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ilp archive : journals

public lighting no. 38 vol. 10: conference issue part 1
July-September 1945

Editorial p73
Glasgow Conference p73
The conference was an undoubted success. The papers were helpful to all, notwithstanding the good humoured critic who stated "we were reviving old bones." Also this could be true, the result was to revive to full strength and vigour a living body of keenly interested people.
APLE: Conference

The President p73
Mr. E. J. Stewart prepared and presented his third presidential address. In forty minutes, he presented a wise and statesmanlike survey of the present day difficulties confronting lighting engineers, some details of lessons learnt from wartime restrictive lighting, and finally carried his hearers over a space of years to considering the needs of lighting of towns fifty years hence. He revealed some of hte proposals in the Glasgow twon planning scheme, and in particular, to the ambitious projects in overcoming traffic congestions by the building of elaborate "fly-overs" on main junctions of arterial roads; these would bring fresh problems to the Public Lighting Engineer, problems of day-time lighting for the covered roads, as well as careful planning and siting of street lamps at these congested junctions.
APLE: Conference

Tree-Lined Streets p74
Trees are promised for all classes of new roads and open spaces - but town planners should consider and collaborate with public lighting engineers.
Lighting: Environment

Street Lighting - Fuel Economy p74
Mr. Kelf-Cohen, from the Ministry of Fuel and Power, explained the need for conserving fuel by all means possible and appealed to lighting authorities to assist by turning off street lights at midnight, or by reducing consumption.
Lighting: Energy

Conference Issues Of "Public Lighting" p74
The journal is late, but it was the desire of the Council to publish as full a report of the Conference as possible. The next three issues will be published in quick succession.
APLE: Conference, APLE: Jounral

Personalia p74
Lt.-Col. Geoffrey F. Falk, T.D., M.I.E.E. has now been released from the army and will return to Falk, Stadelmann & Co., Ltd.; Alderman Thraves, ex Lord Mayor of Sheffield and Chairman of the City Lighting Department, has been honoured with a C.B.E.; Captain W. J. Liberty, founder of the A.P.L.E. and first Secretary, has been made a Life Governor of the Shaftesbury Society, and has received the "Sir John Kirk Award" in recognition of "his 60 years' work among poor children'; and Mr. P. Crawford Sugg has returned to the Sales And Technical Department of Sugg after service with the RAF; Mr. A. E. Sylvester, F.C.A., Governor of the Gas Light and Coke Company has been elected chairmain of the British Gas Council; W/O R. A. Eshelby has returned to Philips Lamps Ltd as a liberated Prisoner of War.
Lighting: Personnel

The Glasgow Conference p75
Report of the opening of the conference. Includes the telegram to the King, the Lord Provost's welcome, Mr. E. C. Lennox's (Past-President) reply and speeches by two founding members of the Association: Mr. S. B. Langlands (Former Lighting Inspector of the Glasgow Corporation, First President of the A.P.L.E.) and Captail A. J. Liberty (First Hon. Secretary, first Vice-President and Treasurer).
APLE: Conference, Lighting: History

The Annual General Meeting p77
Previous minutes confirmed and signed, scrutineers appointed, treasure presented accounts for the last year (those members in the Forces had had their subscriptions suspended), the President for the ensuring year was E. J. Stewart and the Vice-President for the forthcoming year was W. N. C. Clinch.

The New Constitution
T. Wilkie proposed alterations of the Constitution: to change the name to the Institution of Public Lighting Engineers; and make a slight restriction on membership i.e. should have membership of certain other institutions and hold a responsible position in connection with public lighting, as head of department, with not less than 1000 lamps; junior members would be abolished in favour of associate membership. (So there would be students, associates, delegates and honorary members). There was little time at this meeting to further discuss the matter.

Welcome To Oversea Guests
Two guests came from Paris, M. Herzog and M. Gaymard.

