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ilp archive : journals

public lighting no. 8 vol. 2
December 1937

Editorial p103
Festive greetings and general hopes for 1938.

A Move Forward p103
A discussion took place at the Public Works Congress at the Agricultural Hall, Islington by members of the APLE to discuss the Departmental Committee's final report. A great deal of useful discussion took place with the object of clearing up obscure points and of determining on a course of action by the Association. The meeting included Dr. C. C. Paterson and Mr. J. F. Colquhoun of the Departmental Committee and Mr. F. C. Smith, Mr. J. M. Waldram and Mr. G. H. Wilson who were technical advisers to the committee. The meeting was passed with the following resolution which was moved by Mr. E. C. Lennox and seconded by Mr. T. Wilkie:

That this Meeting submit thanks to the Minister Of Transport for the Final Report issued by his Departmental Committee on Street Lighting and in expressing its full appreciation of the valuable recommendations it contains, urge that early consideration be given by him to such amendments on administration controlling the public service of Street Lighting as will enable the recommendations to be carried into effect.

Main Roads p103
The Minister of Transport has made an important announcement in Parliament with reference to financial assistance from the Government to local street lighting authorities responsible for main traffic routes. They will pay 50% of the expenditure both capital and maintenance. This is for trunk roads only. It is to be hoped that this will not mean a comparative neglect of the side roads leading to this thoroughfares; effective grading in the lighting from main to side roads should form a constituent part of any improvement scheme.

Wanted, a Campaign p104
Of the fifteen recommendations in the Final Report of the Department Committee on Street Lighting, three only contain a reference to finance. The first example, that of the period of lighting from dusk till dawn, the recommendation is qualified by the practicality of "financial consideration." The second example is the recommendation which relates to the raising the level of inadequately lighted traffic routes which is subject to "financial conditions permitting." The third instance is the consideration "that the cost of lighting roads should be aided by grants from National Funds administered by a responsible Government Department." Surely the time has come for a concerted movement by all the associations interested, to start an organised campaign which would have for its object the recognition by the Government of the fact that street lighting and public safety are inter-related and no substantial advance is possible by local authorities without recourse to the National Exchequer.

String Lighting p104
Lighting specialists who foregathered at the Manchester conference recently convened by the British Electrical Development Association (BEDA) and the Electric Lamp Manufacturers Association (ELMA) had a very useful experience. Events included a discussion on the merits of staggered lamps versus central suspension, a night inspection of various installations and demonstrations of most types of illuminant. The practice of switching off street lights during the night was criticised by several speakers. Perhaps the most striking suggestion was a system under which a cable passed overhead and being switched on, gave a continious light - a kind of string lighting.

Lighting Main Roads p104
Report of the discussion in Parliament.

Lighting: Distribution, Lighting: Funding, Lighting: Legal, Lighting: Specifications.

Electric Installation At Chelmsford p105
On Monday, 13th December, The Mayor, Councillor J. T. Bellamy J.P., performed the "switching-on" ceremony of the latest installation of Mercra and Mazda lamps in Chelmsford. The town's street lighting by electricity goes back to 1887 when, on the occasion of Queen Victoria's Jubilee, an installation of arc lamps was provided by Crompton And Company who were the original suppliers of electrical energy in the town, and by whom supply was made available to ordinary consumers in 1890. In 1892 a system of street lighting was introduced consisting of arc lamps erected on wooden poles and supplied by 1100V DC. On the granting of the first Electric Lighting Order in 1894 to Messrs. Crompton, which was tranferred to the Chelmsford Electric Lighting Company the following year, the street lighting by electricity was maintained and in 1905 the original arc lamps were replaced by the flame arc type, whilst the side streets were lighted by means of 32 candle-power carbon lamps suppled at 110V AC. In 1907 the undertaking was transferred to the Chelmsford Electric Supply Company Ltd. and in 1919 the existing arc lamps were replaced by metal filament lamps. In 1934, the electricity supply undertaking was transferred to the County Of London Electric Supply Co., Ltd..

The complete installation comprises 824 BTH units covering approximately 40 miles of lighted thoroughfares.

