1927: British Standard Specification 307: Street Lighting
1931: British Standard Specification 307: Street Lighting (Revised from 1927)
1935: MOT Departmental Committee On Street Lighting: Interim Report
1937: MOT Departmental Committee On Street Lighting: Final Report
1952: Code Of Practice: CP 1004:1952 (First Edition)
1963: Code Of Practice: CP 1004:1963 (Second Edition)
1973: Code Of Practice: CP 1004:1973 (Third Edition)
1987: British Standard Specification BS 5489-1 (Fourth Edition)
1992: British Standard Specification BS 5489-1 (Fifth Edition)
2003: British Standard Specification BS 5489-1 (Sixth Edition)
street lighting theories
The "illumination model" based on interior lighting practice was used until the late 1920s. It led to
British Standard Specification 307 (1927).
The "negative contrast" or "silhouette vision" of street lighting practice was developed by members of the
GEC from the late 1920s. The development of the medium-pressure mercury vapour lamp (MA)
allowed the "mechanism" to be determined and it became the major theoretical underpinning of street ligthing
practice from the mid-1930s to the 1960s. The concept of "revealing power" was developed to quantify and
rate various systems. The ideas formed the foundations of the theory of the
MOT Report (1937) and the subsequent
British Standards Code Of Practice (1952).
A "constant glare" model was suggested by Sandeman in 1936. Rather than subject the driver
to changing glare conditions, Sandeman put forward a fitting which produced constant illumination
at all angles of observation. Unfortunately he did not consider the effect of road illumination or reflection
by such lanterns and the idea was never pursued. - [Sandeman, 1936]
Note that lamp type designations (such as MA, MB etc.) seem to first appear in 1938, notably in a paper
by J. N. Aldington.
"Osira" Luminous Tube Lamp (1932-1933 literature)
High Pressure Mercury Vapour Lamp (HPMV) (until superceeded by the MB in 1937).
Hard Glass Mercury Vapour Lamp
Medium Pressure Mercury Vapour Lamp (MA) (post 1937 literature)
Manufactured as: Osira by the GEC, Mercra by
BTH, Crompta by Crompton,
Escura by Edison Swan,
Metrovick by Metropolitan Vickers,
Philora by Philips and the
Sieray by Siemens.
Trialled in June 1932. Full scale installation in March 1933.
Life: 1500 hours.
1932: 40 lm/W
For the lighting of roads carrying heavy motor traffic.
1934: 36 lm/W
For the lighting of secondary roads.
1935: 45 lm/W
MA (colour modified)
1935: 37 lm/W
With cadmium/zinc additions to the discharge tube. Not recommended for street lighting
due to the low efficiency. Sold as the Sieray "W" type.
1935: 25 lm/W
Also known as the Sieray "Dual Lamp" and developed at the
Siemens Lamps Works in Preston. In early 1937, a version with modified electrodes was developed
for D.C. supplies.
1937: 21 lm/W
First introduced in 1937.
1936: 32 lm/W
To be used at low mounting heights.
1937: 33 lm/W
1937: 40 lm/W
1937: 37 lm/W
First introduced on the 1st December 1937. With cadmium/zinc additions to the discharge tube and fluorescent powder on the inner surface of the outer
bulb. Two versions produced: isothermal bulb and tubular bulb. (Tubular bulb would be less efficient over life
due to degradation of the fluorescent powders but developed to fit in existing light fittings.)
- Light source three times the efficiency previously available with GLS.
- Its use brought on unexpected developments in the knowledge of the mechanism of street
lighting and radical change in the basis on which installations designed.
Due to J. W. Ryde and colleagues at the GEC Research Laboratories
that the practical form of this lamp was produced which was capable of operating at high efficiency
for a long life on the ordinary supply mains.
It consists of a tubular glass vessel containing rare gases (argon) at low pressure
and a small quantity of mercury. At eitehr eind of the tube is sealed an electrode.
The discharge raises the temperature of the electrodes and bulb which increases the
vapour pressure of the mercury. If the pressure is sufficient then the discharge takes
the form of a narrow, intensely bright column between the electrodes.
Aluminosilicate glass used for the inner tube, developed especially by
the GEC for this purpose. It could only withstand pressures up to one
atmosphere. (It was known that a quartz inner tube could be operated at higher pressures
with more efficiency but there are problems sealing the electrodes through the
The electrodes consist of a stick of rare-earth oxides, held in a tungsten spiral.
(It is a variation of the Wehnelt cathode). To
vapourise all the mercury and obtain an adequate and constant mercury-vapour pressure, local
cooling must be avoided. Therefore it is sealed into a second tubular bulb. The outer bulb
contains oxygen at low pressure as this has been found to reduce a formation of an absorbing
film on the inside of the inner bulb. A metallic coating to the ends of the inner bulb is applied
in order to prevent low temperatures in this locations.
An auxiliary electode is used to facilitate starting. This is a wire sealed to the inner bulb
near one main electrode and is connected through a high resistance.
The electodes are heated by bombardment and as they, and the bulb, is warmed up then the
mercury is vapourised.
Dimensions controlled by the luminous efficiency, maintenance of light output during life and
stability of the discharge.
Life is 1500 hours. During life blackening gradually occurs at the ends of the buld and efficiency
400W rating chosen as 400W lamp has an efficiency about two-and-a-half times the 1000W GLS lamp.
It was conceived as a replacement for the 1000W GLS lamp for industrial, area and street lighting.
Therefore it was capable of producing first class public lighting when used with spacings of 100-200 feet.
Fitted with a GES (E40s) screw cap.
Colour modification is achieved by:
- Use of an auxiliary external tungsten filament lamp.
- By introduction of cadmium and zinc into the mercury lamp. This adds a small amount of red and
a large amount of blue. (This type of lamp was not recommended for street lighting due to efficiency
- Incorporation of a filament into the mercury lamp itself (designated MAT).
- Use of fluorescent substances such as the organic dye Rhodamine which aborbs yellow-green light and
emits orange-red light. Unfortunately Rhodamine converts visible light, efficiency is
reduced, and it slowly decomposes under ultra-violet light. It was used to coat the reflectors
around the lamp. By 1936, the use of Barium Sulphide and Cadmium Zinc Sulphide to the inside
of the lamps and to transparent panels in the fitting were being investigated.
By 1937, two versions of the luminescent 400W lamp were made available. The primary light source was the
inner tube of a special 400W mercury-cadmium discharge lamp designed to operated with the normal 400W choke
coil. The outer bulb was internally coated with the luminescent powder. The isothermal bulb was designed to
give the optimum performance where the lighting fitting imposes no restriction on the bulb shape; the tubular
bulb was designed that it will go into normal discharge fittings. The efficiency was 37 lumens per watt.
The red-ratio is now 5%-6% as compared with 1% of the normal lamp.
Lamps could be burned horizontally by using an electro-magnetic deflector fitted into
the lamp. The power loss in the deflector was slight so that
the overall efficiency of the lamp was not materially reduced, but the cost of
the lantern was increased by the extra component. This was first developed as the
Mercra H lantern by BTH in 1934. Special lamps with a wider arc tube were also
developed for horizontal mounting but were less efficient. Special chokes were also developed for the use of
standard MA/V lamps mounted horizontally.
It was known during the development of the lamp that to take advantage of a known
increase in efficiency by operating the lamp at higher vapour pressures, then it would
be necessary to use fused silica or quartz for the containing vessel. The development
of this lamp was delayed by the problems found creating a hermetic seal for the current
By 1937, further research had enabeld glasses with higher softening points so that
with only a slight reduction in mercury vapour pressure, special lamps can
be operated horizontally without a magnetic deflector. Lamps of this kind
in the 400W size had been used for floodlighting for some time, but it was only
recently that they have been developed to a stage suitable for street lighting
in 250W and 400W sizes. The proximity of the arc to the wall of the inner bulb produced
a cooling action with affected the lamp voltage; therefore to ensure that the lamp wattage
did not vary, choke tappings were be changed or specially designed chokes were
In late 1937, a new Osira high pressure mercury vapour discharge
lamp was been introduced by the GEC. (The luminescent or
MAF lamp.) The new lamp
was been designed with consideration for the colour of the light
given - the luminescent powder coating on the inner side of the outer
bulb converted invisible ultra-violet rays into visible rays at the red
end of the spectrum. The lamp was made in a cone-shaped isothermal
bulb and also in a tubular bulb for use in certain street lighting
lanterns where dimensions didn't accomodate the cone shaped bulb. It
was developed for industrial lighting to fulfil the need where
colour discrimination was essential, but it also has an important
application in street lighting for promenades, bus and coach stations,
quaysides and landing stages. It could be used in existing 400W
In late 1937, BTH also introduce the luminescent Mercra
lamp which is also available in tubular and iso-thermal types.
