ilp archive : journals
public lighting no. 27 vol. 7
- Editorial p45
- Legislation Needed? p45
- Mr. Higgins, in his address to members of the I.E.S., emphasised the need for
some form of control of lighting by legislation. That an improved standard for public lighting
throughout the land is desirable, goes without the dispute. The Final Report paved the way
for improvements in this matter. In the Report, a high and efficient standard was set,
and to the credit of many towns, subsequent installations to this new standard of street lighting
have been carried out.
- The Government Department concerted, in issuing its report can only recommend - it cannot
enforce. Unfortunately these recommendations can be ignored and many lighting departments of
local authorities who prefer to carry out their own ideas of street lighting. Therefore there is a
lack of uniformity, which should be the aim of all public lighting engineers, and in particular,
the case of lighting main highways.
- Each lighting authoritiy is a power unto itself, and can install any form of street lighting
in its own boundary. These standards of illumination are often governed, not by the demands of the
district, but in competition to "outdo" an adjoining district, or perhaps by a parsimonious
- The standard of good lighting has already been recommended in the Final Report. The
second sessential and natural corollary is uniformity of street lighting. In this matter an
appropiate Government Department could, and should, help.
- Lighting: Specifications
- The Lighting Engineer p45
- If legislation is suggested for improving the standard of street lighting, so, too, is
the essential need for raising the status of the public lighting engineer himself. The profession
calls for well-trained and highly skilled men with organising abilities, and men of wide vision.
Only will it be possible to achieve the desired and satisfactory improvements in street lighting
throughout the country, when each local authority has its officially appointed and fully
qualified public lighting engineer.
- Lighting: Management
- War-Time Lighting p45
- It seems surprising after three winters of "black-out" conditions, that some authorities
are still discussing whether or not to light their streets with war-time fittings. From the
experience gained by a large number of leading members of the APLE, there is no dobut to the value
of even the small amount of lighting permitted. So keen have been some engineers over the success
of their installations, that they have intimated their willingness to act as "missionaries" to
go aruond the country proclaiming its value.
- While that may not be possible, the Council of the Association is willing at all times
to assist local authorities in an advisory capacity by preparing estimates and making a case
for war-time fittings.
- Lighting: ARP
- Highways Obstructions War-Time Lighting p46
- Southwark Borough Council wrote in June 1942, regarding Home Security Circular No 107/1942,
which expresses the hope that local authorities will proceed with the lighting of obstructions as
rapidly as possible. The council points out that there is a considerable difficulty in giving effect
thereto, on account of the shortage of labour and materials. Further, lights installed to
illuminate obstructions have been removed by local inhabitants as it was feared they would
attract enemy planes. In the case of Foster v. Gillingham Corporation, hurricane lamps
indicating a barrier went out on a windy night and a cyclist was injured, and it was held that
the authority was liable for the negligence of their servant, in failing to see that the hurricane
lamps were alight.
- The circular, whilst not imposing a duty on local authorities, suggests certain steps which might
be taken. The difficulties caused by the shortage of labour and supplies affect local authorities,
not only in respect of the illumination of bomb craters, air raid shelters, water storage tanks
and other obstructions occasioned directly by the war, but also carrying otu their duty as highway
- It is laid down in Greenwood v. Central Services Co., Ltd. (1940) that there is nothing
under S.130 of the Metropolis Management Act imposing any duty to light an obstruction. The duty
has been aborgated by reason of the provisions of the Lighting (Restrictions) Order 1939. It follows
that if the council provide such lighting as may be permitted under the order, they would be doing so not
as an obligation, but as part of the war effort.
- It would not be unreasonable to expect that where local authorities provide lights and
then take reasonable measures for maintenance, the Minister of Home Security should indemnify the
authority and allow any damages awarded in respect of claims against them and be eligible for
reimbursement by way of grant, and that this should apply not only to the lighting of war-time
obstructions, but to all protective lighting in connection with the war effort.
- Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Legal
- Plasduct - The New Insultating Tubing System p46
- Plasduct is a new insulting tubing systems for use where close-joint tubing or
cleat wiring was specified. It is constructed of bakelised paper and has the following properties:
(a) insulator, (b) good mechanical strength, (c) strong resistance to delamination, (d)
resists corrosion by many chemicals, (e) highly resistant to moisture and (f) light weight.
- There are only five component parts: (1) tubing, (2) tubing coupler, (3) circular junction
box, (4 and 5) two covers. Each unit is matt finished.
- By using the junction box in place of the fitting normally employed with metal conduit,
a complete tubing system can be easily and quickly devised with an absolute minimum of parts.
