ilp archive : journals
public lighting no. 35 vol. 9
- Editorial p101
- The Lights Went On p101
- There were many expressions of appreciation in the papers after the new standard of lighting was
permitted on Sunday, September 17th. Lighting engineers had worked wonders taking full advantage of
the relaxation and modifying ARP/37 fittings or installing new lamps.
- Lighting: ARP
- Relief For Londoners p101
- The unexpected relaxation of the lighting order for the London defence regions was met with
mixed feelings. For security reasons, London was expected to stay "dimmed out". The lighting authorities
within the area turned their attention to the work of preparing for a full "light up". Much work
had been accomplished and a vast amount of full street lighting could be turned on in London within
the repeal of the lighting restrictions order. To go back over this useful work and reinstate another
order of lightign would be both expensive and wasteful. Therefore many authorities have decided to
have little or nothing about the matter. There was a feeling among the wide circle of professional
lighting engineers that insufficient consideration had been given to them. Surely it was not too
much to ask His Majesty's Government to take professional lighting engineers into their confidence.
- Lighting: ARP
- Approved Designs For Lamp Columns p101
- In 1938 the Royal Fine Arts Commission, at the request of the Ministry Of Transport,
expressed willingness to approve (or otherwise) the artistic merits of designs for street lamp columns.
A selection of designs is now available. In considering the designs, the Commissioners have aimed at
simplicity. The days of the ultra decorated lamp column has gone - what is wanted is a plain design
having pleasing sweep or curve to the lantern. The idea is to make the column and lantern less
noticeable. The general trend will be "the column lighter, but the lamp brighter."
- Lighting: Design
- Cartoon p101
- Cartoon by Gittens from the London Evening News
- Lighting: Social Comment
- British Standards Institution p102
- Report from their Annual General Meeting
- Personal p102
- Mr. W. P Lilwall, Borough Electrical Engineer, Fleetwood was re-elected without opposition
as President, Incorporated Municipal Electrical Association.
- Lighting: Personnel
- New President Of The I.E.S. p102
- Mr. Ernest Stroud has been chosen as President of the Illuminating Engineering Society for this
year. He is the general sales manager of Holophane Ltd and chairman of the Street Lighting Section
of the Electric Light Fittings Association. During the war, Mr. Stroud has served on various
committees of the B.S.I., including street lighting, portable photometers, light distributions, lighting
fittings, A.R.P. street and factory lighting.
- Lighting: Personnel
- Suggestions For Modifying Existing Gas Street Lighting Equipment To 0.02f.c. p102
- A circular distributed by the Institution of Gas Engineers gives useful hints how to
modifiy equipment to conform with the new "dim out" to the level of 0.02 f.c. at ground level.
- Due to the differences in installations throughout the country it's only possible to give a general
outline. A convenient method of obscuring the lower portion of the lamp is by applying whitewash or thin
white paint stippled to give an even dispersion with a strip - about ¾" to 1" - of clear glass.
A black "cut off" band is painted around the top of the lantern.
- A disadvantage of the colour wash or paint is the necessity of removal when pre-war lighting
reinstated. This may be overcome by the following suggestion: A No. 1 Bijou mantle is used, and the glass
of the square lantern is blackened down to a position level with the bottom of the mantle (as originally
suggested). A thin metal disc, 2¾" in diameter, suspended horizontally and centrally below
the mantle produces a "penumbra" effect which evens out the illumination on the road surface.
- Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Specifications
- Street Lighting Designs For Post-War Installations p103
- The General Electric Company Limited
- The GEC will supply lanterns of the pre-war types such as the Wembley prismatic dome refractor
lanterns; and the Difractor and Oxford lanterns which use a prismatic bowl. To assist
production it will be necessary to restrict the range of replacement lanterns and so the company will
only produce the most popular designs.
- Where lanterns in a particularly old installations have been damaged, the remainder should be re-grouped
in some less important roads, the main thoroughfares then being re-equipped with lanterns of a more
- For the modern lantern with its carefully controlled distribution, the casual treatment of earlier
years is no longer adequate. The mechanical design must ensure that the precise limits of the optical
system are regularly attained in production and maintained in service.
