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ilp archive : journals

public lighting no. 27 vol. 7
October-December 1942

Editorial p45
Legislation Needed? p45
Mr. Higgins, in his address to members of the I.E.S., emphasised the need for some form of control of lighting by legislation. That an improved standard for public lighting throughout the land is desirable, goes without the dispute. The Final Report paved the way for improvements in this matter. In the Report, a high and efficient standard was set, and to the credit of many towns, subsequent installations to this new standard of street lighting have been carried out.
The Government Department concerted, in issuing its report can only recommend - it cannot enforce. Unfortunately these recommendations can be ignored and many lighting departments of local authorities who prefer to carry out their own ideas of street lighting. Therefore there is a lack of uniformity, which should be the aim of all public lighting engineers, and in particular, the case of lighting main highways.
Each lighting authoritiy is a power unto itself, and can install any form of street lighting in its own boundary. These standards of illumination are often governed, not by the demands of the district, but in competition to "outdo" an adjoining district, or perhaps by a parsimonious lighting committee.
The standard of good lighting has already been recommended in the Final Report. The second sessential and natural corollary is uniformity of street lighting. In this matter an appropiate Government Department could, and should, help.
Lighting: Specifications

The Lighting Engineer p45
If legislation is suggested for improving the standard of street lighting, so, too, is the essential need for raising the status of the public lighting engineer himself. The profession calls for well-trained and highly skilled men with organising abilities, and men of wide vision. Only will it be possible to achieve the desired and satisfactory improvements in street lighting throughout the country, when each local authority has its officially appointed and fully qualified public lighting engineer.
Lighting: Management

War-Time Lighting p45
It seems surprising after three winters of "black-out" conditions, that some authorities are still discussing whether or not to light their streets with war-time fittings. From the experience gained by a large number of leading members of the APLE, there is no dobut to the value of even the small amount of lighting permitted. So keen have been some engineers over the success of their installations, that they have intimated their willingness to act as "missionaries" to go aruond the country proclaiming its value.
While that may not be possible, the Council of the Association is willing at all times to assist local authorities in an advisory capacity by preparing estimates and making a case for war-time fittings.
Lighting: ARP

Highways Obstructions War-Time Lighting p46
Southwark Borough Council wrote in June 1942, regarding Home Security Circular No 107/1942, which expresses the hope that local authorities will proceed with the lighting of obstructions as rapidly as possible. The council points out that there is a considerable difficulty in giving effect thereto, on account of the shortage of labour and materials. Further, lights installed to illuminate obstructions have been removed by local inhabitants as it was feared they would attract enemy planes. In the case of Foster v. Gillingham Corporation, hurricane lamps indicating a barrier went out on a windy night and a cyclist was injured, and it was held that the authority was liable for the negligence of their servant, in failing to see that the hurricane lamps were alight.
The circular, whilst not imposing a duty on local authorities, suggests certain steps which might be taken. The difficulties caused by the shortage of labour and supplies affect local authorities, not only in respect of the illumination of bomb craters, air raid shelters, water storage tanks and other obstructions occasioned directly by the war, but also carrying otu their duty as highway authorities.
It is laid down in Greenwood v. Central Services Co., Ltd. (1940) that there is nothing under S.130 of the Metropolis Management Act imposing any duty to light an obstruction. The duty has been aborgated by reason of the provisions of the Lighting (Restrictions) Order 1939. It follows that if the council provide such lighting as may be permitted under the order, they would be doing so not as an obligation, but as part of the war effort.
It would not be unreasonable to expect that where local authorities provide lights and then take reasonable measures for maintenance, the Minister of Home Security should indemnify the authority and allow any damages awarded in respect of claims against them and be eligible for reimbursement by way of grant, and that this should apply not only to the lighting of war-time obstructions, but to all protective lighting in connection with the war effort.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Legal

Plasduct - The New Insultating Tubing System p46
Plasduct is a new insulting tubing systems for use where close-joint tubing or cleat wiring was specified. It is constructed of bakelised paper and has the following properties: (a) insulator, (b) good mechanical strength, (c) strong resistance to delamination, (d) resists corrosion by many chemicals, (e) highly resistant to moisture and (f) light weight.
There are only five component parts: (1) tubing, (2) tubing coupler, (3) circular junction box, (4 and 5) two covers. Each unit is matt finished.
By using the junction box in place of the fitting normally employed with metal conduit, a complete tubing system can be easily and quickly devised with an absolute minimum of parts. These features, coupled with the extreme simplicity of installation, and consequently the comparatively low labour charges, make Plastduct particularly suitable for present day emergencies.
It is a product of the General Electric Co. Ltd.

