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ilp archive : journals

public lighting no. 42 vol. 11
July-September 1946

Editorial p85
Reflections p85
The 1946 Annual Conference of the Association of Public Lighting Engineers is now history. It was opened by the Minister of Transport, the Rt. Hon. Alfred Barnes, M.P.
APLE: Conference

The Value of a Conference p85
It is but ten years, for example, since the first display of sodium lighting was seen collectively by members of the A.P.L.E. - at Cheltenham in 1936 - yet notwithstanding the six war years, when street lighting on a high scale was stopped enitrely, there is today to be seen in all parts of the country examples of this particular form of street lighting. It was at Folkestone the following year that at least two new types of gas lamps made their appearance with equal success.
APLE: Conference

The Vice-President p85
The choice of Mr. Thomas Wilkie was met with unanimous approval of the members. Wilkie was a founder member of the Association in 1919(?).
APLE: Conference

Ministry of Transport Take Over! p85
A Departmental Circular, dated 24th August, was issued from the Minister of Transport, intimating to local authorities that, as from that date, his Department became the central authority responsible for street lighting. A greater degree of uniformity in the standards of street lighting will be the aim of the Ministry.
Lighting: Authority Organisation

A.P.L.E. Change In Constitution p86
Qualifications for membership have been classified and improved. The Junior membership has disappeared and in future they will be "Associate Members." There is also a classification for younger members to be "Student Member."
APLE: Organisation

The Annual Conference p87
Tuesday, September 10th
Mr. Alfred Barnes, M.P. (Minister of Transport) opened the Conference. It was to be hoped that as the result of the Minister seeing the Exhibition, he would be impressed with the fact that public lighting engineers were doing their best to assist in the serious problem of safety on the roads and reduction of accidents. The Ministry of Transport was now the Central Authority for street lighting and it was to be hoped that the relations between public lighting engineers and the Ministry would be very happy. As indicating the close interest the Minister was taking in this matter, he had recently pointed out that the gas mantle position was serious - they were receiving letters of complaint in the inadequancy of street lighting in various parts of the country and claims for damages - and he called on the Government to relieve lighting authorities of these difficulties. Perhaps the Minister would be able to indicate measures which would enable lighting authorities to obtain the necessary supplies of mantles, electric lamps, iron and steel and the other commodities.
Mr. Alfred Barnes, M.P. stated: "I am impressed with the view that there should be the greatest possible degree of uniformity in the standards of street lighting and wherever street lighting is provided it should be to approved standards. To achieve this, it may be necessary to consider placing the responsibility of street lighting in the hands of larger administrative units. (Uniformity does not mean the use of one type of luminant only, as good lighting can be provided in a varierty of ways, the two important factors being the right amount of light and its proper use.) The Association has taken part in several Government enquiries concerned with the question of street lighting. I commend the Association for their policy in seeking the co-operation of lighting engineers of other countries. Public lighting has now become a service of first importance. Unhappily the toll of deaths and injuries on the road is very serious. A considerable proportion of the accidents - about a quarter of the fatal accidents and a fifth of all road accidents - take place in hours of darkness. Every lighting engineer should turn their endeavours when re-installing or extending the lighting installation to better standards. Whatever scheme of street lighting can be carried out should fit in with the ultimate scheme of lighting which is necessary for the road in question and with regard to the recommendations of the MOT Report. What money and services can be applied to street lighting improvements now should be used for the provision of good lighting of a small milage of road rather than a larger mileage of mediocre or poor lighting. As the standard of street lighting is raised it will be necessary to raise the standard of qualifications of the lighting engineer. In my circular last month, reference was made to the diversity of lighting standards adopted by lighting authorities on adjacent lengths of road. There must be consultation between adjoining lighting authorities to ensure uniformity of lighting. I ask authorities to look to my Department for guidance on street lighting matters.
Lighting: Authority Organisation, Lighting: Education, Lighting: Specifications

Extraordinary General Meeting p89
Called to deal with alterations to the Articles of Association. They were adopted unanimously. Associate Members could now be co-opted to the Council: one from the gas industry and one from the electrical industry. Each co-opted member could retire from office at the annual meeting following their appointment, but was available for re-election.
APLE: Organisation

Annual General Meeting p89
Mr. W. N. C. Clinch was made President, thanked Mr. Alfred Barnes, M.P., and delivered his Presidential Address. [A copy of the paper was included in this issue but has now gone missing].
APLE: Conference

Wednesday, September 11th p89
Papers were delivered by Mr. E. C. Lennox, M.I.E.E. and Ronald Parker.
APLE: Conference

Public Lighting - Administration by E. C. Lennox, M.I.E.E. p91
Reproduction of the paper Public Lighting - Administration.

