ilp archive : journals
public lighting no. 28 vol. 8
- Editorial p7
- "Lighten Our Darkness!" p7
- This appeal cannot be repeated too often - it is heard from all districts and from all parts. Why should certain towns
ignore the opportunity of installing star-light lighting? As far as the journal is concerned, it has been urged
continually that for the safety of motorists and pedestrians, street lamps on main thoroughfares should be installed and
lighted to the standard of ARP/37.
- Lighting: ARP
- Road Accidents In Black-Out p7
- Statistics published by the Ministry Of War Transport are alarming. To what extent black-out is the cause is
difficult to define. In Spetember-December 1942 "only 46% of fatalities occurred during the blackout." Only
46% during black-out when fewer people use the roads and when traffic is reduced. It is an improvement over similar periods:
67% (1939), 56% (1940) and 51% (1941) - but the "black-out" period is definitely a primary cause of fatal accidents.
Anything which can be done to alleviate the road user's dread of journeying in totally blacked-out streets should be done,
and done now.
- Lighting: ARP, Statistics: Accident Data
- Glasgow Conference p7
- Mr. E. J. Stewart, M.A., B.Sc., President of the A.P.L.E., addressed a Joint Conference of Scottish Members
of the A.P.L.E. and of the Scottish Centre of the I.E.S. Personal invitations addressed to local authorities in Scotland,
were sent out by the A.P.L.E. and a large number of officials attended.
- APLE: Conference
- A.P.L.E. - Should Be The Authority p7
- In most matters of local government administration definite rules and instructions are available. In the case of
street lighting, such conditions do not exist. To a great extent each local authority is a power to itself
in the detail of lighting the roadways within its boundaries. Such lighting may be good, or too good - and some is
bad, or very bad.
- This journal has emphasised the need for greater uniformity in street lighting, an opinion that is endorsed by
lighting engineers from all parts of the country. The A.P.L.E. is becoming stronger each year in its membership.
If that membership could embrace all lighting authorities in the country, then the Association, through the appropiate
Government Department, could exercise its representation and its technical knowledge by enforcing the correct interpretation
of the "Report On Street Lighting" and alterations as and when required.
- If the A.P.L.E. is to be that voice of authority to whom all lighting engineers couid turn in order to
solve their street lighting problems, it is necessary for each local authority to encourage their lighting engineer to
apply for membership.
- Lighting: Authority Organisation
- Public And The Black-Out: Airdrie Action Dismissed p8
- The pursuer sued the Burgh Of Airdrie for 750 damages for injuries he alleged he had sustained on December 5th, 1940,
through falling on a pavement in Motherwell Street, Airdire, which was badly constructed and inadequately lit. The Sheriff who
dismissed the action, said there is an extra duty upon pedestrians to exercise reasonable care in the black-out. Stating
that the pavement was well constrructed and well lit in pre-war times, and that the black-out was the crux of the case,
Sheriff Gillies said "It would not have been possible, when the black-out came into force, to light with some form of danger signal
every rise and fall, every kerb, every baffle and obstruction, nor is it possible now. The pursuer has failed to prove that the defenders
were in any way to blame for the accident which happened to them."
- Sheriff Gillies finds that the pursuer had not exercised the extra care required for his own safety in the black-out, and
as solely to blame for the accident.
- Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Legal
- Light The Crossings p8
- Lord Justice Scott, in his judgement of Sparks vs. Ash Ltd., observed that the lighting arrangement for
pedestrian crossings should be improved and the regulations generally revised. (In the early days of the war pressure was
brought to bear on the authorities for some form of illumination to be provided for uncontrolled pedestrian crossings. Unfortunately
the appeal met with little or no success).
- Under existing lighting restrictions, ideas have been turned down. The time for this matter.
- Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Legal
- "Sieray" Fluorescent Tubes p8
- "Seeing Under Natural Conditions" is the new brochure issued by Siemen's Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd. in which
fluorescent tube fittings are illustrated. Three typical examples are illustrated. F9159 has an open top, allowing upward
throw of light, and is constructed in lead-coated sheet steel, finished stoved-enamelled glossy white inside. F9163 is
more rounded with a pleasing contour. F9160 is a high-class reflector, with the control gear housed under a cover,
and can be suspended by chain or conduit.
- Lighting: Luminaires
- The Late Chas. H. Woodward (Past President 1938-1939) p9
- Obituary of Chas. H. Woodward who was the Public Lighting and Electrical Engineer to the Bournemouth Corporation, for whom
he worked for nearly forty years.