Congratulations p46
The Leon Gaster Memorial Premium of the Illuminating Engineering Society for the best paper of the year, has been awarded to Mr. J. N. Aldington, B.Sc., A.I.C., F.Inst.P. of the Preston Research Laboratories of Siemens Electric Lamps and Supplies, Ltd.
Lighting: Personnel

Lighting And Post-War Reconstruction by A. G. Higgins, M.Sc. p47
Extracts from a paper given to members of the I.E.S. at the Royal Society Of Arts on Tuesday, December 8th. A. G. Higgens was the outside lighting superintendent of the South Metropolitan Gas Company.
The urgency and magnitude of the task of reconstruction will be so great that, unless considerable thought is given to the matter at once, the actual results might be chaotic and an opportunity for sociological improvement might be completely wasted.
The task of reconstruction is twofold: (1) It must be determined exactly what lighting conditions are necessary for the particular purposes they are called upon to fulfil and (2) The ways and means of securing these lighting conditions must be decided upon. It is with the second of these aspects that we are more particularly concerned.
The future of lighting must inevitably depend upon public opinion. The methods available for securing the desired results were: (1) Educational, (2) Legislative and (3) Shown in recognised codes of practice. A survey had revealed a reliance on education, and there is very little positive control by legislative means (except for industrial lighting). It is felt by many that full advantage of the opportunity of post-war lighting planning will bring will be obtained only by the co-option of legislative assistance.
On the street lighting the position is that, apart from Sctoland and London, there is no compulsion about steret lighting. The Public Health Act of 1875, section 161, empowers highway authorities to light streets under their control, but does not require them so to do. No standard of illumination or form of illumination is laid down in any of the above mentioned Acts, the only attempt to formulate any standard was made by the Ministry Of Transport before the war.

The Discussion
Sir Duncan Wilson: Outlined the work that preceeded the passing of the Factories Act in respect to adequate lighting of industiral establishments and gave proof that legislation had improved efficiency of the workers, both as to health and labour.
Mr. Thomas Wilkie: Speaking on behalf of the APLE, he said it is hoped that all Reconstruction Committees will be composed of men with broad and generous outlook and not partisan. Reconstruction in street lighting has been going on for a long time, although we did not all it so - it was a natural attempt to improve the effectiveness of a much valued and important public service. These attempts were meeting with a certain amount of success until the outbreak of war.
Some of the following points require adjustment in the post-war period. Some have been discussed in other circumstances, some are referred to in the Final Report, whilst others are the permanent aims of the APLE.
Street Lighting Must Be Made Compulsory And Standards Specified
While it will not solve all problems, it will lay a safe and solid foundation on which to build. Let us press hard for compulsory powers. Only then will it be possible to light our streets to the standard we all feel is necessary and which financially is within the capacity of the National Exchequer.
Central Lighting Authority
Street lighting should be administered by a central authority. This would naturally follow compulsory powers. The value of a Central Lighting Authority, provided it is advised by experts, could be stupendous. It would obviously have an independent research station or access to one or more, because while we must all acknowledge the enormous value of the research which has been so efficiently undertaken by some of hte larger firms, their approach to problems is bound to be more or less commercial.
Areas Controlling Street Lighting Shuold Be Reduced To A Minimum
This also logically follows. It can be accepted that in the smaller areas, rural and urban, the decision to light or not to light is usually made on the cost which is involved. The cost of road lighting should be dealt with on a national rather than a local basis. It just should not be possible for lcoal influences to bring undue weight to bear on the decision to give or withhold any public service.
Cost Should Be Dealt With On National Rather Than Local Basis
Many instances have been cited showing how unfair are the financial burderns which are imposed on areas having a low rateable value if lighting to a modern standard is installed. It is obviously unfair to ask local authorities to provide an amenity which is going to be largely used by people who contribute nothing. It is not a new principle. It is in operation in regard to maintenance of certain roads, and in regard to police matters and others.
Lighting In Built-Up Areas And Outside
The roads here are main traffic routes - Group A in the Final Report. These roads should be lit to such a standard as would make the use of headlamps unnecessary, even unlawful. The prohibition of headlamps would surely be a considerable contribution to road safety. I would supoort the Departmental Committeee in their recommendation of a minimum mounting height of 25' for Group A roads. No other method appears to be so simple in informing motorists that they are in an important road. The problem is somewhat different in residential roads. There is undoutedly "for" and "against" as regards to using hightly mounted lamps in such roads, and also the desirabiltiy of having such lighting as much interfere with the ability to sleep at night. On trunk roads outside built-up areas no lighting whatever should be permitted and certainly not systems employing lamps spaced great distances apart (called beacon lighting). In service roads, that is, roads supplying the needs of houses built clsoe to arterial roads, all lighting should be shaded in such a way that it is not visible from the main road.
Control Of Lighting In Cities
Much of this control is by individual timeswitch or controller set to operate at a prearranged time. Much more thought so be given to the question of group control. I would like to see it made compulsory for main road to be controlled from a central point or points. Control should be such as would enable streets to be lit immediately climatic conditions make it necessary. No new main road installation should be approved unless provision is made for central control, either by mains of a separate street-lighting cable or an extra core in an ordinary cable. Overhead supply cables should be very sparingly used and should be prohibited entirely in residental streets.
Independent Lighting Control
The local authority's contribution must be: (1) Appoint an official solely responsible for lighting; (2) Appoint only officials who are fully qualified; (3) Enable and assist theses officials to set up and maintain an efficient organisation including test rooms; (4) To give facilities to attend conferences and visits of inspection of other cities; (5) To rank lighting as one of hte essential communal servics.
The official's contribution must be: (1) To keep himself up-to-date in the latest developments; (2) To insist upon his staff taking the necessary courses of training; (3) To realise his work cannot be done in an office; (4) To use all possible means to educate his council, and the public generally, in the value of lighting.
Small authorities who cannot afford a separate lighting official should be strongly advised to allow certain officials to specialise in lighting. Alternatively there might be appointed a country or regional lighting engineer for such areas.
Other "Municipal" Lighting
The lighting department should take a prominent, even a deciding interest, in all lighting matters. This would include all municipal lighting: schools, offices, drawing offices etc.
Education Of Public
There is a great need for real pepped-up education on lighting matters. We must make the public discontented with present conditions. Much has been done by the I.E.S. and the A.P.L.E., but greater assistance might be rendered by the E.D.A. and the B.C.G.A..
Lighting: Authority Organisation, Lighting: Control, Lighting: Future, Lighting: Management, Lighting: Specifications

