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ilp archive : journals

public lighting no. 34 vol. 9
July-September 1944

Editorial p69
Fiat Lux p69
"The dawn is breaking." "Victory in sight." "The lights go on." Recent headlines. The day is not far off when every restriction will be removed. This journal has never ceased to urge lighting engineers to be ready and prepared for relighting. The leaflet, "Prepare Now To Light Up Your Streets", issued by the A.P.L.E., was sent to every lighting authority in the country.
Lighting: ARP

Prepare For Full Lighting p69
With the concessions issued by the Home Office, and which came into operation on September 17th, limitations are placed on many lighting installations. The alterations to ARP/37 war-time fittings to give greater output of illumination will not be diffiuclt or expensive. It is possible that pre-war installations can be adjusted and screened with paint to give the increased, yet still modified, lighting. All these methods are encouraged, providing no great expense is involved or much labour employed. It is of the opinion of this journal that no consideration should be given to purchasing new, low-powered light fittings - wait for the total removal of all restrictions. It won't be long. If fittings have been stored, get them out and placed in position now. If installations have been damaged, apply now for replacements. Test your lighting just before official black-out time. Be ready for the great "light up."
Lighting: ARP

London Must Wait p69
London and the South of England must remain in darkness or "starlight." It is possible thata badly beaten enemy may have a last and cruel fling. It will be for a short time only.
Lighting: ARP

New Equipment p69
It is quite conceivable that many lighting engineers are waiting in anticipation of new developments in both lamps and fittings, which have been a guarded secret to be made available after the war. This is not the case. There will be, in due time, several improvements in street lighting, but for some time to come, manufacturers will be occupied in changing over their factories from war-time production to their normal class of work. Nothing startling and new will, therefore, be forthcoming in the immediate post-war period. Lamps and equipment of pre-war design will again make their appearance.
Lighting: ARP

Consideration Needed p70
When black-out ends, it is anticpated there will be a rush of orders to manufacturers for all kinds of replacements and renewals. All lighting engineers will want their needs to be supplied at once. Be considerate. However, it is obvious that delays - perhaps long delays - will occur. Therefore orders should be placed as early as possible.
Lighting: ARP

Public Works Congress And Exhibition p70
The Council are confident that the Congress and Exhibition can play an important part in repair, rebuilding, improvements and other opportunities. They are holding themselves in readiness to make the necessary arrangements as soon as the time arrives.

Personal p70
The Lighting Service Bureau p70
Mr. E. B. Sawyer is Acting Manager in succession to the late Mr. H Lingard. He had also been active in the industrial lighting field with a connection to the National Industrial Electric Lighting Service
Lighting: Personnel

The Late Mr. John P. Blackmore p70
Mr. John P. Blackmore was a member of the A.P.L.E. and formerly the public lighting engineer of Bombay.
Lighting: Personnel

Louis Agius, M.B.E. p70
A member of the A.P.L.E., Agius was the lighting engineer in Malta, and is now in charge of the demolition and clearance work. Included is a letter he wrote the A.P.L.E..
Lighting: Personnel

Development - Some Useful Considerations For Post-War Activity p71
There are certain post-war developments that will be worth investigation. When the lighting restrictions are lifted, the first job will be a resumption of lighting as nearly as possible as it was in 1939. Relighting requires special attention and wise authorities will have assured that work will proceed speedily and with no interruption.
New installations will be required in bomb damaged areas but extensions will be deferred until after relighting is complete. Probably a shortage of equipment will limit the amount of new work for many months.
During this time, preparations for rebuilding and rehousing will be made, and many miles of new roadway will require lighting. So once the first rush of relighting is over, a second phase of extending the lighting service to new schemes will follow.

Uniform Street Lighting
Perhaps the main requirement of post-war development will be a movement towards a unified practice throughout the country. A foundation has been made with the MOT Report and a forthcoming British Standards. But the lack of uniformity has been frequently commented upon since the first report by the MOT. Whether uniformity can best be achieved locally or by central authority has been discussed but some rearrangement of responsibility is desired. Rural areas cannot support the lighting of miles of roadway constructed mainly for the use of inhabitants of large cities.
In any one stretch of roadway, it will be necessary to ensure that colour, mounting height, illumination levels, glare characteristics and siting do not vary in such a way as to cause danger or inconvenience to passengers. Illuminated traffic signs on these roads and in cities should certainly receive some attention. Incidental lights, such as vehicle headlamps, advertisement signs and shop windows, will be included in any disucssion of uniformity or control of public lighting.