High Pressure Mercury Lamp (1937 literature)
Mazda Mercra Lamps by BTH,
Philora by Philips,
Sieray QH High Pressure Mercury Lamps by Siemens.
Life: 1500 hours.
1937: 32 lm/W
1938: 38 lm/W
1937: 40 lm/W
Development ongoing in 1935. Philips Lamp Company announced the development of
a single-seal glass which would join quartz to a tungsten wire for super high-pressure
artifically cooled lamps. BTH were working on the molybdenum foil seal
without the need for intermediate glasses whilst Siemens in 1936
developed a method of sealing molybdenum directly to quartz. Experimental lamps of this
type existed in laboratories in late 1935/early 1936.
The arc passes between two special activated cathodes, one
of which is associated with an auxilliary electrode to facilitate
starting. Operating characterists in general are simialr to those
of the high wattage lamps (initially the MA seris), the running
up and cooling times are reduced.
Lamps can be operated in any position.
For the first time Electric Discharge Lamps of low wattage available
in bulbs of the same shape and size as Gas Filled lamps. Initially
advertised as could be used for equipment designed to accommodate
the larger 150W and 200W Gas Filled Lamps.
Initially offered in 80W and 125W versions in 1937.
Two new ratings have been added to the H.P.M.V. range. It is in the
form of the inner tube in which the arc burns that changes have been made. In
the larger lamps this tube is made of glass and a lower limit to its size is set
by the heat of the arc. Lamps of smaller wattage have smaller efficiencies.
Thereore with smaller lamps, the efficiency can be raised if the arc is formed
in a tube smaller than is possible with glass and the mercury vapour pressure
is thereby increased. Use has been made of fused silica, and so it has been
possible to rate the 125W and 80W lamps at 40 and 32 lumens per watt
respectively. The arc is considerably smaller than in the higher wattage lamps
and its brightness is consequently some six or seven times as high. Partly on
this account the lamps are normally made with internally frosted (Pearl)
outer bulbs to provide a certain amount of diffusion.
Increasing the mercury vapour pressure improves the colour of the light.
The percentage of red light has increased from 1% to 2% and the proportion of
blue light is greater.
The overall dimensions are similar to those of the 200W and 150W tungsten
lamps and the middle of the arc in the lamp is at a position corresponding
to that of the filament in the tungsten lamps. Glass temperatures are such
that the lamps can be burned in the open without risk of cracking from rain
splash. In order to avoid accidental insertion of the lamps into BC
lampholders connected directly to the mains, a three-pin bayonet cap is used.
Development has also taken place in the design of chokes where the whole assembly
is enclosed in a wax filled case. The advantages of this type of choke over
the exposed type are the greater protection from weather and mechanical
damage and the greater convenience in installation.
In early 1939, BTH introduce the luminescent Mercra MB
lamp which is available in 80W (3BC) and 125W (ES) sizes.
Fluorescent Merucry Lamp (type MBF) available in two sizes: 80W (3040 lumens) and
125W (5000 lumens). Average life 15000. Internally coated bulbs. Three-pin bayonet caps.
Low Pressure Mercury Vapour Discharge Lamp / Luminescent Tube / Fluorescent Tube
Mentioned by J. N. Aldington in his a 1938 paper.
"The most striking use of fluorescence is that in which various powders are coated on the inside of low pressure
mercury discharge tubes i.e. fluorescent tubes. Of very low power consumption, these tubes are being produced experimentally
for interior illumination."
- "The luminious radiation from the mercury is extremely low, most of the energy being in the ultra-violet region,
which strongly excites the special powders now available."
- "Fluorescent materials, capable of being excited by direct contact with low pressure mercury discharge, are available in
a wide range of colours."
- "Compound powders are possible which have a continuous response over the whole visible spectrum."
"The efficiences are from 30-40L/W with a consumption of the order of 25W in a tube about one metre in length."
Included in Philips Technical Review (No. 9, Vol 3, 1939) where the research on low-pressure luminescent tubes
Low Pressure Sodium Vapour Discharge Lamp (1937 literature)
Life: 1500 hours.
Average through 2500 hours
"Emit monochromatic light. Their reception was sceptical at first, but well designed installations
have subsequently met with general approval. Efficiency is extremely high. Used more on the Continent than UK, but
have been associated usually with Continental lighting practice (cut-off). Such installations are satisfactory until
a source of glare is introduced such as oncoming headlights. Later installations have been fitted with open or refractor
type fittings with much more cheery results." - [Lennox, 1939]
Range is rerated in 1938 by ELMA. The new ratings were: 140W (10,000 lumens), 85W (6100 lumens), 60W (3900 lumens)
and 45W (2500 lumens).
Henry Barton (a skinner by trade) who was the Lord Mayor of London "ordained
lanthorns with lights to be hanged out on winter evenings between Hallowtide
and Candlemas." - [Bressey, 1936]
The Lord Mayor installed the oil lighting at his own expense to limit the activites of
cut-throats and footpads. - [Woodall, 1938]
First Glasgow Lighting Department formed - [Ward and Mann 1934]
The department is one of the oldest services of the Glasgow Corporation. In 1800, the first Glasgow Police Act
made the lighting of the streets a statutory duty. The streets were lit with oil and wick. - [Public Lighting #14, 1939]
Pall Mall lit by gas. It is claimed to be the first street to be lit by gas. - [Foot, 1937]
When the Allies entered Paris, they found the public lighting was completely disorganised
by Russian troops who climbed the posts to drink the paraffin from
the lamps as it was the nearest equivalent to vodka. - [Woodall, 1938]
The first gas lamp lit in Glasgow. - [Public Lighting #14, 1939]
A Rural Parish can be a Lighting Authority under the
Lighting And Watching Act, 1833. These powers are very limited. It cannot
act as a Local Authority without first calling a meeting of Local Government
Electors to "adopt" the Lighting And Watching Act by a two-thirds majority.
Then, to gain a loan, it would need the consent of (1) a Parish Meeting
(2) the County Council and (3) the Ministry Of Health. The Parish Council
must call, each year, a Parish Meeting to sanction the amount to be
raised in the forthcoming year to carry out the provisions of the act. - [Lennox, 1935]
Professor J.T. Way demonstrates the first mercury discharge lamp installed on Brunel's newly
constructed Hungerford suspension bridge in London. Based on modified arc lamps, the arc is enclosed in a glass vessel
and formed between an electrode and a pool of mercury. Light is produced from the vapourised mercury vapour in
the glass tube, evaporated by the intense heat of the discharge. Thus the intense white heat produced by the
electrode tips (as produced by an ordinary arc lamp) is enhanced by the blue-green light of the mercury discharge.
English Parliamentary Candle or British Candle,
set up under the Metropolis Gas Act as an official standard, for the purpose of testing London gas. [Pelham 1911, p4]
Glasgow Police Act issued and empowers the Lighting Department "to erect and maintain lamps, lamp-posts, and other appurtenances for lighting in a suitable manner, all public and private streets, courts and common stairs within the city,
to light the dial plates of turret clocks and city timepieces, and to appoint and Inspector of Lighting to take charge
of that work and be responsible for the good conduct of the lamplighters and others appointed by him." [Ward and Mann 1934]
The German Candle standard, a paraffin candle, officially adopted by the
German Association of Gas and Water Engineers. [Pelham 1911, p4]
A City, City Borough, Municipal Borough or Urban District Council can undertake public
lighting under the Public Health Act, 1875, Section 161 and be considered a Lighting
Authority. - [Lennox, 1935]
A Rural District Council can not be a Lighting Authority but can obtain Urban Powers
under the Public Health Act, 1875, Section 276. - [Lennox, 1935]
The Harcourt Lamp standard, a pentane burner, is introduced and after
modification becomes the official standard of the Metropolitan Gas Referees and the unofficial 10-candle British standard.
[Pelham 1911, p4]
The first commercial electric lamp is produced. [Public Lighting #12, 1939]
Part of the City Of London is experimentally lit by Siemens Bros. & Co. using
arc lamps. Six arc lamps taking about 30A DC are placed on poles 80 feet high, and about fifty others taking 12A AC are
placed on poles 20 feet high.
Each arc lamp is fitted with a clear glass globe and the masts are constructed from light iron trellis work. They are
mounted in front of the Bank Of England.
The spacing of columns is in accordance with the principle that the illumination at a point on the horizontal plane
at a given distance from the point below the lamp is a maximum when the ratio of the distance to the height of the
lamp is √ 2 to 1.
Therefore the lamps are placed at a distance apart equal to 2.83 times their height above the ground (as 2.83 is 2*√ 2 ).