These features, coupled with the extreme simplicity of installation, and consequently the
comparatively low labour charges, make Plastduct particularly suitable for present
- It is a product of the General Electric Co. Ltd.
- Congratulations p46
- The Leon Gaster Memorial Premium of the Illuminating Engineering Society
for the best paper of the year, has been awarded to Mr. J. N. Aldington, B.Sc., A.I.C.,
F.Inst.P. of the Preston Research Laboratories of Siemens Electric Lamps and Supplies, Ltd.
- Lighting: Personnel
- Lighting And Post-War Reconstruction by A. G. Higgins, M.Sc. p47
- Extracts from a paper given to members of the I.E.S. at the Royal Society Of Arts
on Tuesday, December 8th. A. G. Higgens was the outside lighting superintendent of the
South Metropolitan Gas Company.
- The urgency and magnitude of the task of reconstruction will be so great that,
unless considerable thought is given to the matter at once, the actual results might be chaotic
and an opportunity for sociological improvement might be completely wasted.
- The task of reconstruction is twofold: (1) It must be determined exactly what lighting
conditions are necessary for the particular purposes they are called upon to fulfil and (2)
The ways and means of securing these lighting conditions must be decided upon. It is with the
second of these aspects that we are more particularly concerned.
- The future of lighting must inevitably depend upon public opinion. The methods available
for securing the desired results were: (1) Educational, (2) Legislative and (3) Shown in recognised
codes of practice. A survey had revealed a reliance on education, and there is very little
positive control by legislative means (except for industrial lighting). It is felt by many
that full advantage of the opportunity of post-war lighting planning will bring will be
obtained only by the co-option of legislative assistance.
- On the street lighting the position is that, apart from Sctoland and London, there is
no compulsion about steret lighting. The Public Health Act of 1875, section 161, empowers highway
authorities to light streets under their control, but does not require them so to do. No standard
of illumination or form of illumination is laid down in any of the above mentioned Acts, the
only attempt to formulate any standard was made by the Ministry Of Transport before the war.
- The Discussion
- Sir Duncan Wilson: Outlined the work that preceeded the passing of the Factories Act
in respect to adequate lighting of industiral establishments and gave proof that legislation
had improved efficiency of the workers, both as to health and labour.
- Mr. Thomas Wilkie: Speaking on behalf of the APLE, he said it is hoped
that all Reconstruction Committees will be composed of men with broad and generous outlook and
not partisan. Reconstruction in street lighting has been going on for a long time, although
we did not all it so - it was a natural attempt to improve the effectiveness of a much valued
and important public service. These attempts were meeting with a certain amount of success until
the outbreak of war.
- Some of the following points require adjustment in the post-war period. Some have been
discussed in other circumstances, some are referred to in the Final Report, whilst others
are the permanent aims of the APLE.
- Street Lighting Must Be Made Compulsory And Standards Specified
- While it will not solve all problems, it will lay a safe and solid foundation on which to
build. Let us press hard for compulsory powers. Only then will it be possible to light our
streets to the standard we all feel is necessary and which financially is within the capacity of the
- Central Lighting Authority
- Street lighting should be administered by a central authority. This would naturally
follow compulsory powers. The value of a Central Lighting Authority, provided it is advised
by experts, could be stupendous. It would obviously have an independent research station
or access to one or more, because while we must all acknowledge the enormous value of
the research which has been so efficiently undertaken by some of hte larger firms, their approach
to problems is bound to be more or less commercial.
- Areas Controlling Street Lighting Shuold Be Reduced To A Minimum
- This also logically follows. It can be accepted that in the smaller areas, rural and urban,
the decision to light or not to light is usually made on the cost which is involved. The
cost of road lighting should be dealt with on a national rather than a local basis.
It just should not be possible for lcoal influences to bring undue weight to bear on the decision
to give or withhold any public service.
- Cost Should Be Dealt With On National Rather Than Local Basis
- Many instances have been cited showing how unfair are the financial burderns which are
imposed on areas having a low rateable value if lighting to a modern standard is installed.
It is obviously unfair to ask local authorities to provide an amenity which is going to be largely
used by people who contribute nothing. It is not a new principle. It is in operation in
regard to maintenance of certain roads, and in regard to police matters and others.
- Lighting In Built-Up Areas And Outside
- The roads here are main traffic routes - Group A in the Final Report. These roads should be
lit to such a standard as would make the use of headlamps unnecessary, even unlawful. The
prohibition of headlamps would surely be a considerable contribution to road safety. I would
supoort the Departmental Committeee in their recommendation of a minimum mounting height of
25' for Group A roads. No other method appears to be so simple in informing motorists that
they are in an important road. The problem is somewhat different in residential roads. There
is undoutedly "for" and "against" as regards to using hightly mounted lamps in such roads,
and also the desirabiltiy of having such lighting as much interfere with the ability to sleep
at night. On trunk roads outside built-up areas no lighting whatever should be permitted and
certainly not systems employing lamps spaced great distances apart (called beacon lighting).