- Lighting: Personnel
- The Late W. Dundas p9
- Obituary of W. Dundas who was the City Electrical Engineer of Bradford.
- Lighting: Personnel
- The Late Capt. H. G. Tingle, M.C. p9
- Obituary of Capt. H. G. Tingle who was killed whilst on active service with Bomber Command of the R.A.F. Was a street
lighting engineer in the Tyneside area.
- Lighting: Personnel
- The Late Tom Colquhoun p9
- Obituary of Tom Colquhoun, son of J. F. Colquhoun, wo was killed whilst on active service with the R.A.F. He
was a technical assistant with the General Electric Company in Sheffield.
- Lighting: Personnel
- Street Lighting After The War by D. G. Sandeman B.Sc., A.M.I.E.E p10
- It is the difference in brightness between the object and its background which reveals its presence. If we wish
to see clearly we must either keep our range low or work on a higher range with more striking constrasts. These two
systems lead to two systems of public lighting: (1) Cut-off where all the light is indirect, and the eye should be able to
adjust itself to a low range of working, a moonlight effect. It is a very fine idea but very disappointing in practice,
as there are always stray beams of light from passing vehicles, shops, even someone lighting a cigarette. It also requires
high powered lamps at close spacings. (2) The other system (non-cut-off) recognises the presence of bright beams of light
and raises the silhouette contrast by increasing the surface brightness of the street. This compensates for having to
work the eye on a higher range. (3) This method is a mixture of the two, the "controlled cut-off", whcih gives good
visibility from selected viewpoints out of the main beams. It bears so little resemblance to true "cut off" lighting
that it possesses neither the advantages or disadvantages. It processes a special disadvantage of its own in providing
a bright recurring beam of light. The author believes that this is fatal to the system and there is no way of overcoming
it. The best distribution is the one outlined by the writer in Public Lighting June 1936. For the
distriubution curve, no matter where the observer is relative to the lamp, the eye range will be the same. The curve also
produces a very bright street surface. And can also be reproduced from an entirely different consideration: to keep the
reflection from the road surface constant.
- Lighting: Distribution, Lighting: Theory
- Conservation Of 5-ft Fluorescent Lamps p10
- They must be conserved for work essential to the war effort. Members of the Electric lamp Manufacturers' Association
have agreed to limit their sales of lamps for use in new lighting installations of an essential nature, or to replace lamps
for existing installations. Wholesalers and resellers are requested to adopt a similar attitude.
- Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Lamps
- Preliminary Preparations For Full Street Lighting by E. J. Stewart, M.A., B.Sc. p11
- Full report of a highly successful Conference held in Glasgow under the A.P.L.E. and I.E.S.
- Post-war reconstruction is in the air: possibly too much so. People in the country tend to take victory for granted.
- Overhaul And Preparation
- Press reports that some local authorities are not discussing star-lighting, but preparing for speedy resumption of
normal street lighting on cessation of hostilities.
- No Rash Hopes
- To suggest that we ought to try to be ready to resume full lighting could be helpful. We are not suggesting the war - or
the black-out - will be over this year, or next year. I consider it dangerous to believe that full lighting will be authorised by next
winter. Yet I should like to be in a position to resume it then. Even a month or two preparation will be enoguh time if no preliminary
preparation and no overhaul or regular oversight of the pre-war plant has been carried out, everything left to put into order,
men and materials both to seek.
- Post-war Street Lighting
- What kinds of lamps and fittings should be used in the years to come? Some possibilities are suggested in
G. H. Wilson's paper last year to the Illuminating Engineering Society in London. These problems are not our theme. We
are concerned with the first lighting after the black-out. This means practically putting back the lighting of the 31st August 1939.
- Obviously More Light
- What the public will expect wil be more light than prevailed in war-time. If that is provided in the quickest possible way,
the something still better may be delayed until its form is finally decided.
- Relighting, then, rather than new lighting, will be sought on removal of the black-out. Exceptions will
be streets which require complete reconstruction. We will proceed with new lighting once the tradesmen return
and other equipment is made available. For existing installations, the idea is that if the black-out was lifted
tomorrow, then all the main thoroughfares could be relit that evening.