Mr. Thomas Wilkie: Larger cities which had their own public lighting departments should co-operate with and help the surrounding areas. In the area with which Mr. Lennox was concerned, this had been done for many years. But it all came back to the question of finance. He hoped the Ministry of Transport and the Association would get together and endeavour to solve the problem.
Mr. L. C. St. Leger Yeend (Sudbury Rural District Council): His authority had no lighting powers, and it was unfortunate to be between a County Council and County Borough which would not co-operate in the matter of public lighting. His district was faced with the problem of main road lighting. Rural District Councils were in a very difficult position having no longer any lighting powers. Another difficulty was that there were three different gas undertakings and two different electricity undertakings. The County Council preferred sodium lighting whilst the County Borough preferred mercury. He urged they should be tough with co-operatation and urged that it should not always be thought that the small authorities were the most backward.
Councillor W. Hepden (Shoreditch): For uniformity, was it intended that the manufacturers of one type of equipment should apply it for all lighting areas throughout the length and breadth of the country. He maintained that there was no monopoly of ideas in the large organisations and he deprecated the elimination of local ideas. He did not think that central direction would necessarily lead to graeter advance. He expressed the view that the increase in road accidents was due to the large number of second hand vehicles which were on the roads. Personally he did not want to see too much standardisation or too much central control.
Mr. H. Midgeley (Engineer, Plymouth): The Council should give the Minister some constructive ideas based on this paper.
Alderman H. A. Benwell (Bournemouth): The Council should make repersentations to the Minister. The improvements of street lighting would not be obtained unless it was asked for and pressed for. It was no use just talking about these things.
Mr R. W. Steel (Cheltenham): The author has once again rightly drawn attention to the chaotic state of street lighting on trunk roads. The reason for lighting our roads is to facilitate their lawful use by residents, pedestrians and vehicular traffic: for urban and semi-urban areas, all these road users must be catered for, but in the open coutnry, there are very few residents or pedestrians and practically all vehicles carry their own lights. As time goes on the need for further lighting of open trunk roads will increase as more use is made of them. The current burden could be eased by way of grant: there should be a fixed minimum street lighting rate - say between 6d. and 1s. per £ of rateable value - and if this is exceeded it would relieve the local authority of further expenditure on trunk road lighting. This grant should be met from road users, either by contribution from the road fund or from excise revenue from petrol. Authoritative data on the effect of bad lighting as a contributory factor in causing road accidents is badly needed, and the Association should press the Minister of Transprot to ensure that this is forthcoming.
Mr. Lennox: The general feeling was that they should go fartehr than the Ministry of Transport has done, levelling out the cost of public lighting in any particular area. He was pleased to have some support for the Regional Authority idea. He felt that the Association should give some advice and guidance to the Ministry. Indeed the Minister himself had asked for the assistance of the Association.
Lighting: Authority Organisation, Lighting:Legal

Modern Lamp Columns - Concrete p96
Picture of concrete lamp columns (Concrete Utilities) in a rural setting.
Lighting: Columns, Lighting: Manufacturers

The Public Lighting Engineer - His Organisation, Staff and Training with Postscript to Councillors by Ronald Parker p97
Reproduction of the paper The Public Lighting Engineer.