Main Roads
187 Mercra 400W and 250W in BTH Dilen lanterns with BTH control gear were installed along the High Street, Moulsham Street, London Road, Duke Street, Tindal Square, Springfield Road, Baddow Road, Rainsford Road, Broomfield Road, New Street, Rectory Road and at principal road junctions. The poles are arranged in a staggered formation, ranging from 120' to 150' while the lanterns are mounted at a height to conform with modern standards. The centre of the town is lit to Class "D" while Duke Street and parts of London Road are Class "E" and the remainder in Class "F."

Side Roads
637 BTH County Junior lanterns with 150W Mazda gasfilled lamps are used for the lighting of the side streets, the majority being fitted at existing positions. For the remainder, additional columns have been provided in some of the more important residential areas to increase the standard of lighting. 19 of these lanterns are fixed to special brackets fitted to company service poles carrying overhead transmission lines and 8 are used in conjunction with wall brackets.

Lighting Hours And Maintenance
The lamps are controlled by Solar Dial Time Switches and are in commission daily throughout the day - those in important positions and road junctions being lighted from dusk until dawn and the remainder from dusk until 1AM. The County Council is repsonsible for the general maintenance. This new installation affords increases in illumination of 100% in the main thoroughfares, 50% in the principle side streets and 33% in the remainder while generous lighting is afforded at the more important road junctions.
Lighting: History,Lighting: Installations

Reflecting Road Studs p105
The City Of Leeds have installed in the Otley Road a novel system of road studs (cats eyes). The lines have been laid in Otley Road, Leeds, commencing at a point on the outskirts of the city where street lamp illumination ends, to the city boundary, a distance of three-quarters of a mile. By day the line is clearly indicated by the yellow pads and by night the line is brilliantly illuminated by the reflected light of vehicle lamps. The road stud consists of a cast-iron well base into which is inserted a flexible rubber pad fitted with four crystal lenses, two lenses on eitehr side of the pad. Traffic passing over the studs compress the rubber pads to ground level and in doing so the lenses are automatically cleaned by a rubber wiper.
Lighting: Installations, Other

Warning Signals On Road Works p106
Details of a scheme suggested by the West Riding Highways Committee which was written in a letter by the County Surveyors' Society to the Executive Committee of the County Councils Association. It is a continuation of correspondence from August 1936. The suggestion is to illuminate the standard 'stop' and 'go' signals at night, and whether the Ministry of Transport would be prepared to issue regulations which would be prepared to issue regulations which would be applicable to the country as a whole. The MOT have replied that the standard signs are authorised for use in all parts of the country and that they may be illuminated but the County Surveyors' Society want it to be mandatory.

Catalogues And Booklets p106
The BCGA have issued a booklet called Light On The Roads; Holophane have issued a new catalogue illustrating their reflectors and lanterns; Horstmann have produced a new booklet of the loose leaf type; the GEC have issued a comprehensive catalogue dealing entirely in Ironclad switchgear; Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd have issued a revised catalogue dealing with ZED Cartridge fuses and Ironclad switch and fusegear.
Lighting: Publications

The Sangamo Type SS Time Switch p106
Details of this time switch which has been designed to combine the requirements of a wide range of switching applications.
Lighting: Control

Sheffield Illumination Society p106
Mr. J. F. Colquhoun, Public Lighting Engineer, Sheffield Corporation, addressed the members of the Sheffield Illumination Society on "Some Aspects of Street Lighting." Details of some recent improvements in the lighting of Sheffield streets, road safety without the use of motor car headlights and the angle separation system evolved for the lighting of bends were discussed. It was pointed out that there was no one distribution of light suitable for every kind of road. Mr Colquhoun urged that a great deal could be done by providing light backgrounds. For traffic routes and busy local thoroughfares lamps 25' high using 5000 lumens per 100 linear feet were recommended. Other roads could be lighted efficiently using posts 13' to 15' high and in such a way that those acquainted with the area would find the use of headlights unnecssary. Colquhoun also said that he would have to be convinced there was a saving using sodium or mercury lamps before he would use them. With electricity at the price he was able to obtain it, there was no saving. Following the meeting, two sound films, "Planned Street Lighting" were shown. These were provided by BTH.
Lighting: Installations