- The mechanical requirements of a street lighting lantern can be analysed as follows:
- Mechanical Design: Precise, rigid assembly.
- Service Requirements: (1) Resistance to weather (2) Resistance to corrosion (3) Ability
to withstand shaking and vibration (4) Satisfactory operating temperatures.
- Maintenance Requirements: (1) Simple erection and wiring (2) Ease of cleaning and freedom
from dirt collection (3) Unvarying performance without adjustment.
- Appearance: Unobtrusive and attractive.
- The period of the war has allowed the designs to be brought up-to-date by the incorporation of
minor improvements in the mechanical detail and finish.
- Lanterns in the new range are based on the following:
- Modern Design, Engineering Construction: Neat, pleasing appearance, robust construction
and unsurpassed optical systems are the keynotes of the new lanterns. They are the result of a close
co-operation of engineers intent on the best possible mechanical construction and modern artists
conscious of the importance of daylight appearance of the lantern.
- Logical Side Mounting - They are arranged for side mounting, which eliminates the terminal
box, gains mounting height and ensures freedom from rain entry. The bracket, which must be 1¼"
gas barrel, slides into the body of the lantern where it clamped by two drawbolts. No threading or
tapping of the bracket or lantern is necessary.
- Light alloys - Extensive use has been made of light alloys in the lantern's manufacturer.
By their use, weight has been reduced by 25%. In addition, "sympathetic" metals have been selected
to avoid corrosion and electrolytic action.
Total Enclosure Type (Blown-Glass Cut-off) and
- Keith Blackman Limited
Keith Suspension Lamp 808 and
Keith Lamp 805N.
- Engineering And Lighting Equipment Company Limited
- William Sugg And Company Limited
- Lighting: Future, Lighting: Luminaires
- The Lights Go Up! Some Impressions Of The Public's Reaction To The Improved Street Lighting p109
- Sunday, 17th September 1944, was a red letter day in the annals of Public Lighting. The partial
lifting of restrictions concerning street lighting and domestic black out came as a great relief to
several millions of people throughout the country. To children the relighting of the street lamp came
as a real novelty. Parents were seen parading the streets with their children to see the novel sight
of darkened streets turned into fairlyland - so it seemed to the children.
- Reports were sent in from Blackpool, Farnborough, Hull, Bedford, Chester, Rhondda, Oldham, Preston, Halifax,
Wigan, Hinckley, Edinburgh, Leicester, Woking, Croydon, Motherwell and Wishaw, Bristol, Bradford, Stroud, Leamington Spa,
Douglas, Bedwellty and Rochdale. Details in the Installations section.
- Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Installations
- The Patent Situation Just After The War by S. T. Madeley p114
- Considerable sums are involved as regards enemy-owned patents, around 1 to 2 million. A well
qualified committee is now considering amendment to the British Patents Act. A long description is given
of changes to the patent system during and after the First World War.
- At the comencement of the Second World
War, the Patents, Designs, Copyright and Trade Marks (Emergency Act) 1939 came into force. This was followed
by a series of Statutory and Patent Office Rules and Orders. These gave the Government practically
unlimited power over inventions for which Patent protection is sought.
- The Comptroller is given powers to revoke or amend existing Licences under enemy patents and to grant
emergency licences under Patents of the same nature. Royalties are paid to the Custodian of Enemy Property.
The Comptroller can also grant extensions of time for procedure.
- At the beginning of the war the General Licence issued by the Board Of Trade permitted carefully controlled
correspondence with enemy countries related to Patent matters. This was found to be unsatisfactory. By the
subsequent General Licence issued in April 1942, proceedings regarding enemy-owned British patents, granted
and pending, were practically reduced to payment of renewal fees on granted patents by non-enemies who were
licenses or part-owners. Consequently there are no many patent applications based on corresponding patent
applications in enemy and enemy occupied countries and which are awaiting the requisite funds before filing.