Results Of Papers Competition
Four papers were sent in and two had been awarded first and second prizes: (1) The Relation of Public Lighting to Safety on the Roads by Norman Axford and (2) Photometry in Relation to Street Lighting by F. M. Hale. They would not be read at conference as there wasn't time so would be published in the Journal.

The Adjourned Meeting (to discuss constitutional matters)
Discussion on changes to the constitution for membership, wording, the bye-laws and keeping in touch with members in the Services. The control of lighting by radio or short waves should be investigated by an impartial person or body and what was wanted was a system of remote control that was foolproof, inexpensive and easy to maintain. Recent development in radio location (RADAR) ought to provide something suitable for the purpose and it was wanted within a very short time.

APLE: Conference

The Presidential Address p79
Summary of the The Presidential Address.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Authority Organisation, Lighting: Future, Lighting: History, Lighting: Levels, Lighting: Theory, Lighting: Users

The Minister Of Fuel And Power Sends A Representative To Explain The Need For Fuel Conservation p80
A circular had been sent out about saving power. Mr. Kelf Cohen, Director of the Gas and Electricity Division of The Ministry of Fuel and Power addressed the Conference.

The Ministry of Fuel and Power send out a circular in August. It asks for a reduction in street lighting, necessary as a temporary measure, because of the fuel shortage. It was manifestly against the public interest that street lighting should be the only form of fuel consumption in which there was a full return to peace time standards at once. Street lighting represented about 1% of the coal consumption of the country.

The resumption of street lighting to peace time standards placed on the Ministry the responsibility of finding another one million tons of coal. If that could be halved then it would ease the task of the Ministry. Economies had been accomplished with the willing co-operation of consumers of solid fuel and gas and electricity. We were very near the breaking point as regards coal supplies. There were complaints from consumers seeing the street lighting on a 4 in the morning, when they had been asked to economise. We were in for a very difficult time thsi coming winter unless steps were taken to reduce the amount of public lighting; hence the necessity for the Circular of August 22nd.

Mr. Shinwell regarded this as a very serious matter and had asked his Regional Controllers to report to him the action taken by local authorities. Mr. Shinwell was surprised that some local authorities, were taking up an attitude which indicated that they were not fully aware of the critical position of the country's fuel supplies and the importance they should practice economy. He hoped that by the end of September every local authority would have taken steps to effect a substantial saving in fuel used for street lighting. If the Regional Controllers indicated that there were still authorities who did not realise the need for economy, he would have to consider his powers. The Circular of the 22nd was a request.

Mr. J. F. Colquhoun (Lighting Engineer, Sheffield: A sense of proportion was needed. The amount of coal used for street lighting in Sheffield was 21,000 tons whereas the domestic consumption was 600,000 tons per annum. The street lighting coal was only 3% of the domestic consumption. Plus the Circular came after local authorities had been urged for years by every Government Department to get their street lamps ready.
Mr. H. Midgley (Plymouth): It was dark at 7 o'clock in the morning in October and if the lamps were turned off at midnight it would be impossible for practical reasons to put them on again. Where lighting was manually operated there was not the labour, and where clocks were used, they could not be arranged for double switching.
Alderman D. Evans (Swansea): A better plan would be to shut down all street lighting during the five weeks before the longest day and the five weeks following the longest day - this would allow stocks to be replenished.
Councillor Roberts (Manchester): The Minister might have acheived his object better had he approached the Association in the first place.
Mr. Kelf Cohen: The Ministry was not competent to work out detailed arrangements for 1700 local authorities but each should decide on its own techniques according to its particular circumstances. The maximum economy that could be effected was the maximum that was required.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Energy

Glasgow's Street Lighting by J. M. Ward Assistant Inspector of Lighting, Glasgow p81
Very brief summary of the Glasgow's Street Lighting paper. There was no discussion as the paper was deemed factual and informative.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Columns, Lighting: Funding, Lighting: Legal, Lighting: Maintenance and Lighting: Management