Centralised Control Of Street Lighting: The Actadis System Installed At Maidstone p107
The street lighting in Maidstone was "switched on" from a centralised control panel by Mr. J. M. Kennedy, O.B.E. before a representative gathering of Lighting Engineers. The system was the Actadis ripple control, which is a revolutionary departure from all existing methods of controlling public lighting and certain other types of load. With the Actadis system an unlimited number of circuits can be controlled simultaneously from a single distant point. The system conveys a high frequency signal "ripple" from a transmitter located in the generating station to relays located in the low tension networks. By use of ripples of different frequency, the transmitter in the central station can operate relays selectively; one frequency can turn street lights on, a second frequency can turn them off, a third frequency may switch off-peak loads on, a fourth frequency may switch them off, etc. Ten to twelve different frequencies can be supplied.

The transmitting apparatus in the central station is controlled by push buttons. The ripple signal passed through the high tension feeders and substations. It is received by Actadis relays, situated in lamp columns or in consumers' premised (for the control of off-peak loads and other services). Although the system may be novel to British engineers, Actadis installations have been in operation in other countries since 1928, and large installations are in daily service all over Europe.

In the past few years a continuous succession of large Actadis installations has demonstrated that, of all possible systems of public lighting control, the Actadis system (although not always the cheapest in initial capital cost) is among the best, since it complies with every possible requirement which the street lighting engineer can make of it.

The features are:
The street lighting of a whole city or any section of a city can be controlled by a single push button in the generating station.
This control is effected without pilot wires and the street lamps are fed directly from the network, just as if time-switches were used.
Apart from day-to-day service, public lighting can be instantaneously extingushed or relit from a central point at any time of the day or night in an emergency of fog or war.

An Actadis ripple transmitter can be operated either by push-button, by single time-switch or by a single photo-cell.

There are between 50 and 100 installations, some in the largest cities in Europe. On average, it is found there is about one failure, from all causes, in every 50,000 operations. As a relay is not continiously working and only operates for a few seconds per day, mechanical wear need not be considered. In estimating annual costs, Actadis relays can properly be written down over fifteen or twenty years and will operate without expensive maintenance.
Lighting: Control

Defying The Elements - BTH Lighting Equipment In Hong Kong p108
A typhoon in Hong Kong on September 2nd, measured at 164MPH at North Port, caused all sorts of "slight damage" including street lights. In some cases, many of the lanterns disappeared altogher. However, the BTH lanterns containing Mercra lamps on Kings Road, which were supplied two years ago, "sood up wonderfully; beyond a little glass broken and a few lamp failures there was nothing wrong with them - this is the second typhoon these lanterns have stood up to and I think this is a tribute to their construction."
Lighting: Installations

The Late Captain E. M. Severn p108
Obituary of Captain Ernest Michael Severn. He entered the services of the South Metropolitan Gas Company as a junior clerk, where he eventually became superintendent of public lighting, in which capacity he had to deal with the public lighting of at least nine of the London boroughs. His service with the company extended over 46 years. He was one of the founders of the APLE, being its first honaray Treasure and later President in 1933.
Lighting: Personnel

The Final Report - Uniformity And Bigger Administrative Units p109
Two years have passed since the Interim Report of September 1935 of which Mr. J. F. Colquhoun, Public Lighting Engineer, Sheffield, was a member. Among the fifteen recommendations contained in the Report, perhaps the most urgent are those which state "that there should be reasonable uniformity in the lighting of portions of traffic routes presenting similar characteristics," and that larger aministrative units, aided by national grants, are a necessity if effective progress towards this ideal is to be made.

A Whole-Time Engineer
Another very important opinion, which was embodied in the intermin report, was that "lighting authorities should be advised by an engineer competent to deal with street light." A whole-time specialist should be appointed by the larger or more important areas, or in those districts which do not warrant a full-time job, the engineer to the lighting authority should've made a special study of street lighting.