- Numerous patent applications based on British ones are also due for filing in Germany when circumstances
- The British Patent Office is already overburdened with work owing to shortage of staff.
- In Germany, the Patent Office appears to have been carrying on with much of its usual efficiency.
There is evidence to show that British-owned businesses have been functioning in Germany and technicians
in occupied countries have had to give their services to Germany.
- Lighting: Legal
- The I.E.S. President Mr. E. Stroud p115
- The Illuminating Engineering Society held a sessional meeting at the E.L.M.A. Lighting Service Bureau
on Tuesday 10th October. Mr. E. Stroud was inducted into the Chair of the Society. The paper was a
detailed record of the history and work of the Society from 1909 up to the present time.
- It was founded by Mr. Leon Gaster, who until 1928, was the Honorary Secretary. Few engineering
firms had established departments to deal with illumination and there were few who could be considered experts.
Photometry was at the laboratory stage and there was little apparatus availabel for the measurement of illumination.
- The inaugural meeting was held at the Royal Society of Arts on November 18th, 1909. Outstanding in those
early pioneering years was Mr. A. P. Trotter (President 1917-1920) who, with Sir William Preece,
was responsible for the design of the earliest illuminating photometer in this country and whose treatise
on "Illumination: Its Distribution And Measurement" is a classic. Trotter also dealt with iso-lux
curves, now commonly used in Street Lighting calculations.
- Much pioneering work was done in those early days by very few people. There was no general knowledge of
the values of illumination that existed in typical buildings and the instruments available for the measurement
of illumination were few and cumbersome. The period saw the introduction of the metallic filament lamp
and the preheated inverted gas burner, which effected such a great advance in light output and efficiency as
compared with their predeccesors. During this early period, reports on the lighting of schools and libraries were
issued by joint committees which, in conjunction with other leading engineering bodies, drafted a standard
specification for Street Lighting.
- The First Great War
- Just prior to the Great War, the "Half-Watt" electric lamp was introduced, the forerunner of the
present "Gasfilled" Tungsten Lamp. It was only made in the larger sizer, but owing to the increased
brilliancy of the filament, introduced new problems in illumination and opened up a promising field
for artificial lighting. The society made useful contributions for the war effort. And in 1915, the first
of a series of reports was issued by the Departmental Committee on Lighting in Factories and Workshops.
- Stret Lighting
- In 1922-23, a B.S.I. Committee was set up to produce a specification for Street Lighting. It produced
the first Street Lighting Specification, 307/1927, which was revised in 1931, and is further being
considered (after the MOT Final Report, 1937). The Street Lighting Committee is under the chairmanship
of Dr. C. C. Paterson.
- The floodlighting of the London Buildings was organised by Mr. Percy Good, director of the
British Standards Institute, and carried out by lighting firms at their own cost. This was repeated
for the Silver Jubilee and the Coronation and will undoubtedly form a large part of the Peace Celebration.
During 1939, a great amount of work was carried out by the Ministry Of Home Security by Committees
of the Society and prominent members. The research on A.R.P. lighting had the attention of 24
committees and approximately 100 members. Much of the work done is evident in the series of A.R.P. Specifications
published by the B.S.I.
- Closer Co-Operation Internationally
- In the post-war period, they look forward to much closer contact with the Commonwealth and the
United States. This should have a far-reaching effect on the dissemination of lighting knowledge and on
the Society in particular. We have close contact with the American Society through the National Illumination
Committee and the International Commission on Illumination by the International Illumination Congresses
held every four years.
- Lighting: History, Lighting: Specifications
- The Press Adds Its Praise p116
- Extracts from The Sheffield Telegraph. Details in the Installations section.
- Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Installations
- A Full-Dress Rehearsal Of Post-War Street Lighting p117
- Lighting engineers and municipal authorities were invited to a demonstration of full street lighting
at The Engineering And Lighing Equipment Company Limited. The occassion became almost festive as
the people of St. Albans and their children made their way to scene. Some of the children had never seen
street lightings working before: "I shouldn't mind going out in the 'black-out' if the lights were like these."