Prolongation Of Patents by S. T. Madeley p50
Judgment of two patents by Mr. Justice Simonds, one being a foreign patent, the other assigned to the Government under Section 30 for the "War Munitions" and "Secret Section" act. Both judgements affect the prolongation of patents under Section 18 (6) of the Acts.
The amended Patent Act of 1942 limits such prolongation to 10 years.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Legal

The Late Walter N. Slingsby p50
Walter N. Slingsby was the Commercial Manager of Walter Slingsby And Co. Ltd of Keighley. He was thrown from an Army truck and fatally injured on October 15th whilst on Home Guard duties. He was an Associate of the APLE and represented his company on the Society Of British Gas Industries
Lighting: Personnel

The L. E. Buckell p50
Partial retirement of L. E. Buckell who was in charge of the Technical Section of the Osram Lamp Department of the GEC. He is an Associate of the APLE.
Lighting: Personnel

The Importance Of Street Lighting As A Public Service p51
It was not until September 1939 that the public as a whole became aware of the importance of the street lamp. The chief anxiety now, is to be indoors at the approach of "black-out" hour. To this end, it is the task of the Public Lighting Engineer and his Lighting Committtee to prepare for the day of relighting. The work of relighting presents various problems: there are some important towns that have thoroughfares without a sound street lamp column standing; whilst in others, such as the City Of London, the very buildings from which the engineer suspended the lamps have gone.

A Public Service
In the opinion of not a few, however, it is suggested that the task of both engineer and committee would be made easier if they had the guidance of a central and official control. But here, it must be agreed, is a national service that would be improved and to a great extent standardised for the benefit of all if a controlling hand could be exercised. Whilst each locality should by right be entitled to administer its own lighting department, there would be no need to rob any authority of its civic dignity, when submitted to the dictates of a central advisory body. It is realised that the setting down of defined standards of illumination for specific types of roadways lead to uniformity of street lighting throughout the country. Indifferent lighting, possibly antiquated, bad spacing of columns and various mounting heights creates an atmosphere of gloom and leaves much to be desired in the matter of safety for pedestrian and driver.
The time is possibly ripe for some such consideration being given to this matter. Public lighting should certainly become a matter of uniformity and the setting up of a central control with powers to determine standards of illumination for specified types of highways, the approving of new lighting installations with the one view always in sight, namely, that of ever improving the lighting qualities on the highway, must in the end be a welcome innovation.