Extraneous Lights
The committee reiterate their previous conviction that there should be definite power given to local authorities to control extraneous lighting, in so far as such may be seriously detrimental to the light in street lamps. An allied recommendation deals with the necessity to avoid possible interference with railway signals and the need to keep in touch with the railway companies before installing street lighting in their vicinity.

Four Functions To Be Fulfilled
Street lighting has four functions to fulfil: it has to meet the daily needs of road users, the police and local residents, and also to serve various special purposed in shopping areas and important urban centres. Most of the chief problems facing Public Lighting Engieners arise out the needs of the traffic, and continual growth of motor traffic has made this problem much more complicated and more urgent.

Two Groups Of Roads
After full considersation, the Committee came down on the side of a broad classification of roads into two groups: (A) "traffic routes" and (B) "other roads." Group A roads were those where the standard of lighting provided an ample margin of safety for all road users without the use of headlights by motor vehicles.

Technical Chapters
Parts IV to XIX of the Report deal with technicals aspects of street lighting.

Circular 504
On the 2nd November, concurrently with the publication of the Final Report, the Minister of Transport issued Circular 504 (Roads) in which he draws the attention of local authorities to the final report. The Minister expresses his confidence that a local authority, when considering the installation or improvemetn of street lighting systems, will pay regard to the important technical recommendations contained in the Report. The Circular adds that the only power which the Minister possesses to contribute from central funds towards the expenses incurred by lighting authorities is that conferred in certain cases by Section 6 (4) of the Trunk Roads Act. The Act does not apply to the County of London.

The recommendations are then reproduced in full.
Lighting: Specifications

A Question In Parliament p110
On the 17th November Mr. Lyons asked the Minister Of Transport what steps he proposed to take on the recommendations in the Final Report. The Parlimanentary Secretary responded that the report had alraedy been brought to the attention of all local authorities by Circular 504. He hoped that all the authorities would put the recommendations into effect.
Lighting: Specifications

New Methods Of Road Lighting - Some Recent Developments in France p111
Description of new street lighting installations in France.

The simplest type of street lighting unit is a cruciform standard 12'-15' high set on a square base in sheet iron in which the contacts and connections are placed. The lantern is a spherical glass globe divided into two parts. Inside the globe is the lamp with a prismatic refractor designed to give either a longitutindal or circular dispersion of the light. Above a 500W incandescent lamp is horizontal 280W mercury vapour lamp which has its light directed upwards and is intented to illuminate the trees. In some standards the base of the lamp is built with small projectors throwing their light upwards and outwards and lighting up the standard itself; others are designed with discharge tubes in blue light to stress the vertical lines. These lights give a very interesting decorative effect and their installation in Paris has proved very popular.

Saulnier Duval Frisquet have brought out a lantern for rural road lighting with a view to a more even distribution of light over the road surface. The apparatus consists of a lamp provided with a symmetrical reflector to either side of which special reflectors are fitted. These are long tubes which project from the sides and have a profile designed to reflect the light of the lamp on to the road in a series of vertical planes parallel with the axis of the road. These lamps are placed with their axes at right angles to that of the road and their spacing is calculated so that the bands of light overlap to give an even brilliancy on the road surface.

A different idea is that of the Forclum Photostrade lamps. These depend on the fact that the greatest brilliancy of the road is obtained from rays of light which strike it at an angle approaching 90°. To obtain this, the apparatus consists of a very low base in concrete with an internal chamber to provide space for a small transformer. On the top of this base is a cast-iron hood in which is fixed a light similar to an ordinary motor car headlight. The light is arranged so that its rays are cast on to the road at a distance of about 30', so that the rays hit the road at an angle varying between 85° and 90° from the vertical. The lights are staggered on either side of the road and their reflectors are regulated so that alternate reflectors on opposite sides of the road produce intersecting beams. The lamps run at 12V, 70W.
Lighting: Luminaires, Lighting: Distribution

New Lighting For Barwell p112
Brief description of the new installation in Barwell.
Lighting: Installations