Pelham mentions that the setting of distances by this calculation at this early date is interesting.
[Pelham 1911, p40]
(See also: Law Of Inverse Squares in the Glossary.)
Robert Louis Stevenson publishes an essay entitled A Plea For Gas Lamps. This may
have been prompted by the original Pall Mall installation and the new arc lamp installations
[A Plea For Gas Lamps]
Violle standard is proposed for international adoption at the Electrical
Congress at Paris in 1881. It uses a square centimeter of molten platinum to produce light.
[Pelham 1911, p7]
The first "pipless" electric filament lamp is made. [Public Lighting #12, 1939]
Hefner Lamp standard, which uses amyl-acetate as fuel, is first developed
and after several modficiations becomes the official standard in Germany, is adopted by the American Institute of Electrical Engineers,
and, provisionally, by the Bureau of Standards of the Unitied States.
[Pelham 1911, p5]
Robert Louis Stevenson publishes The Lamplighter Poem.
My tea is nearly ready and the sun has left the sky;
It’s time to take the window to see Leerie going by;
For every night at teatime and before you take your seat,
With lantern and with ladder he comes posting up the street.
Now Tom would be a driver and Maria go to sea,
And my papa’s a banker and as rich as he can be;
But I, when I am stronger and can choose what I’m to do,
Oh Leerie, I’ll go round at night and light the lamps with you!
For we are very lucky, with a lamp before the door,
And Leerie stops to light it as he lights so many more;
And O! before you hurry by with ladder and with light,
O Leerie, see a little child and nod to him tonight!
The first neon advertising sign is made where each letter in made in the form of a lamp for each letter
shaped by the carbon filament. [Public Lighting #12, 1939]
The "Pearl" and "Opal" electric filament lamps are introduced. [Public Lighting #12, 1939]
The first electric street lamp is produced. [Public Lighting #12, 1939]
The Arc Standard is proposed in which an electric arc is used as
the basis of an official standard. Later investigations reveal continuous movement of the arc, an
insuperable problem, and prevents any potential adoption. [Pelham 1911, p13]
Somzee and Greyson of Belgium construct a water-driven compressor
to increase the pressure of the gas to about 8" water column. This is considered the pressure
required for "high pressure" or "intensified" gas lighting.
George Keith also constructs a water-driven compressor
to increase the pressure of the gas to about 8" water column. This is considered the pressure
required for "high pressure" or "intensified" gas lighting.
The British, Foreign And Colonial Automatic Light Controlling Company Limited is founded after
John Gunning invents the first clock driven gas light controller.
The Illuminating Engineer, the official journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, London is
A vaccum seal between metallic conductors and quartz using lead goes into extensive use. However, it isn't
suitable for high pressure discharge tubes and research for a solution takes another 23 years. - [Aldington, 1936]
The Association Of Public Lighting Engineers is formed. Their official journal
is, initially, The Illuminating Engineer. Their first display of lighting equipment takes place
in a back yard behind Holborn Town Hall.
British Engineering Standards Association Sub-committee 5, on Street Lighting, publish 1000 copies of
British Standard Specification 307. It's based on an
illumination model (as used by interior lighting) and defines eight road classes (A-H) of different illuminations which are achieved
by five rigid units of system. The second part of the specification is geared towards testing the effectiveness of
installations for tender by rated mean test points measured in foot-candles. The
specification also includes a method of grading glare, based on recent research work.
The copies are distributed to various institutions, associations, interested parties and is discussed by the
Institution of Electrical Engineers, Council of the Institution of Gas Engineers,
Illuminating Engineering Society and the Institution of Public Lighting Engineers.
"In principle the specification was most favourably received and awakened a wide interest, and the criticisms presented,
which were considerable, were most helpful and constructive. As a result of these criticisms the Sub-Committee made some
radical changes in the specification, and they hope that now it will receive the fullest support from all concerned
with this important question of Street Lighting" - [The Illuminating Engineer, April 1928, p128]
"The present British Standard Specification for Street Lighting was framed only
in order to provide a simple way of ordering and checking the work of contractors,
and also go give general guidance in the planning of new work." - [Sandeman, 1936]
Dr. Walsh of the NPL suggests a sharp "cut-off" in order to screen distant lights
completely at the Public Works and Transport Congress. - [The Illuminating Engineer, August 1928, p230]
The Association Of Public Lighting Engineers organise a trial of fifty installations
in Sheffield to test the British Standard Specification 307. Results are
found to be varied and it leads to a quick reappraisal of the specification.
In October 1928, seventeen accidents occurred on the Victorian Embankment. In October 1930, five
accidents occurred in the same location. This was after new lighting was installed and there was
an increased speed and density of traffic. - [Lennox, 1936 and Public Lighting #2, 1936]
A revised British Standard Specification 307 is
published. The glare calculations have been removed and methods for determining the average
illumination have been added.
"This specification provides a basis upon which highway (street)
lighting installations can be designed and compared, tenders invited, and installations tested, on an
equitable basis. It furthermore specifies the technical conditions applying to the maintenance and
testing of highway lighting installations under service or working conditions."
A London coroner observes: "There are spots all over London where lighting
conditions have not been adapted to the altered circumstances caused by the
advent and rapid development of motor traffic." - [Bell, 1936]
The GEC present their new Osira lamp (the MA)
in their showcase installation along East Road, Wembley on the
22nd June. It is the first road in the world to be lit by discharge lamps. - [Wilson, Damant and Waldram, 1936]
The Provincial Electric Supply Company of Limburg install low-pressure sodium lighting
over a section of a national arterial road within their district. - [Werfhorst, 1936]
Piccadilly Circuis relit with Ediswan Piccadilly Lanterns. These
are post-top units fitted with large diffusing globes made of "Nelite" designed to minimalise the
glare from the original 1500W GLS lamps. - [1932 Catalogue]
Philips arrange for an installation of low-pressure sodium lamps along the Purley Way, Wembley.
It is the first installation in the UK to use this type of lamp. 60 specially designed directive lanterns are
fitted with the Philips DA-90 lamp. It is inaugurated on the 8th December.
The first commerical, so-called, High Pressure Mercury Vapour lamps are introduced
in 250W and 400W versions. These use a special "hard glass" for the discharge tubes. (Later designated the MA lamp.) - [Aldington, 1936]
The GEC develop the Watford lantern, the first commercial lantern for a discharge
lamp. - [Wilson, Damant and Waldram, 1936]
The first installation of discharge lighting (the MA lamp) is inaugurated in March. The installation,
along Watford Road, Wembley, utilises the new GEC Watford lantern. - [Wilson, Damant and Waldram, 1936]
A County Council can undertake public lighting under Road Traffic Act, 1933, Section 23. - [Lennox, 1935]
The 56 principle Motor Insurance Companies paid out in accidents claims a sum of
practically £18,000,000. - [Lennox, 1935]
Life And Personal Accident Insurance paid out on 191,782 accidents which included
7,001 fatalities. - [Lennox, 1935]
In January, a census of outward-bound traffic from London along the Edgeware Road
showed that, for every 100 vehicles per hour passing between 8AM and 6PM, no
less than 76 per hour passed between 6PM and midnight. - [Bressey, 1936]
The colour modified 400W mercury lamp is introduced. It has mercury, cadmium and zinc in the discharge
tube and increases the amount of red and blue light in the visible spectrum. The initial efficiency
is only 37 lumens per watt. - [Aldington, 1936]
BTH develop horizontal lighting with mercury lamps using a magnetic arc deflector in
the Mercra H. - [1938 Advert]
The first installation of the Mercra H lantern is along Bromford Lane, Birmingham.
Low-pressure sodium lamps are installed in Worthing - [1939 Advert]
A Departmental Committee on Street Lighting is set up by the Ministry Of Transport in June 1934. Its remit is to
"examine and report what steps could be taken for securing more efficient and uniform street lighting with particular
reference to the convenience and safety of traffic and with due regard to the requiremetns of residential and shopping areas,
and to make recommendations.."
Road Traffic Act, 1934, Section 23, gives certain powers to County Councils in connection to the lighting
of roadways. However, the County Council cannot act as a Lighting Authority without the sanction of the
existing Lighting Authority. - [Lennox, 1935]
County Council can provide or improve lighting on County roads, and may
spread all expenses incurred over the whole county area. Clause 3 of
this Section, however, states: "that a road Lighting Authority who have...
provided lighting for County roads in their area shall, if they request,
be entitled to receive from the Council of the County the amount raised
by that Council in that area in respect of expenses incurred by them
under this Section... unless the Council of the County have... exercised
the power conferred upon them in this Section in respect of a road...
in that area." Therefore any Lighting Authority now lighting a
County Road can, if the roadway to be lighting by the County is
within the area of the Lighting Authority, claim back any money raised
by the County Council in that area. - [Lennox, 1936]
It was to allow County Councils to become Lighting Authorities, and to prevent the dangers of
inadequate or patchy systems of street lighting on important roads, that by request of the County Councils
Association, that powers were inserted into the Road Traffic Act, 1934, enabling County Councils in certain
circumstances to provide or assist in providing lighting on County Roads. - [Public Lighting #12, 1939]
British Thomson-Houston develop a process using molybdenum foil to make
successful vaccum tight lead-in connections through quartz without the use of intermediate glasses.