Road Marking Aids Lighting
The motorist may demand a continuation of the extensive use of road lines, and the pedestrian may still wish to see white paint on kerb lines. This is where the province of the Lighting Engineer meets that of the Borough Surveyor. Any progress made in road surface dressings will also be watched by the Lighting Engineer. Will he one day see the perfect non-skid surface, capable of maximum visibility either wet or dry? National control over street lighting raises another important issue: any restriction upon the lights displayed by vehicles must impose an obligation to maintain the street lights in good order - and this is a responsibility that local authorities would be reluctant to assume. Accidents due to even a single dark lamp would be very costly.
The MOT Final Report and the revised Standard Specification will form the basis for engineering development. It is assumed that work on the Specification will be resumed immediately after the war. It might be benefitial sectionalising the Speccification: by the publication of parts as they become available, much time might be saved, and revision of any part made more conveniently.

Approved Designs For Lamp Standards
Engineers will welcome the publication of designs approved by the Fine Arts Commission. It was suspended by the outbreak of war. The chosen designs conform with the modern simplicity of line. Newer standards appear to have evolved from the architect's drawing board. There is little doubt that concrete poles will be used more in the future. In the dirty atmosphere of industrial areas, concrete poles are quite unsuitable. It is on main trunk roads where the day-time appearance of lighting installations has received most attention.

Preparing For Increased Motor Traffic
A shortage of vehicles, fuel and tyres will prevent any sudden return to pre-war traffic densities. Road safety, which has deteriorated badly in the last two years, may, therefore receive extra publicity. The public reaction to release from the black-out is expected to create a new light-consciousness and demand for light in many more forms.

Lighting To Celebrate Victory
Lighting for decoration, sport, open-air entertainment etc. may provide the Engineer with a big job. One thing is certain: when the peace comes, lighting authorities will be very busy people.
Lighting: Authority Organisation , Lighting: Floodlighting, Lighting: Funding, Lighting: Future, Lighting: Signs, Lighting: Specifications

New Members Elected To The A.P.L.E. p72
List of new members.
Lighting: Personnel

Fifty Years Of Progress p73
Portsmouth has this year celebrated the Golden Jubilee of its Municipal Electrical Service. The occasion has been marked by an Exhibition, held in the Central Showroom of the City.
In June 1894 the Portsmouth Electricity Supply System was started, opened by the Mayoress. After the banquet given by the Mayor in the evening, the principle guests drove around the town at 11:30 "to see the lights." The electricity supply was a sucess. There were 338,536 units sold in the first year (1894-1895) and for 1939-1940 there were 145,693,972.
The report, issued by the Electricity Committee in the form of a brochure, set the steps of progress through the 50 years. "When peace returns, young and old will again flock to see the street lights, as they did in 1894, where the arc lights were first switched on. Many children have not seen a pre-war street lamp alight, and the interest they will display can well be imagined."
The original arc-lamp columns were of an ingenous type, the two side lights of a smaller candle power being lit automatically when the arc light at the top was extinguished at 11PM. There were 102 of these arc-lamps, each of 200 candle power - equal to a 150W gas-filled lamp of the present day.
In 1939, all main roads of the city were lighted by means of modern discharge lamps. Portsmouth was considered one of the best lighted provincial towns. At 31st March, 1939, there were the following public lamps in the city: (1) 831 Discharge lamps; (2) 892 Tungsten lamps (300W and 500W); (3) 4102 Tungsten lamps (100W). Outside the city there were: (1) 35 Discharge Lamps and (2) 500 Tungsten Lamps (100W).
At no time during its 50 years of operation has the undertaking been a charge on the rates. The reverse has been the case. As early as 1899 a sum of £1000 was contributed to the rates, whilst in 1939 a sum of £25,500 was handed over in aid of the rates.
Lighting: History, Lighting: Statistics

Hereford Lights Go Up p73
The centre of the City of Hereford is lit with high pressure gas lighting which can be controlled from the Gas works, making it possible to extinguish the lighting in the event of a lights warning. On Sunday, the main lights in the city were lighted to practically pre-war lighting standard, Class D of B.S.S. of Street Lighting, and all other streets had partial lighting. It was on from 8PM until midnight and at key points the lamps were alight until dawn. Both high and low pressure are clock controlled. The lamps had been brought into store early in the war and as occasion offered, they were overhauled and repaired in readiness. When the first intimation of possible lighting was received, we at once commenced fixing High Pressure and Low Pressure suspension lamps, and later all available fitters were fitting lanterns with conversion sets. It brought crowds of citizens out into the streets, including many young citizens who had not previous seen the streets lighted.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Installations

Tynemouth Is Ready Also! p73
75% of electric lamps and 60% gas lamps have been overhauled and 768 lamp pillars have been repainted. There are 1480 electric lamps and 1440 gas lamps on the main roads in the borough, but main in the back streets have not been touched. At the present time, clocks are being put back on the lamps in the main roads and the Mayor's lamps are ready to be lit at very short notice. Two estates in the Borough comprising some 506 electric lamps are on the impulse system. A considerable number of lamp fittings are in stock, available for immediate use when permission is granted for street lighting to be switched on. 60% of the lamps in the borough have been renumbered by stencil painting. Now that the restriction on street lighting is partly lifted it is proposed to light every alternate lamp on the main bus routes and when this is completed to light the intermediate ones to the standard laid down.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Installations