- Preservation Of Existing Plant
- The existing plant should not go to ruin. In Glasgow we have 90,000 lamps in stairs and 28,000 in streets
which have been converted to A.R.P. lighting. In addition 4,000 lamps in stairs and 7,000 in streets have not
been lit since before the war. We shall further be expected to light quickly about 12 miles of new streets
with occupied houses where no poles have yet been erected. Removal of gas lanterns in certain towns
saved many for the peace as well as helping the appearance and safety of the war-time street. The same applies
to the removal of glassware from low-mounted electric fittings. High-mounted electric lanterns had less
need to be removed.
- Benefit From War Time Lighting
- The proposals for relighting must be concerned with quick ways of changing from A.R.P. lighting to
full lighting. This will time. Nevertheless, war-time lighting is of great benefit: it ensures the plant in
the street is seen more or less regularly, it compels some attention to be given to the pre-war plant, it discovers
defects in fittings, switchs etc. before they go too far for remedy, it keeps gas controllers moving, it may detect
gas obstructions and cable faults, knock-downs and other accidents receive attention. In Glasgow alone,
870 cast-iron pillars have been knocked down and 31 steel poles damaged by vehicles since the war began.
- Labour Difficulties
- With A.R.P. street and stair lighting there is reason for keeping some workforce. Men are still going away,
and when substitutes are obtainable they tend to be less satisfactory. If any labour can be kept to maintain the
A.R.P. lighting then that labour is also available for maintenance to normal lighting plant.
- The Immediate Aim
- The man in the street will be ready to accept light which is simply brighter. So if we remove screens from the 1.7
cubic-ft gas burners and 15W filament lamps and replace them with 4-6 mantle burners and 100-300W lamps, then we will
have achieved our immediate aim. So long as we can get the happy "feeling" of more light. For a time a bare 500W lamp
would satisfy most folks. The use of rough-and-ready methods as a first stage will appeal if there is a minimum of time.
Direct transition to complete pre war lighting may be made if more time is granted by announcement weeks before the ending of
the black-out or if the end comes in summer.
- Present Tasks
- Details of items which should be given attention in pre-war lighting were given in the A.P.L.E.'s leaflet
"Prepare NOW to Light Up Your Streets" and a useful article by Mr. Schofield. The short summary
of the leaflet is:
- Clean glass and reflecting surfaces
- Grease parts that would corrode and 'stick'
- Paint corrodible metal
- Store parts not in use that would take harm if left in the streets
- Overhaul and repair
- Don't Scrap Poles
- Elsewhere in the leaflet it states "Don't scrap poles or pillars." If the national situation became desperate then they might
have to go but there's no demand yet. It would be a long time before new columns could take their place. About a sixth of them
are carrying war-time lighting. And all have gas piping or cable, underground or overhead, which would need to be disconnected
and sealed if the columns were removed.
- Examine And Repair
- Having examined all lanterns, fittings, columns, plant and stair lighting, have everything overhauled as thoroughly as possible,
repaired where possible, missing parts restored where possible, and the fittings, burners, mantles, electric lamps, globes and the
rest set aside ready for use in stores.
- Stop Rust
- This includes steel poles, brackets and clamps. Screws, nuts and nipple pipes may break when loosened. Other parts to watch
are metal parts inside gas and electric lanterns.
- The concrete poles erected in Glasgow in 1939 for test/demonstration have stood well.
- Some local authorities have overhauled the chokes and transformers for discharge lighting.
- Gas by-pass tubes and controllers would have to be greased otherwise they will jam tight.
- Bad Condition
- Bad condition of the reflectors does not interfere with relighting the full lamp. Porcelain generally suffers litte,
vitreous enamel has proved its value although can be chipped, but plated steel, aluminium and paint tarnish and are difficult to
bring up again. Square lanterns left on columns probably have broken panes, defective burners and broken clay nozzles. Mantles still
have to be fitted.
- In general, the most common defects found have been missing screws and immovable parts.
- One of the most used ways of keeping down rust. The difficulties of labour and materials for painting are great.
Glasgow used aluminium paint on lanterns and gas burners and other items - this is now unavailable - so green and grey
paints are used.
- Records And Instructions
- They show what fitting was used pre-war, and where it is now, and where its accompaniments are. Especially important
if post-war personel are different from pre-war. Trials for relighting from none, or conversion from war-time lighting,
can be done during the day.
- Good Maintenance
- We are just now concerned with correcting faults and deteriorations. However necessary labour cannot be obtained or
spared. So, when the provision of labour in some towns for even the minimum of duties to light street lamps, or keep
them lit, is the result that no war-time lighting is provided; while in others it is difficult to carry out more than these
duties. And the securing of suitabel workers at, and after reversion to full lighting, will also be a problem, since
the previous ones may still be held in the Forces or on national work.