This is an important step towards the use of using quartz tubes for mercury discharge lamps. - [Aldington, 1936]
The Departmental Committee on Street Lighting issue a Interim Report. This is prompted by some uncertainty on
the part of lighting authorities regarding the advisability of entering into new contracts or initiating or extending lighting schemes
pending the issue of the Committee's recommendations.
The following summary is intended to emphasize the principle conclusions at which we have arrived, and should not be
read independently of the paragraphs of the body of the Report to which reference is made : -
A. The Lighting of Traffic Routes
(1) There should be reasonable uniformity in the lighting of portions of traffic routes (as defined in Paragraph 2)
presenting similar characteristics, but minor variations are not necessarily disadvantageous. (Paragraph 9).
(2) The present system of administration is not conductive to the achievement of uniform and effective lighting
on traffic routes. (Paragraph 10).
(3) Consideration should be given to the responsibility for the lighting of traffic routes being confined to large
administrative units (Paragraph 12), and to the suggestion that the cost of lighting roads (as defined for this purpose
in Paragraph 12) should be aided by grants from national funds administered by the responsible Government Department.
(Paragraphs 11 and 12.)
(4) Adjoining authorities should confer together with the object of securing uniformity of lighting on routes of
common interest. (Paragraph 15.)
(5) For traffic routes the minimum standard of lighting should be that which enables drivers to proceed with safety at
30 miles per hour without the use of headlights; on such routes the lighting units should be of at least the
number and power of those required for a generously planned Class F of the British Standards Specification. (Paragraph 21.)
(6) There is no existing code of lighting which we care to recommend in all respects for the lighting of traffic
routes. (Paragraphs 18 and 19.)
(7) The available light should be so employed as to produce the maximum contrast between the brightness of the object
to be viewed and its background, provided there is no undue glare. (Paragraph 22.)
(8) Care should be taken to ensure the adequate lighting of kerbs and footways. (Paragraph 22.)
(9) In general, a mounting height of 25 ft., with 6 ft. overhang, is desirable. (Paragraph 23.)
(10) The positioning of lamps should be studied with a view to securing the best visibility, rather than uniform
spacing, but normally the distance between lamps should not exceed 150 ft. (Paragraph 24.)
(11) On bends the lamps should be placed on the outside of the curve; the provision of artificial backgroudns in
appropiate cases and of white kerbs should be considered. (Paragraph 24.)
(12) Excessive glare may be largely avoided if care is taken in the selection and use of directive fittings. (Paragraph 25.)
(13) Single-sided lighting should be avoided except at bends. (Paragraph 26.)
(14) There should be easy gradation from the standard of lighting adopted for traffic routes to that obtaining in side
streets, and at the junction between lighted and unlighted portions of traffic routes. (Paragraph 27.)
(15) Although the selection of road surfacing materials may necessarily be governed primarily by considerations other
than those of optical properties, regard should be had, as far as practicable, to reflection characteristics and lightness
of colour. (Paragraph 29.)
(16) The trend of design of lighting installations must have regard to the nature of the materials available for
road surfacing and surface dressing. (Paragraph 29.)
(17) Lighting authorities should be advised by an engineer competent to deal with street lighting. (Paragraphs 30 and 31.)
(18) Power to control extraneous lighting should be given to lighting authorities, but only in so far as it may be seriously
detrimental to the street lighting. (Paragraph 35.)
(19) Street lighting installations should be complete in themselves and no reliance should be placed on extraneous
lighting. (Paragraph 36.)
(20) Authorities contemplating the erection or modification of a street lighting installations in the vincinity of a
railway line should notify the railway company beforehand with a view to avoiding possible interference with
railway signals. (Paragraph 37.)
The committee estimated that the cost of a system of the high standard they suggested
would be between £300 and £400 a mile, and that if that standard was applied to all
classified roads in country boroughs and to 20% of the classified roads in
counties then then cost would be £3,500,000 a year. - [House Of Commons, 1936]
There are 35 Lighting Authorities in London alone with around 8,000 around
the country. - [Lennox, 1935]
6,502 people were killed and 221,726 people were injured on the roads in Great Britain. - [Bell, 1936]
The official traffic census, taken at three-yearly intervals in August, now covered the
entire 24 hour period (previously it was between 6AM - 10PM). The count was taken at about
500 points on Class I roads. These showed that on the Great North Road (A1) in Hertfordshire,
27% of the 24 hours' traffic tonnage passed between 10PM and 6PM; similarly in
Watling Street (A5) in the same county, the tonnage for the same period was 22%. - [Bressey, 1936]
An LCC authority states: "Modern engineering leaves no excuse for bad lighting, and where bad lighting
exists, it means there is a fault in the policy of the local authority." - [Bell, 1936]
Siemens develop a process which enables thin wires of molybdenum to
be sealed directly into quartz, which leads to the rapid development of mercury discharge lamps
using quartz tubes. - [Aldington, 1936]
Siemens develop the "Dual Lamp" It is commerically marketed as the
Sieray Duel Lamp and rated at 500W. It combines a mercury discharge tube and incandescent
filament, reduces colour distortion and doesn't require gear. However, it is less efficient than a
mercury discharge lamp. - [Aldington, 1936]
The 80W MB lamp is introducted in March. It is first known as the "super high-pressure mercury-vapour lamp." - [Werfhorst, 1936]
The 150W MA lamp is introduced by the GEC on the 1st April. A suggested use is for
street lighting where low mounting heights are available. It is supplied in standard voltages from 200-250V and
is fitted with an E.S. cap. - [Wilson, Damant and Waldram, 1936] and [Public Lighting #2, 1936]
The GEC Oxford is introduced.[Public Lighting #1, 1936]
The Siemens Preston-Sieray is introduced.[Public Lighting #1, 1936]
First installation of the GEC Oxford lantern along
Banbury Road in Oxford.[Public Lighting #1, 1936]
First installation of the Siemens Preston-Sieray lantern in
Preston. It is the first lantern designed to use the newly introduced MAT/V lamp
(marketed as the Dual Lamp).[Public Lighting #1, 1936]
The MOT conduct lighting experiments in Barnes for the forthcoming
Departmental Final Report. - [Public Lighting #3, 1936]
Public Lighting and the Public Lighting Engineer is first published by
the Association Of Public Lighting Engineers.
New specification for motor car lighting: Side lamps must not exceed 7 watts and are intended to be used
to only mark the presence of the vehicle. All vehicles must be fitted with an approved anti-dazzle device
either of the dipping headlight or anti-dazzle lamp type. Drivers are still encouraged to turn off their headlights
when the street is lit. - [Lennox, 1936]
Cost to Insurance Companies for Motor Vehicle Insurance: £25,000,000 (estimated per annum) [Lennox, 1936]
Cost of public lighting in Great Britain; £5,000,000 (per annum) - [Lennox, 1936]
There was a stretch of arterial road near London 13 miles long, where there were 27
different standards of lighting, and travelling along it at 30 miles an hour, one
expericened a chagne of lighting every 30 seconds. - [House Of Commons, 1936]
To light a certain section of highway would cost the local authority for the area concerned a
10 s. rate. The same work done by the county council would cost 65d. - [House Of Commons, 1936]
There are now over 10,000 mercury vapour lamps in use. - [Public Lighting #2, 1936]
"By these and other considerations one is forced to the conclusion that if
better visibility were provided during dark hours on heavy traffic routes and in
built up areas, the accident rate would decrease materially. One feels justified in
believing that the economic gain due to decrease in aciidents would more than
meet the extra expenditure necessary to provide adequate public lighting." - [Lennox, 1936]
Mr Salt (Birmingham, Yardley, U.)
moved the following amendment in the House Of Commons on the 29th April: "That, having regard to the number of road accidents that
occur after dark and to the desirability of affording adequate illumination for the convenience
and safety of the public and for the prevention of crime, it is expedient that
the lighting of highways should be dealt with on a national basis.."