City And Council Of Bristol p81
An installation of a system of automatic control of electric street lighting is being considered. Any interested firm can have further particulars on application.
Lighting: Control, Lighting: Installations

National Illumination Committee of Great Britain: Annual Reprot For The Year 1944 p83
The National Committee is now slowly resuming its activities.
Mr. Good gave an account of his discussions in the USA on the subject of international standardisation.
The activities of the Mine Lighting Sub-committee were renewed, with new membership and a widening of the scope. This included mains lighting, the use of glass and "synthetic" glass in mine lighting fittings, the deterioration of the accumulators, and the distribution of light from various lamps.
Work has started on the revision of the Street Lighting Specification (BS 307). The question rose whether a Code Of Practice should take the place of the Standard Specification, but it was finally agreed by a considerable majority to retain the specification with the addition of fairly extensive explanatory notes.
The Sub-committee on light distribution and the method of measuring it has found a satisfactory solution and has nearly completed its draft.
The Aerodrome Lighting Sub-committee has been restarted. An attempt is being made to co-ordinate the specification of colours for aerodrome lighting, traffic control signals, railway signals and lighthouse intensities.
A revision of the three specifications for portable photometers has been completed.
The Light Fittings Committee has reviewed its specifications. Slight modifications have been made to the specification for Vitreous Enamel Reflectors (BS 232).
The committee on the Classification of Light Distributions (BS 398) is considering a revision based on dispersive angle instead of frame ration.
A request has been received from the glass manufacturers for a specification for well glass fittings other than those used for frame proof purposes.
A request has been received from the Ministry of Aircraft Production for the revision of the types of lamps included in B.S. 161.
Lighting: Specifications

Wilful Damage To Street Lamps By Children And Youths p83
Letters have been received from many districts. In some cases, whole streets are out of commission, owing to the difficulty getting spares. The APLE has contacted The Home Secretary who has agreed to advise all chief constables to take the necessary steps. A similar request has been made to Scotland Yard and suitable action is being taken in the Metropolitan area.
Lighting: Anti-Social Behaviour

Extraneous Lights In The Vicinity Of Airfields, Aerial Lighthouses And Other Light Beacons p84
The Air Navigation Act, 1920, and the the Air Navigation (Consolidation) Order, 1923, include provisions requiring that: (a) any light exhibited in the vicinity of an aerodrome which by reason of glare is likely to endanger aircraft arriving at or departing from the aerodrome and (b) any light liable to be mistaken by the crew of an aircraft for an aerial lighthouse, or for air navigation, shall be extinguished or effectively screened on the direction of the Secretary of State or the Minister of Civil Aviation.
Similar provisions as to dangerous lights are included in the Final Act of the International Civil Aviation Conference held at Chicago in November and December 1944.
Now that wartime lighting restrictions have been relaxed and a progressive return to full scale lighting is expected, the Air Ministry and Ministry of Civil Aviation wish to offer some general guidance on the limitations on highway lighting in the vicinity of airfields, aerial lighthouses and other light beacons. To achieve their objective, they would welcome the co-operation of the Association of Public Lighting Engineers, the Illuminated Engineering Society and the British Standards Institution.
Aircraft have changed from light aircraft of low speed to heavy aircraft of high speed. This now requires a long straight shallow approach to the airfield
Aviation ground lighting may be divided into:
(1) Navigational Lights: Aerial lighthouses and any form of beacon which is operated to provide navigational assistance.
(2) Approach lights (outside the airfield): lead pilots to the airfield. These will extended 3,000 yards from the runway end. Will form an avenue of lights slightly diverging outwards. Red or yellow.
(3) Lights located on the airfield: runway, taxi-ways etc. The runway lights may be either uni-directional or visible through 360° in azimuth and will project the light above the horizontal.
Experience has shown that there has been confusion between airfield, normal highway and domestic lighting. The control of lights within the vicinity of an airfield is essential.
The requirements of the Air Navigation Acts would be fulfilled by the following:
Highway lighting: Lights within 3000 yards of the boundary of the landing area of an aerodrome should be screened so that the light source will not be visible above the horizontal. Where they are on a gradient they should be screened at such an angle as to prevent any possibility of the lights being seen from the air.
Road Traffic Control Signals: Should be screened in conformity with the Home Office Instructions for day-light operations during black-out conditions.
No lights which could be confused with an aerial lighthouse shoud be permitted i.e. neon signs, rotating white advertisements. No light which could confuse a pilot should be installed within a radius of 5 miles from an approved system of airport and approach lighting.
Lighting: Distribution, Lighting: Signs, Lighting: Specifications