- Material Not Obtainable
- Material is the other great difficulty. The firms who used to cater for public lighting are on Government work.
In Glasgow, we have been able to make for ourselves some parts not otherwise obtainable. Some departments
have preserved high wattage electric lamps taken down at the beginning of the war, but they have probably burned up to 600
hours, and further use may be erratic. New higher wattage filament lamps and discharge lamps can be obtained.
- Glasgow Overhaul
- This includes the systematic overhaul of street and stair lighting, both modified and normal, which has been undertaken since
the compleition of the war-time lighting. It was carried through as quickly as short staffing and work on civil defence signs
- Glasgow Report On Relighting
- This is a report called "Immediate Post-War Relighting Arrangements" submitted by Mr. Hale of the Glasgow Testing
Section. "There will be an instant demand for light, which would need to be satisfied, if only for reasons of public
safety. The rate at which relighting to full peace-time standards is likely to progress will depend, on: "
- (1) Staff: Shortage of labour will slow relighting. Additional labour will not be as skilled, especailly when dealing
with gas lamps.
- (2) Materials: All stocks of materials, new or partly used, should be made available to complete the essential requirements.
- (3) Transport: It may be necessary to hire extra vehicles so that the wagons can be fully utilised on the actual job.
- (4) Government Restrictions: It is not likely these will be unconditionally relaxed immediately after an armistice
and this applies especially to fuel control. To prevent sudden increases in load, the public demand for more light would
be met - at least for a few weeks - by reverting to normal in the main streets only.
- Work Immediately After Relaxation Of Restrictions
- I may comment here that lighting of common stairs is important in Scotland. In Glasgow
experience demand is greater there than the streets. Coloured electric lamps may be scraped or
changed for the pearl lamp of the wattage used before the war - if available.
- Street Lighting - Electric
- There are the high-mounted types of A.R.P. fitting, including those with rigid adaptor
and those having disc mounting with flexible adaptor. Fittings in these groups can easily be removed
and replaced by lamps, no rewiring being necessary. Streets requiring "priority" treatment e.g.
in the central area and main roads, should be dealt with separately. At first, new lamps should
be fitted, to reduce as far as possible the number of casualties during the first few weeks of the
transition period. For discharge lanterns, filament lamps would firstly be used for full lighting.
- Next are the low-mounted types with nipple fixing. The most expeditious temporary method
would be to remove the bottoms of the fittings and replace the 15W lamp by a 40-60W lamp. Polar
curves show that these easy means of adaptation provide a good distribution for light on the ground.
- Later Work
- For Stair-lighting, no further changes would be necessary except to absorb stocks of used and new
15W pearl lamps before fitting the standard 25W.
- Gas street lighting would require the total removal of war-time burners and the fitting of our normal
horizontal 3- or 4-light burners. Arrangements are in hand for the overhaul and checking of all the
- For electric street lighting, it is suggested that partly used lamps, removed at the outbreak of war,
can be fitted in high-mounted units. Glassware should now be fitted. In low-mounted units, final conversion
to the original fittings would be carried out.
- Arrangements Now
- This is nine suggestions for immediate attention on the lines already shown, including preparation of
the workshops, trials of conversion, preparation of priority lists of streets, and discussions with the
lamplighters' superintendents and tradesmen's foremen.
- Stocks for Relighting
- This includes disposal of A.R.P. Equipment and plans for re-glazing and re-fitting in the street.
- Traffic Signs
- Illuminated traffic signs will need to brighter after black-out ends. During the war, only 15W
neutral-sprayed lamps were fitted in some of the holders, with external hoods or louvres. All hoods would
have to be removd and the lamps altered to pre-war wattages, and all holders occupied.
- Traffic Signals
- The lamps of pre-war type and wattage have been maintained throughout the war. All that is required
will be the removal of the masks. Complaint about difficulty of seeing masked signals has been in daytime.
For that, the removal will be welcome.
- A.R.P. Signs
- What is to be done with the shelter, first aid post etc., illuminated signs. Some might be used for
revealing street names at night. Some might be adapted as traffic signs. Some might advertise municipal
- New Streets
- The ligthing of the formed but unlit new streets will next demand attention. There will be a pre-war
poliy for gas or electricity. We ought to follow the recommendations of the Final Report of the Ministry Of
Transport and to allow for easy improvement. If the materials cannot be obtained after the war, it may be
necessary to put up something else that will give light.