Captain A. Hudson, Parliamentary Secretary, Ministry of Transport (Hackney, N., U.), in reply said that before the Government
could bring before the House a scheme for the lighting of the Class 1 roads they would want to be certain that it had almost
universal approval in the House. It was understood that the Final Report of The Departmental Committee on Street Lighting
would be in the main an amplification of the technical recommendations made in its interim report. They hoped to have
the final report next year. It had been necessary to give time for a number of experiments to take place; so that they might
know the exact type of light which was suitable. The ideal which they required in the lighting of the roads was to achieve
a standard which would be adequate for police purposes and allow motor vehicles to proceed at a reasonable speed without
headlights, that was at a speed of 30 miles an hour. An interesting point in the report was that the committee
were unable to point to any large number of accidents being caused by bad lighting, a view which had been confirmed by the Commissioner
of Metropolitan Police. The committee added that lighting which was patchy was worse than no lighting at all.
The committee estimated that the cost of a system of the high standard they suggested would be between £300 and £400
a mile, and that if that standard was applied to all classified roads in county boroughs and to 20 per cent of the classified
roads in counties the cost would be £3,500,000 a year.
A national standard of lighting over the whole country for the most important roads was the goal to be attained. The
Government were doing their best to get towards that goal, but in view of their already genuous grants towards the
maintenance of roads they did not feel at the present moment, and in present circumstances, that they could contemplate the
necessary legislation to that end. He did not wish the House to think that what he had just said meant that having a
national standard of lighting was being indefinitely shelved. It did not rule out the possibility of future action. In the
meanwhile they must await the final report of the Departmental Committee and the results of the experiments which were
He could assure the House that the Minister of Transport was fully alive to the problem of street lighting and was at
present studying the whole subject with great care. The return which was now being made of all accidents involving
personal injury would give a good indication as to the exact effect of bad lighting. While the Government could not promise
immediate national action to set up a national lighting system for the whole country, they were endeavouring to enlarge the
area as suggested by the committee and thus ensure greater uniformity. They were at prescent experimenting, but they
were not prepared at the moment to bring any scheme before the House.
The amendment was, by leave, withdrawn. [Public Lighting #2, 1936]
Control of trunk roads to be vested with the Ministry Of Transport. - [Public Lighting #3, 1936]
Under the provisions of Section 6 (4) of the Trunk Roads Act 1936,
the Minister is empowered, if he considers that any trunk road should be illuminated
or better illuminated, to enter into and carry into effect agreements with any
authority or person having power in that behalf for the supply of gas, electricity
or other means of illumination, and for the provision of such lamps, lamp posts
and other materials and apparatus as he thinks necessary for the purpose. - [Public Lighting #7, 1937]
"Parliament recognised by the passing of the Trunk Roads Act, 1936, the national character and importance of
the principal through traffic routes of the country, and these roads are now given a charge on national funds.
The powers given to the Minister under Section 6 (4) of the Act correspond to those which County Councils already
possess in relation to County Roads. Accordingly, the contributions made by the Minister to street lighting
installations on Trunk Roads are, in his view, to be regarded not as an exceptional measure of assistance which is
denied to other highway authorities, but rather as normal assistance given by a highway authority to lighting
authorities in order to encourage installations which shall not be subject ot the disadvantages of some of
the existing installations." - [Public Lighting #12, 1939]
Metrovick introduce the "Metrovick" horizontal Mercury burning lamp, rated at
400W (first) and 250W (slightly later). Lanterns, notably the Liverpool type,
are suitably modified. The lumen output of the lamps is slightly lower than the standard
vertically burning versions. - [APLE Conference Programme, 1937]
High pressure mercury lamp (MB) now being offered by various manufacturers. 125W and then 80W versions are available. The name is
now the "High Pressure" lamp although variations by manufacturers exist. Siemens introduce their Sieray QH
lamp (later MB) - [See Siemens Advert, 1937]
The GEC have introduced their new high pressure mercury lamp (later MB) at the British
Industries Fair. Rated at 80 and 125W, this new "Osira" mercury electric discharge
lamp has an extremely high efficiency and gives three times as great light output
as a tungsten lamp of equivalent wattage. It is similar in shape to the ordinary
tungsten electric lamp and is internally frosted. To avoid confusion with the
tungsten type of lamp it is fitted with a three-pin cap. - [Public Lighting #5, 1937]
BTH Mercra lamps are now available in 80W and 125W
sizes. - [Public Lighting #6, 1937]
The GEC introduce the 400W MAF Osira lamp. - [Public Lighting #8, 1937]
BTH introduce the 400W MAF Mercra lamp. - [Public Lighting #8, 1937]
Siemens introduce a version of their 400W MAT Sieray-Dual lamp with modified electrodes
which is designed for D.C. supplies. - [Public Lighting #10, 1938]
BTH County Junior introduced to take advantage of the new MB lamps.
GEC Large Di-Fuser introduced.
Holophane experiment with Unidirectional Lighting along
Hangleton Road, Hove. - [1937 Paper]
The London Borough Of Hackney are the first to install the newly introduced
MAF lamp in December 1937. 36 400W lamps are installed in existing
GEC Difractor lanterns along Rectory Road, Hackney
and Stoke Newington Common. - [Public Lighting #8, 1937]
Norwich claims to be the first large city to install a classified standard of lighting in
every one of its streets. - [Public Lighting #8, 1937]
Modified Siemens Sieray-Dual lamps for use on D.C. supplies are trialled
in Southwark along Newington Causeway and the Elephant And Castle. - [Public Lighting #10, 1938]
There are 36,000 discharge lamps in use in the UK which is greater than all the leading
countries abroad put together. In London alone, 300 miles of streets are so lighted.
It has been estimated that over 200 local authorities have employed this "accident-proof"
type of lighting. - [Public Lighting #5, 1937]
Yearly statistics published by the gas industry show that many lighting authorities
in our large towns and cities continue to rely on gas lighting. Of fourteen
districts surveyed, a total of 196,878 public lamps lighted by gas, shows and
increase from 1935 of over 10,000 lamps. - [Public Lighting #5, 1937]
From a paper by Lennox:
This brief description is included in [Public Lighting #6, 1937]
- The country spends five million pounds a year on street lighting.
- The insurance companies spend twenty-five million per year on road accident claims.
- 56%-58% of accidents in winter months occur during darkness. Roads must be lighted
that adequate visibility for quick perception is provided at 45 miles per hour,
without the use of headlights.
- A motorist travelling at 45 miles per hour has only 1½ seconds which
to see and avoid any obstruction 100 yards ahead.
- Objects more than 15 feet distant are normally seen as dark objects against
a light background.
In the report of the Executive Council to the County Councils' Association on the
23rd March, reference is made to the efforts of the Council, so far without success,
to obtain a Road Fund grant in aid of such road lighting as may be undertaken
by County Councils. The view of the Minister of Transport is that he does not
possess any power to comply with the request. - [Public Lighting #5, 1937]
"I am sure that if we are to reduce this appalling loss of life on the
roads, the loss which, in any one year, is greater than the whole of the loss of life in
the two years eight months of the South African War, it will have to be through the
co-operation of manufacturers, suppliers, and public lighting authorities." - Alderman
J. Chuter Ede, M.P. for South Shields. - [Public Lighting #5, 1937]
The Minister of Transport has made an important announcement in Parliament
(on the 1st December 1937)
with reference to financial assistance from the Government to local street
lighting authorities responsible for main traffic routes. They will pay
50% of the expenditure both capital and maintenance. This is for trunk
roads only. Mr Lyons asked the Minister Of Transport (i) whether he would
indicate where and to what extent illumination of main roads had been
undertaken under the provisions of Section 6 (4) of the Trunk Roads Act 1936
and (ii) whether he would indicate where any further illumination of main roads
had been arranged or provided under Section 6 (4). The reply by
Mr. Leslie Burgin was "I have not yet exercised my powers under this
sub-section but will shortly notify local authorities that where they consider
that portions of trunk roads should be illuminated or better illuminated to
standards which conform reasonably to those recommended for traffic routes
by the Department Committee on Street Lighting, I shall in certain cases,
be prepared, after 1st April 1938, to enter into agreements with them whereby
I shall contribute 50% of the capital cost and 50% of the annual cost of
maintenace." The powers weren't exercised previously as the minister was
waiting for the publication of Departmental Report, and the roads have only
been classified as trunk roads little over six months.- [Public Lighting #8, 1937]
On the 2nd November, concurrently with the publication of the Final Report,
the Minister of Transport issued Circular 504 (Roads) in which he draws the attention
of local authorities to the Final Report. The Minister expresses his confidence that
a local authority, when considering the installation or improvement of street lighting
systems, will pay regard to the important technical recommendations contained in the
Report. The Circular adds that the only power which the Minister possesses to
contribute from central funds towards the expenses incurred by lighting
authorities is that conferred in certain cases by Section 6 (4) of the Trunk Roads
Act. The Act does not apply to the County of London. - [Public Lighting #8, 1937]
The Departmental Committee on Street Lighting issue the Final Report on
the 2nd November. (It is preceeded by Circular 504 (Roads)).