- General Description
- The demonstration was seven weldless steel standards erected in Campfield Road, St. Albans, in
staggered formation, at spacings 150'. Each standard had four different lighting units, which could be
switched singly. Direct visual comparisons could be made at intervals of a few minutes. The fittings
were standard ELECO types.
- Light Sources
- Three different types of electric discharge lamps were used for the demonstration. They have at
least three outstanding characteristic: High Luminous Efficiency (they give from 2.5 to 5 times the light
output of ordinary tungsten filament lamps); Long Life (1500 or 2500 hours according to type rather than
the 1000 of tungsten filament lamps); Colour (They do not give white light, but they don't need to for
- Mercury Lamps
- These lamps are made in four ratings: 80W, 125W, 250W and 400W. The 80W and 125W are designed for operation
in the vertical position and the 250W and 400W operated either vertical or horizontal. For horizontal, it
is necessary to equip the lantern with a magnetic control, which is located adjacent to the lamp, and prevents
distortion of the discharge luminous column. The initial luminous efficiencies are 38, 40, 36 and 45 lumens per watt i.e.
about 2.5 times that of the tungsten filament lamp. Average life 1500 hours. Warming up time is 10 minutes.
If switched off when hot then must cool before they relight.
- Fluorescent Lamps
Three ratings of fluorescent mercury lamps are available at 80W, 125W and 400W. Each is for vertical burning.
The initial luminous efficiencies are 38, 40 and 38 lumens per watt. The efficiency of the 400W size is
somewhat lower than its non-fluorescent counterpart but the light colour is somewhat whiter. Average life
1500 hours. Warming up time 10 minutes. If switched off when hot when must cool before they relight.
- Sodium Lamps
- Three lamps have been developed in a range of four ratings 45W, 60W, 85W and 140W. The smallest
can be used either vertically or horizontally, but the three larger ones are for horizontal use only.
Each lamp operates inside a detachable vacuum jacket which has a life of three lamps so replacement
lamps may be used in the same vacuum jacket. The lamps have remarkably high initial luminous efficiencies
of 55.5, 65.0, 71.5 and 71.5[?] lumens per watt respectively which is 3 to 5 fives that of the tungsten
filament lamp. Average life is 2500 hours. Warming up time 10 - 20 minutes according to rating. If switched
off when hot, will relight immediatley. Relatively insensitive to voltage variations. The light source of
the 140W rating consists of a "U" bend tube about 18" long, operating horizontally, with a low brightness
of 10 c.p. per sq. cm., which reduces the risk of glare. The light colour is golden yellow in which the
eye functions with nearly its maximum sensitivity. The monochromatic nature of the light obviates
perception of reflected colours and increases brightness constrasts and visual acuity.
- Judging An Installation
- The efficacy of any installation should not be judged by the illumination intensity measured on
the road surface. This is no gauge of the visibility. Judgement should be based upon the degree of
visibility obtained with economic consideration. After many comparisons and tests, many municipal authorities
have preferred to install sodium lighting. The ELECO demonstration enabled the visibilities provided
by the three different types of electric discharge public lighting to be compared.
- Mercury Lighting
- Seven 400W mercury lamps operating vertically in ELECO Orbital lanterns at 25' high,
150' apart, with 3'6" overhang. B.S.S. test point illumination intensity 0.22 ft. candles.
- Fluorescent Lighting
- Seven 400W fluorescent lamps, vertically burning, were fitted with in ELECO Hamilton
lanterns at 25' high, 150' apart with 6' overhang. Due to the difficulty controlling the light from
these lamps, due to the large dimensions of the luminous source, and the lower efficiency of the lamp,
the B.S.S. test point illumination is lower at 0.16 ft. candles. This type of lamp has not been so widely
used for public lighting.
- Sodium Lighting
- Seven 140W Philora sodium lamps were fitted in ELECO Golden Ray units, at 25'
high and 150' apart, with 6' overhang. The B.S.S. test point illumination intensity was 0.21 ft. candles.