A New War-Time Public Lighting Unit p74
It may seem unseasonable in near-peace-time to contemplate the installation of new starlight lighting. But during this year, the Gas Industry has developed improved equipment designed to conform to the lighting restrictions and to relate the consumption of gas and the employment of valuable metal to the reduced light output. So an entirely new ARP street lighting unit has evolved at the Watson House laboratories of the Gas Light and Coke Company. Dagenham Borough Council has instructed the Gas Light and Coke Company to install 400 of these units in the borough.
The new unit, which has been trialed, has several interesting features. It gives the allowable light output, but does so with about a third of the gas used in earlier units, and requires only about a fourth of the amount of metal used for standard fittings.
Designed for war-time use, the unit is capable of meeting a variety of peace-time conditions as it is applicable not only to ARP street lighting but for the illumination of bollards or street signs where a source of low intensity is required. The light output is secured with a gas consumption of 0.6/0.7 cu. ft. per hour, as compared with the 1.6 cu. ft. per hour with the standard fitting. Bearing in mind that under existing labour conditions it is not possible or economical to light and extinguish ARP fittings each day, the overall economy in gas is considerable, both for the local authority and from the point of view of national fuel economy. Four of the new units can be made out of the metal required to produce a single unit of the existing type.
In place of the usual bunsen burner and standard mantle, a non-aerated burner and specially designed mantle are employed. The ordinary bunsen burner with mantle is unsuitable for gas rates of the order of 0.5/1 cu. ft. per hour. (It is difficult to make small mantles of robust constuction and the expense involved in making aerated burners with controls machined to the required accuracy is too high. At low gas rates, the performance of a bunsen burner is liable to be adversely affected by foreign matter carried in the gas stream or primary air - this leads to instability and considerable variation in the total light output from the source.)
A non-aerated burner with a fine orifice operates at the full service pressure of the gas. This rat-tail burner, with a non-luminous tip, is allowed to impinge on the mantle of special design and produce a suitable source of light for ARP and other purposes. Satisfactory results are obtained with the flames directed nearly vertically upwards onto a flat mantle. A 3-hole burner is used and found to be the most satisfactory, and the division of the gas rate into 3 ensures that each flame is highly aerated. The distribution of light is obtained by surrounding the light source with a glass chimney, on which is stencilled a mask of the necessary design to obscure the unwanted light flux and control the candle power in the required directions.
The units are being manufactured by Sugg with burners made by George Bray & Co., Ltd.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Installations, Lighting: Luminaires

Street Lantern Designs For Post-War Installations p75
It is certain some time must elapse before lanterns of entirely new character make their appearance on the market. In the main, new lamps that will be made available, will be the types in production in 1939. What follows are the range of lamps and lanterns that will be made available as soon as normal conditions prevail.

Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd
Regent-Sieray, Barnet-Sieray, Bi-Way, Charlton-Sieray, Preston-Sieray, Camden-Sieray and Duo-Dome
Sieray Dual Lamp: No choke or condenser is ncessary and it emits light of a pleasing colour. It consists of a "Sieray" Mercury Vapour Discharge Lamp connected in series with a Tungsten Filament, the normal tubular outer bulb being expanded at its lower end. The tungsten filament stabilises the arc and provides extra red rays to improve the colour. Undue overloading of the Tungsten Filament at switching on is obviated by the provision of an auxiliary filament which is automatically switched out the circuit by means of a thermal cut-out. The arc of the discharge being stabilized by a resistance the power factor is approximately 0.95. Immediately the lamp is switched on, considerable amount of illumination is obtained and after 10 minutes the lamp reaches if full luminous output. The bulk of the light is emitted from the highly efficient Discharge Tube. The 300W "Sieray-Dual" lamp gives approximately 33% more light than a 300W Gasfilled Lamp and the 500W "Sieray-Dual" Lamp approximately 50% more than a 500W Gasfilled Lamp.
Sieray "Q.H." Lamp:Efficiency of electric discharge lamp related to the pressure of the mercury and therefore the temperature of the inner tube. Using a special grade of quartz for the inner tube makes possible the marketing of low wattage "Sieray" Lamps with very high efficiencies for use on AC supplies. These lamps consist of quartz inner tubes enclosed in pearl finished outer bulbs of the type used for Tungsten Filament Lamps. The Arc Light Sources are short and very concentrated as compared with those of Sieray "H" or Sieray "W". Advantages: (1) Time taken by lamp to reach full luminous output is shortened considerably; (2) Cooling time and re-striking time are considerably reduced; (3) These lamps can be used in standard types of fittings designed for Gasfilled Lamps. These lamps can be burnt in any position. These lamps require a choke in the circuit on which they operate and then are fitted with a 3BC cap to preclude accidental insertion into a holder for Tungsten Lamps.
Sieray "H": Most popular widely used Medium Pressure Mercury Type available in 250W and 400W sizes.
Sieray "W": This lamp has a better quality of light than the Sieray "H". This improved colour is obtained by the addition of certain metals to the discharge. Only available in 400W size.