(1) We reaffirm the following conclusions and
recommendations which were set out at length in our
(a) There should be reasonable uniformity in
the lighting of portions of traffic routes presenting
similar characteristics, but minor variations
are not necessarily disadvantageous.
(b) The present system of administration is
not conductive to the achievement of uniform and
effective lighting on traffic routes.
(c) Consideration should be given to the
responsibility for the lighting of traffic routes
being confined to large administrative units, and
to the suggestion that the cost of lighting roads
should be aided by grants from national funds
administered by the responsible Government Department.
(d) Adjoining authorities should confer together
with the object of securing uniformity of lighting on routes of common interest.
(e) Lighting authorities should be advised by
an engineer competent to deal with street lighting.
(f) Power to control extraneous lighting should
be given to lighting authorities, but only in so
far as it may be seriously detrimental to the
(g) Street lighting installations should be
complete in themselves, and no reliance should
be placed on extraneous lighting.
(h) Authorities contemplating the erection or
modification of a street lighting installation in
the vicinity of a railway line should notify the
railway company beforehand with a view to
avoiding possible interference with railway signals.
(2) Two ranges of lighting should be adopted, for
traffic routes (Group A) and other roads (Group B), respectively,
as defined in Paragraph 24, with a definite gap between them. (Paragraphs 17-26, 78)
(3) The following recommendations are made for
general adoption on traffic routes :-
(a) The mounting height should be of the
order of 25 ft. (Paragraphs 31-34, 58)
(b) The average spacing should not exceed
150 ft., or where economically practicable, 120 ft.; the maximum spacing
in any one span should be 180 ft. (Paragraphs 35, 57)
(c) The overhang of the lanterns should vary
according to the width of the carriageway. (Paragraphs 36-38)
(d) On straight sections of road sources should
be placed on both sides of the road in staggered
formation; additional central sources should be
placed in every third span when the carriageway
width exceeds 40 ft. (Paragraphs 39-44)
(e) On bends the sources should be placed on
the outside of the curve. Particular attention
should be given to siting at bends, junctions and
intersections. (Paragraphs 45-50)
(f) Central suspension should in general be
avoided, except as noted in Paragraph 40.
(Paragraphs 40, 42)
(g) The lantern output per 100 ft. linear
should be between 3,000 and 8,000 lumens,
according to the conditions prevailing on the
highway and the type of installation. (Paragraphs 51-54)
(h) Excessive glare may be largely avoided
if the ratio used to express the concentration of
the light (see Paragraph 62) does not exceed six,
or preferably five. (Paragraphs 59-64)
(i) Pending the results of further experience,
dual carriageways should be lighted as though
each carriageway were an independent traffic
route; additional lighting required, e.g. for service
roads, should be of the type we recommend
for Group B roads. (Paragraphs 69-73)
(4) For roads other than traffic routes we make the
following recommendations for general guidance :-
(a) The mounting height should be between
13 ft. and 15 ft. (Paragraphs 79-80)
(5) Our recommendations should be implemented by the issue with the minimum of
delay of a formal specification. (Paragraph 117)
(b) The average spacing should not exceed 120 ft., with a maximum of 150 ft. for
any one span. (Paragraph 81)
(c) Attention should be given to siting on the
same principles as are recommended for traffic
routes, especially at bends, junctions and intersections. (Paragraphs 82-84)
(d) The lantern output should provide between 600 and approximately 2,500 lumens per
100 ft. linear, according to the conditions prevailing on the road and the type of
installation. (Paragraph 85)
(e) Part of the available light should be
directed towards the lower parts of the fronts of
buildings. (Paragraph 86)
(f) The ratio used to express the concentration
of the light (see Paragraph 62) should not exceed
4, or preferably 3. (Paragraphs 87-88)
(6) Effective clauses dealing with adequate maintenance
should form an integral part of the British
Standard Specification, and should be applied by
those responsible for street lighting. (Paragraphs 89-92)
(7) Gradation is necessary only where there is considerable
variation in the lighting level along a traffic route. (Paragraphs 93-94)
(8) Street lighting should be continued from dusk
until dawn, i.e., for approximately 4,000 hours per
annum, unless financial considerations render this
impracticable. (Paragraphs 95-96)
(9) Attention should be given to the provision of
artificial light-coloured backgrounds in appropriate
cases. (Paragraph 97)
(10) Due regard should be paid to police requirements
in respect of the lighting of entrances, etc., and
special lamps, additional to the installation proper,
should be provided where necessary. (Paragraphs 99-103)
(11) Illuminated guard posts on refuges should be
lighted in accordance with the detailed recommendations
given. (Paragraphs 104-106)
(12) Street name plates should be so sited in relation
to street lamps that they may be read without
difficulty by drivers at night. (Paragraph 107)
(13) No attempt should be made to use street lamps
of distinctive colour as warning signs. (Paragraphs
(14) Inadequate lighting of traffic routes should be
raised to the level recommended as financial conditions
permit, and not to a level intermediate between
those recommended for Groups A and B. (Paragraph 33)
(15) The trend of design of lighting installations
must have regard to the nature of the materials
available for road surfacing and surface dressing, but
the provision and maintenance of surfaces which are
light in colour and as uniform as possible in respect
of colour and texture are definitely advantageous. (Paragraphs 65-68)
The Actadis Ripple Control System is installed in Maidstone, the first such installation
in the UK, where the whole of the street lighting in an area of 70 square miles can be switched on and off. This follows
the successful implementation of the system in the whole of the City of Paris. [APLE Conference Programme, 1938]
Gas lighted illuminated Belisha Beacons have been the subject of experiments by the Newcastle-Upon-Tyne
and Gateshead Gas Company. They are made from two cast iron galleries,
three steel pillars (which form the frame of the clock box), the steel cover
for the box, the amber globe and yellow enamelled flue cap. Two gas-illuminated
beacons have been erected. The MOT are not in favour of illuminated Belisha
Beacons because street lighting should be imporved to make beacons visible
to drivers and pedestrians. At the same time beacons are often obscured by
trees, lamp standards and other obstructions. - [Public Lighting #7, 1937]
The City Of Leeds have installed in the Otley Road a novel system of
road studs (cats eyes). The lines have been laid in Otley Road, Leeds,
commencing at a point on the outskirts of the city where street lamp
illumination ends, to the city boundary, a distance of three-quarters of a
mile. By day the line is clearly indicated by the yellow pads and by
night the line is brilliantly illuminated by the reflected light of
vehicle lamps. The road stud consists of a cast-iron well base into which
is inserted a flexible rubber pad fitted with four crystal lenses, two
lenses on eitehr side of the pad. Traffic passing over the studs compress
the rubber pads to ground level and in doing so the lenses are
automatically cleaned by a rubber wiper. - [Public Lighting #8, 1937]
The fluorescent tube (MC lamp) is being produced experimentally by Siemens.
"The most striking use of fluorescence is that in which various powders are coated on the inside of low pressure
mercury discharge tubes i.e. fluorescent tubes. Of very low power consumption, these tubes are being produced experimentally
for interior illumination." - [Conference Paper, 1938
Sugg exhibit what could be described as the first known passive safety mechanism.