Hackney Installs First Luminescent Street Lighting p112
Brief description of the new installation in Hackney.
Lighting: Lamps, Lighting: Installations

Increased Demand For Clock Controllers p112
The Horstmann Gear Co., Ltd. report another record year in all branches of their activities. The additional demand for Newbridge Controllers, Comets and Time Switches has necessitated the aquisition of large additional works. The Comet has been particularly successful and has been adopted by numerous public authorities and gas undertakings.
Lighting: Control

Improved Lighting At Ealing p112
Brief description of the new installation at Ealing.
Lighting: Installations

Place De La Concorde - An Interesting Experiment In The Heart Of Paris p117
The Place De La Concorde is one of the largest open spaces in any city in the world. The lightign is provided by 212 gas standards on mountings of 13'. Modern requirements demands still better lighting: but increasing the height of the existing standards wouldn't be appreciated from an aethetic point of view; and increasing the brightness would increase the glare. Therefore telescopic electric lamp pillars were used. Ten have been installed on the outside board of the Place. Each is 100' in height and support six 1500W incandescent lamps which are housed in an upright cylinder of 12' in height and placed at the top of the telescopic column. Each lamp is placed within a reflector of silvered prismatic glass which shines out across the Place. The lamp standards are constructed of four steel tubes. An sunset, by control of the Actadis system, the lamp is extended upwards to its full height and the lamps are lit progressively. The telescopic lamp standards were supplied by Le Tube d'Ocier and the lenses and lanterns were constructed by Holophane.
Lighting: Distribution, Lighting: Luminaires, Lighting: Installations

Ovecoming Colour Difficulty p118
The three principle ways of improving the colour rendering of mercury discharge lamps are:
The addition of cadmium and zinc to the mercury of the inner tube. This lowers the efficiency from 45 to 37 lumens per watt but gives approximately 2½% more red rays.
The combined electric dischage tube and tungsten filament. It gives approximately 8% more red rays but the efficiency is only 25 lumens per watt.
Lamps with Fluorescent Powder Coating on the outer bulb. The standard mercury lamp inner tube is enclosed in a larger outer bulb than that used for standard lamp types. The interior surface of the bulb is coated with a substance whcih becomes fluorescent under the action of ultra-violet waves and converts this energy into visible light. The initial efficiency is 38 lumens per watt with a red ratio of 5-6%. In modern street lighting, control of the light output is a matter of first importance and lanterns used for use with electic discharge lamps are designed to distribute correctly a comparatively narrow cord of light. However the outer bulb of this new lmap becomes the light source presenting an extremely difficult problem in light control. A directional lantern designed for standard mercury discharge lamps will give nothing like such an efficient performance if used with fluorescent lamps.
Lighting: Lamps

New 400W Osira Luminescent Lamps p118
A new Osira high pressure mercury vapour discharge lamp has been introduced by the GEC. The new lamp has been designed with consideration for the colour of the light given - the luminescent powder coating on the inner side of the outer bulb converts invisible ultra-violet rays into visible rays at the red end of the spectrum. The lamp is made in a cone-shaped isothermal bulb and also in a tubular bulb for use in certain street lighting lanterns where dimensions will not accomodate the cone shaped bulb. It was developed for industrial lighting to fulfil the need where colour discrimination is essential, but it also has an important application in street lighting for promenades, bus and coach stations, quaysides and landing stages. It can be used in existing 400W Osira circuits.
Lighting: Lamps

Leicester p118
Brief description of the new installation in Leicester.
Lighting: Installations