Alderman W. H. Smith (Leicester): Whereas at one time local authorities regarded street lighting as a sideline, the position was now very different.
Councillor Eastwood (Manchester): An attempt to examine every lamp in large modern cities and ensure that none was ever put out was a physical impossibility, especially with the shortage of staff. There were instances in Manchester where lamps had been out and nothing had been done until a complaint was sent to the lighting department. He supported what had been said many times at the Conference, that the need is for uniformity of visibility, rather than uniformity of illumination.
Councillor A. J. Bayne (Dundee): If the Minister of Transport had anything to do with the appointment of lighting engineers, they would want to have some control and the lighting engineer would be in the unfortunate position of having to serve all the authorities concerned in the area, plus the Ministry. He expressed the hope that local authorities would retain as much local control as possible, although there must be co-operation in order toe ensure uniformity of vision along the roads in all the areas. Therefore he did not want it to go out that lighting authorities were willing to sacrifice everything for the sake of getting certain moneies from the Government to carry on their work.
Councillor W. D. Reid (Aberdeen): He urged the need for greater co-operation among local authorities in regard to public lighting.
Mr. R. F. Brooks Grundy (Engineer, Wallasey): It would be better if the lighting engineer did nto have too much technical knowledge of either gas or electricity, otherwise he might be prejudiced in favour of one or the other. He thought it was high time the Association introduced its own examination scheme for public lighting engineers. One important consideration was the nature of the road surface, because entirely different results could be obtained from similar lighting installations with different types of road surface. The vehicles using the road must also be considered. He was disappointed that after the war, the unrestricted use of headlamps was permitted immediately.
Mr. Parker: Agreed that there should be co-operation between various departments of a local authority, but for lighting, the lighting engineer should be the specialist. All street lights remaining lighted was only a matter of organisation, and if street lamps remained out of action for any length of time, then it was due to bad organisation. Local authorities wished to retain as much local autonomy as possible, and that was why he had made his suggestions to area service rather than area control. For motor car headlights, the fundamentals of good street lighting should be that motor car headlights shuold be unnecessary.
Lighting: Authority Organisation, Lighting: Education, Lighting: Funding, Lighting: Maintenance, Lighting: Management

Maintenance Needs Efficiently Met by Welding by C. W. Brett, M.Inst.W. (Managing Director of Barimar, Ltd., Scientific Welding Engineer) p105
Some standards examined recently by the side of a main road were actually dangerous. This was due to deep seated corrosion in steel posts as a result of lack of ateention during the war. Obviously something more than paint is necessary. Then there's the damage done as a result of a road accident.
Whenever metal parts are concenred then welding methods are not only feasible for maintenance but are the most durable, rapid and least costly.
Almost any metal can be welded. Now that magnesium can be extracted from sea-water then the cost of hitherto expensive alloys based on this material will no longer be prohibitive for general use.
As far as ferrous materials are concerned, gas welding is mainly confined to cast and malleable iron, whilst electrical welding is reserved for steel.
Another important line of progress is the ability to weld together materials that are entirely dissimilar. When dealing with ferrous metals requiring protection from corrosion, spraying can sometimes be applied. This process is an off-shoot of welding which will be used far more widely to combat this trouble in future. The spraying of zinc in place of galvanizing is a valuable possibility.
When dealing with cast iron, it was usual to pre-heat the part needing attention in a muffle furnace. By the use of special equipment the welding of cast and malleable iron items can now be achieved without any preliminary pre-heating whatever. This is accomplished by a new type of equipment which localises the heat generated in the weld and allows it to be confined. The reason for furnace treatment was to prevent the danger of sudden local expansion.
Lighting: Maintenance

New Lighting in Old Bond Street, London p106
An entirely new form of street lighting is undergoing experimental trials in Old Bond Street. Mazda 80-watt 5 ft. Warm-White fluorescent lamps in special Mazdalux Lanterns have been used. The fluorescent lamps consume about half the power of the pre-war installation. A striking feature is the specially pleasing character of the lighting which preserves the natural colours of the surroundings. The Mazdalux three lamp Lanterns are specially designed for stret lighting, mounting 25 ft. above the centre of the street, and are suspending on catenary wires at 80 ft. spacings. A very simple tractive wire device enables the lanterns to be pulled in to the kerbside for servicing. This experiment was planned and designed by British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd. on behalf of the Central London Electricity, Ltd.
Lighting: Colour, Lighting: Distribution, Lighting: Energy, Lighting: Installations, Lighting: Lamps, Lighting: Luminaires

Adverts: The General Electric Co., Ltd, The Association Of Metal Sprayers, Stanton Ironworks Co., Ltd, Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd., Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd, Engineering And Lighting Equipment Co. Ltd., Holophane Ltd., British Gas Council, British Electrical Development Association, Inc, Stewarts And Lloyds Co., Ltd., The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd., Philips Lamps Ltd., The Horstmann Gear Co., Ltd., William Sugg And Co., Ltd., Automatic Telephone And Electrical Co., Ltd., British, Foreign And Colonial Automatic Light Controlling Co., Ltd., Gowshall Ltd., Broad And Co. Ltd., Willey And Co. Ltd., Falk, Stadelmann Co., Ltd., E. K. Cole Ltd, The Clockwork Engineers (J. W. and R. E. Hughes), Hobbs, Offen And Co., Ltd., James Keith And Blackman Co., Ltd. Brighton Lighting and Electrical Engineering Co. Ltd, Sangamo Weston Ltd. and Poles Ltd.