- Limitation Of Lighting
- Restriction of the use of fuel for a year, or years, may limit comsumption per lamp, or number of lamps
lit, our hours burning. The war-time lighting has encouraged, and public criticism has compelled, extinguishing
in summer and on moonlit nights even in towns. Shall we tend, for a time, to continue the extinguishing
practices? Certain pre-war side-street installations had little effect in June or in moonlight.
- Another war-time effect on public lighting which is likely to remain and to extend is Government
intervention. At a recent meeting in London of the IES, the general view, according to one reporter,
appeared to be that the only early legislation on lighting to be expected was for street-lighting.
- Financial Provision
- Lighting authorities ought, if at all possible, to allow some expenditure in war-time on maintenance of
the existing plant. Lighting authorities have to cover the sudden costs of mass relighting, and if left
to accumulate, the mass re-conditioning, also the increased costs of maintaining the re-lit lamps.
And there will be the cost of the new lighting in housing schemes completed just before or during the war,
or to be completed in the great housebuilding rush soon after. There is also the needless expenditure on new
installations in raided areas. There may, however, be difficulty in getting estimates through, sufficient to
put street lighting back, with councillors who compare the war-time lighting budget and who are faced with
demands for increased services and costs in other departments.
- More And Better Light
- The demand for greater illumination than prevailed before the war, the feeling for a need for it, will
- Mr. J. Dickson (Kirkintilloch): Much lighting equipment was in a dilapidated condition as it hung
in the streets. Still, something had been suggested at the meeting that might put them in a better position.
- Mr. T. M. Climie (Falkirk): Asked what Mr. Stewart would do with the 870 pillars knocked down,
why hee had not forestalled the knock-downs by removing the pillars, and whether he would advise, in adopting
central control, to apply it to electric lighting only or to both gas and electric lighting.
Reply: New pillars had been erected in place of knock-downs at the more important points from the
stock in the department, and that the department had kept all the pillars possible in the streets as being
mostly needed for war-time lighting. As regards central control, it was arranged for Glasgow in 1939,
but policy was for electric lighting only.
- Bailie-McCubbin (Kilmarknock): There was pressure-wave control of the gas lighting while all electric
lamps were controlled from the Police Station. He did not see why there should not have full street lighting
when there was central-control for extinguishing. Reply: This had been proposed to the Government before
the war but the Government were against it.
- Mr. R. Parker (Aberdeen): Star-lighting was not permitted in his city. In his city, it would be
all lighting or none. It was simple to restore to pre-war status. The A.P.L.E. and I.E.S. ought to approach the
proper Government Departments before the end of the European war and get from the Government a decided statement
to its policy on the degree of street lighting to be given. Otherwise some cities might give full lighting and
adjacent areas no lighting. Reply: He would bring up the suggestion before the council.
- Mr. C. McL. Bodie (Stewarton): Would should be done in the case of shackle-type A.R.P. electric
fittings where the original leads had been cut out. What if the electricians were not available?
- Mr. A. MacGregor (Glasgow): There was difficulty getting skileld labour to put in order the control
gear of mercury and sodium lamps.
- Mr. H. J. Roberts (Greenock): In his town, the transformers and condensers of sodium lamps which had
been left in the streets were going to be taken into stores for protection. In most cases, the trouble was that
the condensers had broken down. The transformers would be stoved to dry out the coils.
- Mr. W. D. Brassington (Motherwell): He would like information from the manufacturers' representative
as to developments of research for street lighting after the war. Their concrete columns were performing well
- Mr. T. M. Lappin (Dundee): Main factors in getting back to full lighting would be availability of
maerial from manufacturers and the generosity of town treasurers. He represented an authority where no war-time
lighting existed. They had treid, as far as labour was available, to get the plant checked up as well as possible.
The number of choked gas services was remarkable. Some had been cleared, but a proportion remained, requiring
ground openings - these would have to wait until after the war. The situation was similar on the electrical
Lighting: Maintenance and
- It May Not Be So Long Now! p16
- Day and night pictures of a pre-war installation in Hoylake.
- Lighting: Installations
The General Electric Co., Ltd,
William Sugg And Co., Ltd.,
Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd.,
Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd,
Engineering And Lighting Equipment Co. Ltd.,
Philips Lamps Ltd.,
British Commercial Gas Association,
The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd.,
British, Foreign And Colonial Automatic Light Controlling Co., Ltd.,
Hobbs. Offen And Co. Ltd. and