"A safety "cut-off" valve, to prevent the escape of gas in the event of an illuminated guard post being
knocked down, is being demonstrated. The body of the valve in strong but compact, and precautions are taken to
ensure that any breakage of pipes occurs above the valve, which is fitted in the base of the guard post. This
valve prvides a great safety factor as guard posts are frequently destroyed and the ignition of escaping gas
may cause considerable damage." - [APLE Conference Programme, 1938]
The services of the Royal Fine Art Commissions had been freely placed at the disposal of Government Departments
and of local authorities in advising upon the aesthetics of bridges and other
engineering structures. [It isn't clear if this was new or just a statement of fact] - [Public Lighting #10, 1938]
The Bournemouth Gas And Water Company are pioneering the Aeration Test Burner (ATB) so the whole of the supply
will be under ATB control. All gas burners supplied with this gas will give a regular and consistent performance
without any need to interfere with the first setting of the air regulator; it may be found that the regulator
is unnecessary. Flame size, under ATB control, will be kept within a very small tolerance and will not vary much
in its constancy. The improved bye-road gas lighting will be supplied under ATB control with each lamp individually
governed and fitted with a nipple with a calibrated orifice. - [Conference Paper, 1938]
The Minister Of Transport suggested that any lamp columns erected on trunk roads would require approval
by the Royal Fine Art Commissions before the Ministry would pay a grant towards the
installation. The APLE contacted all applicable manufacturers and practically "all steel and concrete people"
had submitted drawings. These were considered by the APLE and then forwarded to the
Royal Fine Art Commissions for their approval. - [Public Lighting #11, 1938]
The Association Of Municipal Corporations have expressed the view that the
recently published Ministry Of Transport Departmental Report will place a heavy
financial burden on local authorities. Therefore the Association have asked
the Minister Of Transport to defer coming to any decision on the report until
they've had an opportunity to present their views to him. The Association
have sought estimates from local authorities as to the cost of bringing up the
lighting of (a) classified roads and (b) other roads to the standard recommented
by the Ministry Of Transport. - [Public Lighting #9, 1938]
A Committee of the British Standards Institution was dealing with a standard specification for street
lighting which would shortly be published. - [Public Lighting #11, 1938]
A new draft specification for Street Lighting by the British Standards Institution was issued
for comment. They had also issued a draft specification for low-pressure gas mantles. - [Public Lighting #12, 1939]
The MOT Report had not provided an aid to progress but rather the reverse, because small
authorities finding they could not afford to adopt the recommendations had become reluctant to
undertake any improvement to their lighting, perfering to conserve their spending power in the
hope that at some future date assistance would be provided. - [Public Lighting #11, 1938]
By Section 23 of the Road Traffic Act, 1934, a county council is empowered to light
rowads if the appropriate lighting authority has failed to provide such illumination
or better illumination s the county council may require. A lighting authority which,
by request of the county council provides lighting, or better illumination, are entitled
to receive from the county council the amount raised. At the present time, none of the
county roads in Berkshire are lit by the County Council. In some cases Parish Councils,
has Lighting Authorities, are considering schemes for the lighting of roads in their
areas and the question of grants towards the costs has been made. At present, Government
grants are not available towards the cost of lighting the roads, other than trunk roads.
However the County Councils' Association have made representations to the Ministry Of
Transport urging that grands in aid of approved expenditure upon the lighting of county
roads should be made to county councils or to the road lighting authorities. The
County Finance Committee considered that the cost of lightign country roads should be
eligible for grants and have passed the following resolution:
That Parliament, having seen fit to confer on highway authorities the power to provide for
the lighting of roads under their control and of trunk roads, the Berkshire County Council
consider it illogical that financial aid should be given to the lighting of trunk roads
only and they urge the County Councils' Association to take such further steps as they
may think fit to scure the discontinuance of the present anomalous position with a view
to the cost of ligthing roads receiving adequate grant from national funds.
Published in - [Public Lighting #9, 1938]
Circular No. 511 (Roads) was published which dealt with the lighting of trunk roads. This detailed
how the MOT would pay 50% of the installation costs for a new lighting installation. The Circular conveyed
to local authorities the details of section 6 (4) of the Trunk Roads Act 1936. - [Public Lighting #12, 1939]
The number of vehicles on the road is increasing by 500 per day. - [Public Lighting #10, 1938]
It was estimated that it would cost between £3 million and £5 million per annum to carry out the
Recommendations of the MOT Report. - [Public Lighting #11, 1938]
New street lighting between 1932 and 1938 in all towns in Great Britain was 78½% electric
and 21½% non-electric. - [1938 Advert]
In 1928 electricity was responsible for less than 40% of the total lighting of Britain's highways.
Now it's 60%. The reason for this increase are:
Published in - [Public Lighting #11, 1938]
- In 1928 the average cost of electricity for street lighting was nearly 2d. per unit - it is
now 1.107d. per unit.
- The improvement of electric light sources means that 1d. can provide four to five times the
light that could be obtained ten years previously.
- The adoption of the MOT Report by many authorities has led to a 4000 hour lighting season
(dusk-to-dawn all year) which results in comparatively little increase in cost with electricity
- Electric street lighting maintentance costs are relatively less than gas.
During 1938, 65% of Lighting Authorities installed more electric street lamps. - [1939 Advert]
The net increase in the number of electric street lamps was 26,3600. - [1939 Advert]
In 77 areas the number of non-electric street lamps decreased by over 10.000. - [1939 Advert]
The first installation of low-pressure high-intensity gas lamps (the Keith Magnalux)
is erect in Worburn Place, Holburn - [Public Lighting #9, 1938]
The first Trunk Road lighting scheme to receive the approval and grant of the Ministry Of Transport
under the 1936 Act, is a Philips Philora scheme at Earley, Berks., inauguarated by
Captain Austin Hudson, the Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister, in October 1938. - [APLE Conference Programme, 1939]
The first lighting scheme under the Trunk Roads Act 1936 was installed
after negotiations between Earley Parish Council, Berkshire County Council and the MOT. Sodium lighting
was chosen which would cover a mile of the London Road through Earley to the outskirts of Reading. It
consisted of Philora sodium lamps in ELECO GoldenRay fittings.
The opening ceremony on October 17th was attended by a large gathering of representatives of
the highway authorities and various Associations concerned with lighting, road transport and road safety.
It marked the first direct financial assistance by the Government towards securing greater road safety
through trunk road lighting. - [Public Lighting #11, 1938]
The first installation of UniDirectional lighting along Chertsey Road, Twickenham. GEC
Unidirectional lanterns are fitted with 250W Osira lamps. - [Public Lighting #12, 1939]
It has become clear that County authorities are not only indisposed to act on
Road Traffic Act, 1934, Section 23, but are flatly refusing to incur any expense in
this direction. The cost involved in raising the lighting to this standard varies
from £400 to £500 per mile. - [Public Lighting #10, 1938]
Under the guidance of lighting engineer Wilkie and the Home Office, black-out experiments take place in
Leicester on the 28th January 1938. The arrangements made and the lessons learned from the experiment are outlined
in Wilkie's later paper. - [1938 Paper]
A Home Office Circular, dated 14th February 1938, states the following in connection with street lighting:
Normal street-lighting would not be permitted in time of war.
Adequate means of aiding movement in darkened streets would accordingly be required in all streets likely to
carry considerable traffic.
Reflectors, white markings, or dim, well-screened indicator lights which cast no appreciable illumination but
served merely to show their position would be used to mark the line of the road and also obstructions and danger points. More precise particulars
of 'aids to movement' of this kind will be supplied as soon as possible.
Traffic control signals, fitted with approved masking devices, would be allowed to remain in operation in darkened streets.
It is not thought that further experience will reveal the need for any modification to these proposals. If any relaxation were found to
be necessary, it would not go beyond permitting between raids a certain amount of modified street-lighting, carefully screened and capable of
being instantly extinguished on receipt of an air raid warning, in the main thoroughfares of the largest towns, and then probably only in
the less exposed parts of the country.
Developments of the luminescent tube (MC lamp) is detailed in Philips' Technical Review (No. 9, Vol 3.) - [Public Lighting #13, 1939]
BEDA claim that the cost of electricity for street lighting is
1d per unit. They also estimate that over two-thirds of the installation of the
British Isles is electric. - [APLE Conference Programme, 1939]
BGCA publish Light On The Roads which deals with the
new standards of lighting on trunk and other roads following the MOT Report. There
are 800,000 public lamps lighted by gas and, since 1920, the amount of gas used
for public lighting has more than doubled. - [APLE Conference Programme, 1939]
The Association Of Municipal Corporations asked the Minister Of Transport (last March) to defer coming to any
decision on the Final Ministry Of Transport Report until the Association had an opportunity of laying
their views before him. The Law Committee Of The Association now report that surveys show that considerable
financial burdens would be imposed on local authorities if their street lighting were brought up to the standard
suggested. The Committee accordingly recommended, and the Council Of The Association agreed, that the Minister
Of Transport should be asked whether he would be prepared to contribute towards the increased annual cost
of lighting. - [Public Lighting #12, 1939]
The first gas street lighting scheme for trunk road lighting to qualify under the Trunk Roads Act 1936,
has now been approved by the Ministry and will be carried out on 1¼ miles of the Newport-Shrewsbury Road.
It lies in the area of the Abergavenny Corporation and the Corporation Gas Department is in charge
of the lighting. - [Public Lighting #13, 1939]
Rythmatic Control is installed for the first time in Great Britain in Falkirk. Its ability to
be used for ARP is an imporant consideration, as it's used in connection with the Eastern Scotland "black out."
- [Public Lighting #14, 1939]
War is declared and the Lighting Restriction Order is put into practice. All street lighting is
extingushed. This is known as the "black-out."
- [Public Lighting #15, 1939]
Mr. R. C. Morrison asked the Minister Of Transport what steps were being taken to secure reasonable uniformity
in the lighting of portions of traffic routes as recommended by the Departmental Committee on Street Lighting.
