schemes completed just before or during the war, or to be completed in the great housebuilding rush soon after. There is also the needless expenditure on new installations in raided areas. There may, however, be difficulty in getting estimates through, sufficient to put street lighting back, with councillors who compare the war-time lighting budget and who are faced with demands for increased services and costs in other departments.

More And Better Light
The demand for greater illumination than prevailed before the war, the feeling for a need for it, will certainly grow.

Mr. J. Dickson (Kirkintilloch): Much lighting equipment was in a dilapidated condition as it hung in the streets. Still, something had been suggested at the meeting that might put them in a better position.
Mr. T. M. Climie (Falkirk): Asked what Mr. Stewart would do with the 870 pillars knocked down, why hee had not forestalled the knock-downs by removing the pillars, and whether he would advise, in adopting central control, to apply it to electric lighting only or to both gas and electric lighting. Reply: New pillars had been erected in place of knock-downs at the more important points from the stock in the department, and that the department had kept all the pillars possible in the streets as being mostly needed for war-time lighting. As regards central control, it was arranged for Glasgow in 1939, but policy was for electric lighting only.
Bailie-McCubbin (Kilmarknock): There was pressure-wave control of the gas lighting while all electric lamps were controlled from the Police Station. He did not see why there should not have full street lighting when there was central-control for extinguishing. Reply: This had been proposed to the Government before the war but the Government were against it.
Mr. R. Parker (Aberdeen): Star-lighting was not permitted in his city. In his city, it would be all lighting or none. It was simple to restore to pre-war status. The A.P.L.E. and I.E.S. ought to approach the proper Government Departments before the end of the European war and get from the Government a decided statement to its policy on the degree of street lighting to be given. Otherwise some cities might give full lighting and adjacent areas no lighting. Reply: He would bring up the suggestion before the council.
Mr. C. McL. Bodie (Stewarton): Would should be done in the case of shackle-type A.R.P. electric fittings where the original leads had been cut out. What if the electricians were not available?
Mr. A. MacGregor (Glasgow): There was difficulty getting skileld labour to put in order the control gear of mercury and sodium lamps.
Mr. H. J. Roberts (Greenock): In his town, the transformers and condensers of sodium lamps which had been left in the streets were going to be taken into stores for protection. In most cases, the trouble was that the condensers had broken down. The transformers would be stoved to dry out the coils.
Mr. W. D. Brassington (Motherwell): He would like information from the manufacturers' representative as to developments of research for street lighting after the war. Their concrete columns were performing well without blemishes.
Mr. T. M. Lappin (Dundee): Main factors in getting back to full lighting would be availability of maerial from manufacturers and the generosity of town treasurers. He represented an authority where no war-time lighting existed. They had treid, as far as labour was available, to get the plant checked up as well as possible. The number of choked gas services was remarkable. Some had been cleared, but a proportion remained, requiring ground openings - these would have to wait until after the war. The situation was similar on the electrical side.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Control, Lighting: Future, Lighting: Maintenance and Lighting: Management.

It May Not Be So Long Now! p16
Day and night pictures of a pre-war installation in Hoylake.
Lighting: Installations

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