Dublin's White Way - An Experimental Mile Of Lighting p119
A mile of Merrion Road has been lit experimentally to meet traffic conditions: very heavy, continuous and fast and includes buses and trams. The route is lined on each side by tramway standards and these have been used as lamp standards. The thoroughfare averages 64' wide and is comprised of a roadway 38'6" wide with a pathway 12'9" on each side. Brackets with a projection of 6' towards the centre of the roadway are mounted on the tops of the tram standards above the span wires. Each bracket is fitted with a four-way adjusting device which permits the mounting of lanterns truly vertical over the road surface irrespective of the setting of the standards in the ground. The lanterns are mounted opposite each other across the roadway and the average spacing is 121'. The average height of the light sources is 25'6". Each lantern is fitted with a 300W incandescent filament lamp. The lanterns cut off all light within 20° of the horizontal plane. They have a well ventilated canopy and body of sheet copper enclosing a single-piece silvered mirror dome reflector with refracting prisms on the outer and silvered surface of the glass. The lantern is open at the bottom and includes no glassware other than the reflector. Focussing is controlled by a single eternal thumbscrew and the lamp filament can be moved not only in a vertical plane but alos in a horizontal plane. The illumination on the road surface averages 1.0 F.C. under the lighting units and 0.33 F.C. at the test point, giving a diversity in illumination of 2.8 : 1. The diversity of brightness is greater than the diversity of illumination and is visible to the eye - this does not effect "visibility". More even brightness can be obtained by altering the focus of the lamps byt the introduction of a more high angle light inevitably increases the brightness of the units and gives rise to a complaint of glare. The concensus of public opinion is that adequate "visibility" is provided for all normal usage of the road and that the variations in road surface brightness are infinitely preferable to even the smallest degree of glare.
Lighting: Distribution , Lighting: Installations, Lighting: Luminaries

County Councils Association Considers MOT Report p119
Last year the Association decided not to offer any objection to the Interim Report and they have now approved the following resolutions in the Final Report:
The Highways Committee do not with to offer any objection, but before expressing a final opinion, they want to hear from the County Surveyors' Society on the subject.
The committee regret the apparent omission from the report of any reference to the Association's previous observations regarding the danger and confusion caused on roads at night by the widespread use of coloured lights, especially on premises in proximity to traffic signs and signals.
The recommendation that lighting authorities should be empowered to control extraneous lighting should be extended to cover such extraneous lighting as may endanger traffic.
Lighting: Specifications

Light Actuated Control p120
Paragraph 96 of the Final Report states "that street lighting should be continued from dusk to dawn." The only method that can completely comply with this recommendation is light-actuated control. Mr. D. M. Kinghorn, A.M.I.E.E., the Borough Electrical Engineer of Southwark, was one of the first to realise the value of this type of control and has been installing light-actuated control units for a number of years. (Includes picture).
Lighting: Control

Silhouette Lighting p120
A new type of gas lamp is to be used for the first time in London for modernising Paddington's main street ligthting. 73 Maxill lamps will be erected in Praed Road, Porchester Road, Queen's Road, Westbourne Grove, Clinton Road and Carlton Vale, and they will be mounted 120' apart and 25' high. The effect will form a bright background against which pedestrians, motor cars and other traffic will stand out clearly as silhouettes. The existing lamps will be transferred to Elgin Avenue and Sutherland Avenue to replace smaller lamps.
Lighting: Installations, Lighting: Luminaires

New 400W Osira Luminescent Lamps p120
Pictures of the cone-shaped and tubular versions of the lamps.
Lighting: Lamps

Air Raid Precautions p120
There has been much discussion recently on the subject of air raid precautions by local authorities and Government Departments. Street lamps must be dimmed or extinguished at a moment's notice. The Gas Meter Company, Limited are announcing a an emergency control device which will allow street lighting to be extinguished. The device might also serve as an air raid warning to gas consumers because of the reduction in pressure. At a reduction in pressure he gasway is closed, but an adjustable leak is allowed which supplies sufficient gas to keep a small flame at the nozzle of the burner without illuminating the mantle; thus when pressure is again increased to normal, street lighting comes into operation again.
Lighting: Control

Improved Gas Lighting At Keighley p121
Report of the new gas lighting installation at Keighley. Includes picture.
Lighting: Installations