In service roads, that is, roads supplying the needs of houses built clsoe to arterial
roads, all lighting should be shaded in such a way that it is not visible from the main road.
- Control Of Lighting In Cities
- Much of this control is by individual timeswitch or controller set to operate at a
prearranged time. Much more thought so be given to the question of group control. I would like
to see it made compulsory for main road to be controlled from a central point or points. Control
should be such as would enable streets to be lit immediately climatic conditions make it necessary.
No new main road installation should be approved unless provision is made for central control,
either by mains of a separate street-lighting cable or an extra core in an ordinary cable.
Overhead supply cables should be very sparingly used and should be prohibited entirely in residental
- Independent Lighting Control
- The local authority's contribution must be: (1) Appoint an official solely responsible for
lighting; (2) Appoint only officials who are fully qualified; (3) Enable and assist theses
officials to set up and maintain an efficient organisation including test rooms; (4) To give
facilities to attend conferences and visits of inspection of other cities; (5) To rank lighting
as one of hte essential communal servics.
- The official's contribution must be: (1) To keep himself up-to-date in the latest
developments; (2) To insist upon his staff taking the necessary courses of training; (3)
To realise his work cannot be done in an office; (4) To use all possible means to educate his
council, and the public generally, in the value of lighting.
- Small authorities who cannot afford a separate lighting official should be strongly advised
to allow certain officials to specialise in lighting. Alternatively there might be appointed a
country or regional lighting engineer for such areas.
- Other "Municipal" Lighting
- The lighting department should take a prominent, even a deciding interest, in all lighting
matters. This would include all municipal lighting: schools, offices, drawing offices etc.
- Education Of Public
- There is a great need for real pepped-up education on lighting matters. We must make the
public discontented with present conditions. Much has been done by the I.E.S. and
the A.P.L.E., but greater assistance might be rendered by the E.D.A. and the
- Lighting: Authority Organisation, Lighting: Control, Lighting: Future,
Lighting: Management, Lighting: Specifications
- Prolongation Of Patents by S. T. Madeley p50
- Judgment of two patents by Mr. Justice Simonds, one being a foreign patent,
the other assigned to the Government under Section 30 for the "War Munitions" and "Secret Section"
act. Both judgements affect the prolongation of patents under Section 18 (6) of the Acts.
- The amended Patent Act of 1942 limits such prolongation to 10 years.
- Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Legal
- The Late Walter N. Slingsby p50
- Walter N. Slingsby was the Commercial Manager of Walter Slingsby And Co. Ltd
of Keighley. He was thrown from an Army truck and fatally injured on October 15th whilst
on Home Guard duties. He was an Associate of the APLE and represented his company
on the Society Of British Gas Industries
- Lighting: Personnel
- The L. E. Buckell p50
- Partial retirement of L. E. Buckell who was in charge of the Technical Section of
the Osram Lamp Department of the GEC. He is an Associate of the APLE.
- Lighting: Personnel
- The Importance Of Street Lighting As A Public Service p51
- It was not until September 1939 that the public as a whole became aware of the
importance of the street lamp. The chief anxiety now, is to be indoors at the approach of
"black-out" hour. To this end, it is the task of the Public Lighting Engineer and his Lighting
Committtee to prepare for the day of relighting. The work of relighting presents various
problems: there are some important towns that have thoroughfares without a sound street lamp
column standing; whilst in others, such as the City Of London, the very buildings from which
the engineer suspended the lamps have gone.
- A Public Service
- In the opinion of not a few, however, it is suggested that the task of both engineer and
committee would be made easier if they had the guidance of a central and official control.
But here, it must be agreed, is a national service that would be improved and to a great extent
standardised for the benefit of all if a controlling hand could be exercised. Whilst each locality
should by right be entitled to administer its own lighting department, there would be no need to
rob any authority of its civic dignity, when submitted to the dictates of a central advisory body.
It is realised that the setting down of defined standards of illumination for specific types
of roadways lead to uniformity of street lighting throughout the country. Indifferent lighting,
possibly antiquated, bad spacing of columns and various mounting heights creates an atmosphere
of gloom and leaves much to be desired in the matter of safety for pedestrian and driver.
- The time is possibly ripe for some such consideration being given to this matter.