W. Parkinson & Company
Maxill "G", Maxilla Upright, Maxilla Suspension and Brimax Maxilla

William Edgar & Son
Rivercourt and Eclipse

Edison Swan Electric Co., Ltd.
London Minor, London Medium, London Major, Newlands, Granby and Siden.

C. H. Kempton & Co., Ltd.
Kempar, Majestic and Heathfield.

British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd.
Circra, Mercra "H", Ranger, Diron, Dilen, County Cadet and County Junior.
Lighting: Lamps, Lighting: Luminaires

Public Lighting Patents In Germany by S. T. Madeley p84
Description on how patents issued during the war were processed in Germany.
Lighting: Legal

Street Lighting from the American Magazine Light by Mr. Kirk N. Reid p85
Pre-war Lack of Attention
Street lighting suffered from a lack of attention first from the public, then from the men in the electrical industry who had no commercial interest, the utilities and the manufacturers.

Recent Trends
Recent trends show a less gloomy prospect post-victory. The public is showing more interest - this is mostly true in the coastal areas where the dim out took its toll. Utility executives have realised that street lighting has become an important factor in public relations. Utility operators have wanted to do a real job including adequate cleaning and group replacement of lamps. Manufacturing has really gone to town and more news is expected from NEMA. Public officials now have many comprehensive plans for street lighting improvement.

What luminaires will be used in post-victory projects. On arterial streets, the types of luminaires which represent the best modern practice before the war will continue to represent the best modern practice i.e. (1) On heavy traffic arteries, the Form 81 with 10,000 and 15,000 lumen lamps. These are used with internal deflectors to direct more light to the pavement; (2) On light and medium traffic arteries, the Form 79 with 4,000 and 6,000 lumen lamps. Internal deflectors are to be desired for the most part on streets of normal width. Prismatic globes provide higher utilisation efficiency on narrow streets. These are the answer for nearly all arteries. Mercury and sodium lighting has unusual value as recognised under special conditions. 300,000 Form 79 and Form 81 were manufactured before the war.
On local traffic streets there will be a few new items of equipment. There is a widespread conviction that not enough money is available to permit spacing much less than 300 feet on local traffic streets. Just before the war, a new luminaire was developed for use at approximately 300' spacing and mounting heights of 25' to 30'. The City of Detroit was the only city to get an order through before the war interrupted production. This unit - the Form 79 VR is for 2500, 4000 and 6000 lumen lamps. The refractor bowl limits the amount of light delivered beyond the sidewalks and directs a substantial proportion of light at wide angles up and down the streets. It provides a two-way distribution of light: three-way and four-way will be made available.

Fluorescent Street Lighting
The question is whether fluorescent street lighting will be used after the war. Studies have taken place for several years at the General Electric Co. using hot-cathode and cold-cathode operated in series and in multiple under outdoor conditions. Several designs have been tried experimentally. Fluorescent lamps have several advantages and disadvantages for street lighting. The advantages are high efficiency of light generation, low brightness, relatively long life and enhanced visibility on wet pavements due to broad streaks of brightness from an elongated source. The disadvantages include inherently low light output per foot of source, large size of luminaires and necessity of jacketing in cold weather. Overall fluorescent street lighting is thus at a marked disadvantage compared with current sources.

Street Lighting Estimates
Estimates of numbers of types of illuminant in the USA, comparision between supplies (series, multiple) in three countries and a cost/benefit comparison.
Lighting: Future, Lighting: Lamps, Lighting: Luminaires, Lighting: Statistics

National Illumination Committee Of Great Britain: Annual Report For 1943 p86
Summary of the changes in personnel and the latest standardisations.
Lighting: Personnel, Lighting: Specifications

Adverts: The General Electric Co., Ltd, The Association Of Metal Sprayers, Stanton Ironworks Co., Ltd, Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd., Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd, Engineering And Lighting Equipment Co. Ltd., Crompton Parkinson Ltd., British Commercial Gas Association, British Electrical Development Association, Inc, Philips Lamps Ltd., The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd., Automatic Telephone And Electrical Co., Ltd., William Sugg And Co., Ltd., The Lighting Service Bureau, Walter Slingsby and Co., Ltd., The Horstmann Gear Co., Ltd., British, Foreign And Colonial Automatic Light Controlling Co., Ltd., Foster And Pullen Ltd., Sangamo Weston Ltd. and Poles Ltd.