Future Development Of Street Lighting by H. C. Busbridge, A.M.I.E.E.p85
Little has been done to create uniformity of policy and practice in the lighting of trunk and other main roads. In the interest of systematic progress, the following suggestions are made:
(1) Co-ordination: Local groups of the APLE be formed to give consideration to and make recommendations i.e. future lighting of specified Trunk and Main Roads in consituted areas.
(2) Finance: That the Ministry of Health be asked to co-operate with the Ministry of Transport with a view to financial proivisions that will relieve the burden of cost to small authorities and thus encourage uniformity.
(3) Automatic Control: The Government should offer some official guidance on remote control systems which will assist lighting authorities. Should also be considered by the APLE.
(4) Lighting As An Aid To Movement Of Traffic: It would be helpful as an aid to finding one's way about if one system (sodium, mercury or tungsten) was preserved for specified trunk roads i.e. follow the Blue trail going north. Some uniformity of design and/or distinctive painting of lamp pillars would further assist in the daylight.
(5) Lighting As A Security Measure: A review of road accidents due to blackout will show conclusively that good lighting is essential for road safety. It is difficult to dismiss conjecture on the lines that if in War, nations are prepared to spend at the rate of £10,000 per casualty inflicted, how much expenditure can be justified in the achievements of security on the roads, plus the amenity of good lighting.
Lighting: Authority Organisation, Lighting: Colour, Lighting: Control, Lighting: Funding, Lighting: Future, Lighting: Specifications

Obituaries p86
George Dixon, O.B.E., M.I.C.E., M.Inst.Gas.Eng. - Responsible for the Public Lighting in the City of Nottingham. Includes short history of his career.
E. J. Ireland - Manager of the Street Lighting Department at Holophane
J. Y. Fletcher - A director of the GEC.
Lighting: Personnel

Street Lighting Columns - Recent Developments p86
Prior to the introduction of the Royal Fine Arts Commission, there was little or no indication that lighting authorities wished to improve the design of lighting standards. Trying to ascertain the requirements of the industry, due to the diversity of the unwieldy number of lighting authorities, let to choices ranging from the ornately fantastic to the crudest austerity. In the absence of a central or governing body, the acceptance of the arbitrary adjudication of the Royal Fine Arts Commission presents the only hope of arriving at uniformity.
Ideals to be aimed at were indicated by H. C. Bradshaw at the APLE meeting in London in September 1943, where the points ephasised were: "simplicity, efficiency, refinement, avoidance of pretentiousness and vulgarity." Dr. English, of Holophane, submitted his 5 canons considering lantern design and he refered to lighting standards: "We now look for simple lines and correct form - instead of ornamentation; we look for perfect proportions and balance - instead of emphasis on any one ornamental feature; and above all, we expect practicability from the manufacturing, installation and maintenance points of view."
The pursuit of these very desirable ideals has culminated in the achievement of the "Adastra Hexagonal" standard which fulfils all requirements both artistic and pratical. These are now obtainable from Poles, Ltd.. Arrangements have been made for large scale production. It is a gracefully tapering pole of hexagonal section, with finial and arms perfectly proportioned and flowing into the whole delightful picture it presents. The standards are assembled on site from nested sections of approximately 8 ft. in length, which are easily transportable in large quantities wherever required. The actual erection can be carried out by two men without any special gear whatsoever, and ample accommodation for switches, chokes, etc., is provided in the base section of the pole itself. The life of the standard is ensured by the heavy coating of spelter which is applied finally, by complete immersion after fabrication. Examples of this design can be seen on poles of round or elliptical design supplied by this Company before the war.
The "Adastra" construction and finish has been used throughout the war by all three Services as the standard equipment for aerial masts.
Lighting: Columns, Lighting: Design