The Improved Status Of The Lighting Engineer
The application of such improvements in street lighting woudl call for the raising of the status of the public lighting engineer. He should be duly qualified for the task and hold a diploma either from a professional association or society, or from a recognised technical college, or both. His appointment should be advertised in the muncipal or technical press, and be selected by interview. Not until there is a raising of the standard of the public lighting engineer in the profession itself, can there be any real improvement in street lighting. Too often it has been found that the task of administering street lighting has been relegated to a junior official with a very indifferent knowledge of the science of illumination. Such appointments are both undesiable and financially wasteful.

What Has A Lighting Installation To Achieve?
Its primary purpose is to enable all users to recognise as easy as possible everything on the road of interest. A secondary purpose is to make the road, attractive to users and to give them confidence. Lighting engineers have studied all the measurable properties of the installation and of the surface of roads and even of pedestrians themselves; they have tried to find out what makes for good "visibility" or "cheerfulness." They have recognised the conflict between "glare" and "road brightness" and sought to find a balance. New and more efficient lamps have made possible considerable improvements.
A "Brighter Better Britain" shuld be the slogan set before the public lighting fraternity. To improve the general well-being of the community is a continuing task. The streets will need to be relighted to a standard above a pre-war level. Light, and still more light, will be the universal demand.
Lighting: Authority Organisation, Lighting: Future, Lighting: Management, Lighting: Specifications

News From U.S.A. by S. G. Hibben, Chairman Of The Committee On Defence Of The I.E.S. Of America p52
In the USA, they have duplicated the general style of outdoor street lighting units being used in the UK for black-out purposes. The prototype distribution curve is identical in both countries. The black-out problem is for the moment less acute, and on the basis of a possible air raid of short duration, the present method is to merely turn off all street lighting. A more troublesome problem is the matter of dim-out, the measure to reduce sky brightness and assist in concealment of coastwise vessels. Where new fittings cannot be installed, the method is generally to apply a fibre cone or shield the existing unit.
For series systems with filament lamps, it's become prevalent to reduce the current and thereby effect a reduction in lumens. Typically a 6.6A circuit is operated at 5.7A resulting in 60% decrease in lumens.
We are not satisfied with our protective lighting measures, and a considerable research job is underway to accumulate more definite data, especially upon sky-brightness and dim-out.
Lighting: ARP

Second Thoughts by Mr. D. G. Sandeman, B.Sc., Lighting Superintendent Of Stepney, London p53
The specification BS/ARP 37 has accomplished in a very complete way what it set out to do. Now it is time for second thoughts. We should've been more punctual. It is true that a few experiements were tried out, notably in Liverpool, but these were a rather scattered effort than unified endeavour. It is hoped that the Association will not forget the lesson, nor again leave to manufacturers of lamps and fittings a duty which is ours by right. Is there still no call for a committee of our members to prosecute research, or must we continue to await the pleasure or the concerted commercial policy of our suppliers? Shall we continue the bovine consumption of manufacturers' products, or shall we direct their development. It is the writers' view that as an Association we have well deserved to be passed over by the Ministry Of Home Security for a more active body of advisers.
The problem of aids to movement in the black-out is one still calling for thought and endeavour. Things have altered. Vehicles are allowed a sufficiency of light and pedestrians are allowed torches. Public lighting engineers have failed, the torch and battery people have come to the aid of our bewildered citizens.
Visibility from above must depend upon lumens reflected from the surface of the street and buildings. Each street forms an elongated box with the lid off, and the light intensity had to be reduced till the streak of light became invisible from the elevation selected. If we narrow down our street to a lane of light, say 2' broad along each kerb, can we not greatly increase the intensity? Instead of 0.0002 foot-candles, we could have 0.002 foot-candles along each path. Such lanes of light would provide light for pedestrians and direction for both pedestrians and vehicles.
Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Theory

Adverts: British, Foreign And Colonial Automatic Light Controlling Co., Ltd., William Sugg And Co., Ltd., Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd., Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd, Engineering And Lighting Equipment Co. Ltd., Philips Lamps Ltd., British Commercial Gas Association, The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd., British, Foreign And Colonial Automatic Light Controlling Co., Ltd., Hobbs. Offen And Co. Ltd., Poles Ltd and The General Electric Co., Ltd.