New 400W Mercra Luminescent Lamps p121
Wherever colour discrimination is required, modern mercury vapour has disadvantages. The spectrum of the standard Mercra lamp is rich in blue, green and yellow light, but deficeint in red light, which is only 1-2%. The new lamp consists of a inner glass envelope containing mercury and cadmium. The inside wall of the special outer jacket is coated with a powder with fluoresces strongly under ultra-violet radiation and produces visible red light from the previously wasted energy. The electrical characteristics of the lamp are similar to those of the standard 400W Mercra, the same standard choke and condenser equipment being necessary. As fluorescent powders show a decrease of efficiency during life if they are operated at too high a temperature, the outer envelope of the Mercra fluorescent lamp is considerably larger than that of the standard Mercra lamp and has been specially designed to ensure an even temperature distribution over the fluorescent surface. The fluorescent coating acts, to some extent, like a pearl bulb and diffuses the light. Optical re-direction of this light by special lanterns is difficult due to the size. Therefore the lamp is specially suited for industrial lighting. For street lighting perfect colour rendering, although aesthecically desirable, is not essential, and that the fluorescent lamp is not intended for general street lighting. The new lamps are made in two types: iso-thermal bulb type and tubular bulb type. The tubular bulb type is intended for use in existing street lighting lanterns.
Lighting: Lamps

Correspondence p122
A Reflection From Folkestone
In the paper Some Further Experiments In Street Lighting, Dr. English and Mr. Stroud show under conditions of their test that 75° gives a minimum glare figure - the test had been arranged to show the 75° beam to advantage as the mirror used in the experiment was too short and the higher beams to not illuminate it. Also the glare from the near source is neglected. - P. G. Sandeman, Assistant Inspector Of Lighting, Edinburgh

Letter From Holophane, Limited
The test was not designed to show 75° to advantage. Visibility and glare was derived from other research, and similar results were gained from the model street and full sized street in Westminster. A higher beam would certainly give a higher reflective value but one also gets a higher glare figure and less visibility. This is the point of our argument - one wants a bright background, with a minimum of glare and a maximum of visibility, and we find that the maximum beam at 75° gives the best compromise of these conflicting factors. Glare from near sources was not neglected. - E. Stroud, City Engineer, Holophane Limited
Lighting: Theory

Bexhill p122
Brief description of the new installation at Bexhill.
Lighting: Installations

An Ingenious Tower-Wagon Outfit For Southport p122
A new type of Tower Wagon as used by the Gas Department of the County Borough of Southport is pictured. It is mounted on a 2½-ton chassis and cane be raised and lowered by hydraulic ram driven from the engine. All operations can be performed by one man.
Lighting: Equipment

Street Lighting Notes p123
Brief description of the installations at Castleford, Knutsford, Saltburn and Marske, Broadstairs and St. Peters, Saltcoats, Lymm, Stoke-under-Ham, New Romney and Greatstoke, Oswaldtwistle, Jersey, St. Faith's and Aylsham, Ramsey Isle-Of-Wight, Nantwich, Repton, Salisbury, Hatfield, Norwich, Prestatyn, Ilkeston, Paddington, Greenwich, Leyton, Stockport, Tauton, Troon and Winchelsea.
Lighting: Installations

E.D.A. - E.L.M.A. Street Lighting Conferences p124
Four street lighting conferences have been held during the autumn. They were to bring councillors, committee members and officials of many lighting authorities up-to-date with the progress being made in electric lamps and electric street lighting practice and the Final Report. The lecture "The New Era In Electric Lighting" was given followed by "Modern Street Lighting", a discussion, and then motor coach tours. Events were held in Hull, Norfolk, London and Manchester

Concrete Lamp Columns At Blackpool p124
H.R.H., the Duke Of Kent, recenty opened two magnificent new promenades. The long vista of concrete lamp columns is decidely a fine feature of these new sea walks. They were made by Concrete Utilities.
Lighting: Installations

Light On The Roads p124
A booklet has been issued by the British Commerical Gas Assocation and deals with many items contained in the Departmental Report issued recently by the Ministry Of Transport. Some excellent examples of gas street lighting are included in the booklet including some installations seen recently in Folkestone.
Lighting: Publications

Street Lighting Notes p126, p128
Brief description of the installations at Norwich, Leyton, Stockport, Taunton, Troon, Winchelsea, Binbrook, Canterbury, Derby, Hornsey and the floodlighting of police points in Manchester.
Lighting: Installations

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