Fluorescent Lamps - War Record And Future Prospects p87
It is impossible to over-estimate the importance of the fluorescent lamp as a war-winning factor in munitions production. The up-grading of pre-war factory lighting to the standard required by war exigencies could not have been effected without the fluorescent lamp. The use of the fluorescent lamp allowed the quantitative increase in lighting to be achieved without a disasterous rise in peak demand, the use of larger cables and other transmission equipment.
It was invented and developed in the research laboratories of British manufacturers shortly before the outbreak of the war. A single size had been perfected i.e. 5 ft. 80W.
When the war came, the manufacturers placed at the disposal of the Government the whole of their fluorescent lamp research and production facilities and arranged for the restricted supplies to go to war factories. Following this, the Goverment set up a special organisation for dealing with the improvement of industrial lighting and co-operated with the electrical industry in ensuring the effective and economical use of fluorescent lighting.
None could be used other than in essential war factories. The only size that could be manufactured was the 5ft. 80W because it was easiest to produce in large numbers and the most efficient unit for use with industrial lighting.
As for the future, the fluorescent lamp will revolutionise both lighting standards and lighting methods in every field of artifical illumination. The single size which satisfied war-time industry will not suffice for the thousand and one decorative and utilitarian requirements in peace-time. However many war-time limitations in materials, machinery and labour still remain. However, The Electric Lamp Manufacturers Association have announced the following:
VOLTAGES: 200/250 A.C.

Warm-white was introduced in December 1944 as an alternative colour giving a light more acceptable for many non-industrial purposes. All the new lamps will be fitted with Bi-Pin caps of the American type and will be interchangeable with their American counterparts - vital for export business. 80W lamps will have B.C. caps for the present but will be made in due course with Bi-Pin caps.

Lighting: Colour, Lighting: Future, Lighting: Lamps

New E.L.M.A. Publication Dealing With Fluorescent Lamps p87
Technical Supplement No. 1, published by The Lighting Service Bureau, deals exclusively with the technical details of the fluorescent lamp. The introduction of a Warm White lamp and the fact that it is no longer necessary to obtain a licence to acquire, install or use fluorescent lighting, increases the number and variety of people directly concerned with this British invention.
Lighting: Lamps

Bound Sets Of Conference Papers p88
A limited number of sets of papers have been bound in hardcover and are now available.
APLE: Conference

An Appreciation p88
Thoughts on the passing of George Dixon by Dr. E. V. Evans, Director and General Manager, of the South Metropolitan Gas Company.
Lighting: Personnel

Letter To The Editor from George H. Davies p88
Additional thoughts on conserving fuel as discussed at the Glasgow Conference. Instead of no lighting after midnight, perhaps from dusk until midnight alternate lamps be lighted in all streets, plus extra lamps at important junctions and places of possible danger due to heavy traffic.
Lighting: Energy

Public Works, Roads And Transport Congress And Exhibition p88
The Congress and Exhibition will resume in November 1946.

The London And Southern District Junior Gas Association p88
Details of the forthcoming meeting on the 23rd November 1945.

Competition Papers p88
The two prize-winning papers announced at Conference will be published in the next two issues of Public Lighting. The first will be The Relation Of Public Lighting To Safety On The Roads by Mr. Normal Axford.
APLE: Conference

Dr. Clifford C. Paterson p88
Has recently been awarded the Faraday Medal for serviecs rendered to Electrical Science.
Lighting: Personnel

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