Public lighting should certainly become a matter of uniformity and the setting up of a central
control with powers to determine standards of illumination for specified types of highways,
the approving of new lighting installations with the one view always in sight, namely, that of ever
improving the lighting qualities on the highway, must in the end be a welcome innovation.
- The Improved Status Of The Lighting Engineer
- The application of such improvements in street lighting woudl call for the raising of the
status of the public lighting engineer. He should be duly qualified for the task and hold a diploma
either from a professional association or society, or from a recognised technical college, or
both. His appointment should be advertised in the muncipal or technical press, and be selected
by interview. Not until there is a raising of the standard of the public lighting engineer
in the profession itself, can there be any real improvement in street lighting. Too often
it has been found that the task of administering street lighting has been relegated to a junior
official with a very indifferent knowledge of the science of illumination. Such appointments are
both undesiable and financially wasteful.
- What Has A Lighting Installation To Achieve?
- Its primary purpose is to enable all users to recognise as easy as possible everything on
the road of interest. A secondary purpose is to make the road, attractive to users and to give
them confidence. Lighting engineers have studied all the measurable properties of the installation
and of the surface of roads and even of pedestrians themselves; they have tried to find out
what makes for good "visibility" or "cheerfulness." They have recognised the conflict between
"glare" and "road brightness" and sought to find a balance. New and more efficient lamps
have made possible considerable improvements.
- A "Brighter Better Britain" shuld be the slogan set before the public lighting fraternity.
To improve the general well-being of the community is a continuing task. The streets will
need to be relighted to a standard above a pre-war level. Light, and still more light, will
be the universal demand.
- Lighting: Authority Organisation, Lighting: Future, Lighting: Management, Lighting: Specifications
- News From U.S.A. by S. G. Hibben, Chairman Of The Committee On Defence Of The I.E.S. Of America p52
- In the USA, they have duplicated the general style of outdoor street lighting units being used
in the UK for black-out purposes. The prototype distribution curve is identical in both countries.
The black-out problem is for the moment less acute, and on the basis of a possible air raid
of short duration, the present method is to merely turn off all street lighting. A more troublesome
problem is the matter of dim-out, the measure to reduce sky brightness and assist in concealment
of coastwise vessels. Where new fittings cannot be installed, the method is generally to
apply a fibre cone or shield the existing unit.
- For series systems with filament lamps, it's become prevalent to reduce the current and
thereby effect a reduction in lumens. Typically a 6.6A circuit is operated at 5.7A resulting
in 60% decrease in lumens.
- We are not satisfied with our protective lighting measures, and a considerable research job
is underway to accumulate more definite data, especially upon sky-brightness and dim-out.
- Lighting: ARP
- Second Thoughts by Mr. D. G. Sandeman, B.Sc., Lighting Superintendent Of Stepney, London p53
- The specification BS/ARP 37 has accomplished in a very complete way what it set out to do.
Now it is time for second thoughts. We should've been more punctual. It is true that a few experiements were tried out, notably
in Liverpool, but these were a rather scattered effort than unified endeavour. It is hoped that
the Association will not forget the lesson, nor again leave to manufacturers of lamps and fittings
a duty which is ours by right. Is there still no call for a committee of our members to
prosecute research, or must we continue to await the pleasure or the concerted commercial policy
of our suppliers? Shall we continue the bovine consumption of manufacturers' products, or shall
we direct their development. It is the writers' view that as an Association we have well
deserved to be passed over by the Ministry Of Home Security for a more active body of advisers.
- The problem of aids to movement in the black-out is one still calling for thought and
endeavour. Things have altered. Vehicles are allowed a sufficiency of light and pedestrians are
allowed torches. Public lighting engineers have failed, the torch and battery people have
come to the aid of our bewildered citizens.
- Visibility from above must depend upon lumens reflected from the surface of the street and
buildings. Each street forms an elongated box with the lid off, and the light intensity had to
be reduced till the streak of light became invisible from the elevation selected. If we narrow
down our street to a lane of light, say 2' broad along each kerb, can we not greatly increase the
intensity? Instead of 0.0002 foot-candles, we could have 0.002 foot-candles along each path.
Such lanes of light would provide light for pedestrians and direction for both pedestrians and
- Lighting: ARP, Lighting: Theory
British, Foreign And Colonial Automatic Light Controlling Co., Ltd.,
William Sugg And Co., Ltd.,
Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd.,
Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd,
Engineering And Lighting Equipment Co. Ltd.,
Philips Lamps Ltd.,
British Commercial Gas Association,
The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd.,
British, Foreign And Colonial Automatic Light Controlling Co., Ltd.,
Hobbs. Offen And Co. Ltd.,
Poles Ltd and
The General Electric Co., Ltd.