- Sodium Lighting (Side Street)
Seven 50W Philora sodium lamps in ELECO Golden Ray units mounted on the main standards
at 14'6" high and 150' apart.
- Lighting: Installations, Lighting: Lamps, Lighting: Luminaires
- Modified Gas Lighting p118
- Pictures and descriptions of "Dim Out" gas lighting in Leamington and Cambridge. Details in the
- Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Installations
- Lighting Progress In Glasgow p119
- In the recent "Glasgow Advancing" Municipal Exhibition organised by the Glasgow Corporation to show
present activities and possible post-war developments, the Lighting Department displayed a number of exhibits.
The main theme demonstrated the principle of central control used with public lighting for both street and
tenement-stair lighting. A map of the Partick district of the city showed the main pilot control lines radiating
from the control station. Associated with the exhibit were impulse and cascade relays.
- The Lighting Department is responsible for the maintenance and lighting of all the public clocks in
the city and two methods of dial lighting were shown: in one a sodium lamp was mounted behind the
translucent face; and in the other a spotlight was used to project light on the front surface of the face.
Both methods were used successfully in 1939. Similarly examples of internally and externally illuminated
street names were shown.
- Two models showing special features aroused considerable interest: red illuminated panels in the kerb
reveal projecting footpaths by night (at one danger spot in the city such a device has been in use for some
months); and the siting of street lighting units on dual-carriageway roads with each carriageway
treated separately for lighting, having a staggered system (as per the Final MOT Report).
- Another exhibit was the malicious damage to the Department's equipment. This damage annually costs
hundreds of pounds to the rate payers. Examples shown included a hefty spanner found inside a gas lantern,
damaged traffic signals, screens attached to war-time lights and torn off, and gas mantles broken in
common stairs by persons inserting spills and tapers to get lights.
- Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Control, Lighting: Installations
- High Mountings Give Improved Gas Lighting p119
- Details of a 1939 improvement scheme in Leamington.
- Lighting: Installations
- Bishops Stortford p120
- Details and pictures of the pre-war scheme in Bishops Stortford.
- Lighting: Installations
- Things To Come p121
- Details of two other Combined House Service Units by Siemens.
- A Useful Pamphlet For Lighting Committees p121
- The pamphlet titled Public Lighting In The City And Highway, designed primarily for
members of public lighting committees as a guide for the requirements of good street lighting after the war,
has just been issued. It was the result of a comittee on with both the Illuminating Engineering Society
and the Association Of Public Lighting Engineers were both represented.
- Lighting: Publications
- Go-Getters p121
- Manchester has just decided to light its side streets as well as it main streets. (Incudes dig from
Sheffield's Daily Telegraph).
- Lighting: Installations
- Situations Vacant p121
- Adverts for a Lighting Engineer and a Public Lighting Expert
- Lighting: Installations
- Winnipeg's Tribute To London p121
- "Festoon lights will blaze over Portage Avenue and Main Street next Saturday and Sunday nights
and flags will wave along the two thoroughfares to mark the turning on of London's lights, Sunday."
- Lighting: Events, Lighting: Installations
- Light, Vision And Seeing: A New Book Published In New York By Matthew Luckiesh p122
- Review of Luckiesh's book.
- Lighting: Publications, Lighting: Theory
- Cartoon p122
- Cartoon from the London Evening News.
- Lighting: Social Comment
The Association Of Metal Sprayers,
Stanton Ironworks Co., Ltd,
Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd.,
Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd,
Engineering And Lighting Equipment Co. Ltd.,
British Commercial Gas Association,
British Electrical Development Association, Inc,
Philips Lamps Ltd.,
The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd.,
Automatic Telephone And Electrical Co., Ltd.,
William Sugg And Co., Ltd.,
The Lighting Service Bureau,
Walter Slingsby and Co., Ltd.,
The Horstmann Gear Co., Ltd.,
British, Foreign And Colonial Automatic Light Controlling Co., Ltd.,
Foster And Pullen Ltd.,
Sangamo Weston Ltd. and
The General Electric Co., Ltd.