Captain Austin Hudson replied that "before making agreements with the responsible lighting authorities for
the lighting of trunk roads, my right hon. Friend satisfies himself as to the adequacy of the installations
proposed. He has no control of the lighting of other roads, but has brought the committee's report to the notice
of all the principal lighting authorities, and the systems which have recently been installed show that regard is
being had to the committee's recommendations." - [Public Lighting #13, 1939]
The Home Secretary, Sir John Anderson, did not believe there was any advantage of leaving the lights to be
extingushed when there was an air raid warning. He said he was also ignorant of the system by which streets could be
plunged into darkness by means of central switches, but he was looking into the matter. - [Public Lighting #15, 1939]
Concrete Utilities take out a patent on a "concrete lantern" where the lantern's canopy
is part of the bracket arm. A Group B version of the lantern is developed in conjunction with
Siemens. A Group A version is on the drawing board and subject of another patent dealing
with heat dissipation. - [APLE Conference Programme, 1945]
Radiovisor claim their "Light Ray Automatic Control" is being used for 180 miles of
street lighting in the Metropolitan area of London. - [Radiovisor Advert, 1945]
BS5489-1:2013 was released at the end of December 2012 following a major revision of the 2003
version by the BSI EL/001/02 Road Lighting committee, comprising leading lighting professionals representing
many professional lighting and electrical organisations and government bodies.
The emphasis has changed to reflect the transformation of public lighting due to increasing energy costs and
legislation such as the carbon reduction commitment energy efficiency scheme. The latest technology available for
lighting and the results of recent research have also influenced the standard.
The 5 main themes for change are:
Energy - the emphasis is on using the "right light in the right place at the right time"
and assessing the task and the requirements for lighting that task in a safe and efficient way, avoiding over
lighting. Variable lighting is introduced as an option for most road lighting applications.
Competency - the role of the designer has greater responsibility under the latest CDM
regulations and with the increasing focus on the relationship between lighting, road safety and crime it
is essential that decisions are taken by competent lighting professionals.
Risk Assessment – every street is different and the specific lighting requirements of
the area need to be assessed when selecting the most suitable lighting class for the street.
Environment – the environmental impact of lighting is subject to intense scrutiny. Poorly
designed lighting can now be classified as a statutory nuisance under the Environmental Protection Act.
Lighting should also comply with the ILP guidance notes for the reduction of obtrusive light.
Health & Safety – Designers are responsible for creating designs which are fit for purpose
and do not endanger lives of users of the environment or those installing or maintaining the system. Designers
should consider electrical safety and passive safety (if the risk cannot be designed out) as important elements
in this respect.
So where do the Energy savings come from?
Typically lighting systems designed to the 2013 standard will consume less energy than previous versions. This
is due to a combination of the following:
- Annex A selection criteria typically leads to lower lighting levels
- Annex B maintenance factor table updated leading to higher MF’s selected
- Reduction for light sources with high S/P (scotopic/photopic) ratio for subsidiary roads.
- Variable lighting promoted for most applications.
ILP Press Release
Road lighting encompasses the lighting of all types of highways and public thoroughfares, assisting
traffic safety and ease of passage for all users. It also has a wider social role, helping to reduce crime
and the fear of crime, and can contribute to commerical and social use at night of town centres and
tourist locations. Road lighting should reveal all the features of the road and traffic that are
important to the different types of road user, including pedestrians and police.
- BS EN 13201: 2003 (European Standard). This provides the foundations and general guidance.
- Road Lighting - Part 2: Performace Requirements.
- Road Lighting - Part 3: Calculation Of Performance.
- Road Lighting - Part 4: Performance Measurements.
- PD CEN\TR 13201-1: 2004 (Published Document, CEN Technical Report). (This does not have the status of a standard).
- Road Lighting - Part 1: Selection Of Lighting Classes.
- BS 5489: 2003 (British Standard). This provides specific recommendations for UK conditions.
- Part 1: Lighting of roads and public amenity areas.
- Part 2: Lighting of tunnels.
Like the Glossary, this part of the website is currently under construction and being added to all the time. If you
have any additions, or corrections, then please send them in.
First historical reference to public lighting in this country where the Aldermen of The City Of London are ordered
to see that a lighted lantern is hung outside every house along the highway, generally from dusk to nine o'clock
"where the moon was dark."
The Mayor of London ordained that "lanthorns with lights to bee hanged out on the winter evenings betwixt Hallowtide
First street lighting specification where the Mayor and Aldermen of The City Of London issue a "Standards Specification" for candles to
be used in the lanterns, which stated that they were to be of at least twelve to the pound in weight.
The candle specification (see 1461) has now been altered to eight to the pound.
The first occasion on which a municipality assumes responsibility for any part of public lighting when City Of London Aldermen
were ordered to supply lights where the responsibility for them could not be placed on private householders.
Matherot de Preigney and Bourgeous de Chateaublanc develop the "reverbere", an oil lamp with polished metal reflectors.
In 1745, 23rd of December, Matherot de Preigney and Bourgeous de Chateaublac obtained the privilege of an enterprise for new lanterns furnished
with oil and polished metal reflectors call "reverbere." Here is a development of the very highest importance in the history of street lighting!
This was followed in 1763 by another significant advance. There was held a competition at the Academie des Sciences to obtain a plan for "the best
way of lighting a large city, ensuring as far as possible safety, economy and duration." Chateaublanc won the prize with a modified and improved
form of his reverbere.
The use of these reflectors in street lighting gave rise to discussions which would not be out of place in a meeting of the Illuminating Engineering
Society. Chateaublanc declares in his memoirs that the light from his reverbere was so intense that a person could be recognised 30 paces away.
Numbers of people, however, found the light too brilliant, and compained that it tired the eyes of passers-by and blinded coachmen with horses.
Chateaublanc retorted that if some eyes were blinded by his lights it was because they gazed at them with too much admiration. It was not necessary
to look at his lanterns, which were suspended 25 to 30 feet high. Their attention should be directed to their feet and surroundings. As to the coachmen,
they should be looking at their horses, while the horses themselves could not easily walk with their heads in the air. Thus did this prototype
illuminating engineer deal with the earliest discussion of glare in street lighting!
The company which was organized to light the streets with oil reverbere lanterns contracted to repair and substitute new lanterns,
furnish oil of tripe, and hire the lighters, for an annual payment of $70,000. This street lighting, being entrusted to a company especially
organized to administer it, proved satisfactory. M. Sartine says: "The light diffused by this reverbere is so brilliant that it is impossible to think
that the future has in reserve anything better!" In 1780 Mercier wrote: "There have been no more lanterns for sixteen years, the reverbere
have taken their place. In former times 8,000 lanterns with badly placed candles, extinguished by the wind or melted, lighted badly or
gave a pale, uncertain light interspersed by shadows, shifting and dangerous. Today means have been found to give great light to the city
and also great facility of service."
In 1777 the road from Paris to Versailles was permanently illuminated. Five leagues and a half of reverbere. Never had such an illumination been
imagined. Mercier exclaimed: "No city, ancient or modern, has offered utility on such a scale."
Following is a specification of the earlier reverbere: Hexagonal frame of iron without solder. Those of five lights shall be 2 ft. 5 in. in
height including the cap. Diameter, 22 in. at the top and 16 in. at the base. Those with three or four lights must be 26 in. high including
the cap. Those with two lights wil be 24 in. in height, 17 in. in diameter at the top ad 9 in. at the base. All the lanterns shall
have their lamps of different sizes in proportion to the time they will be lighted. Each light shall have a reflector of copper, silver plated,
and each lantern shall have a reflector placed horizontally over the light which shall be the whole size of the lantern to prevent shadows.
This reflector shall also be copper, silver plated.
At the end of the eighteenth century there were 5,624 reverbere in Paris. These continued in use until displaced by gas lamps.
Vol. XV, No. 3
Gas lamps first introduced into Pall Mall, London. The Golden Lane Brewery and part of Beech and
Whitecross streets are also gas lit later the same year. Before that, the streets were lit with
oil lamps outside peoples' houses.
Gas lamps first introduced in the UK according to Harrison, Haas and Reid. This disagrees with the date above.
"Arguments against Light" appears in the Cologne Zeitung:
1. From the theological standpoint: Artifical illumination is an attempt to interfere with the divine plan of the world,
which is preordained darkness during the night time.
2. From the juridical standpoint: Those people who do not want light ought not to be compelled to pay for its use.
3. From the medical standpoint: The emanations of illuminating gas are injurious. Moreover, illuminated streets would
induce people to remain later out of doors, leading to an increase in ailments caused by colds.
4. From the moral standpoint: The fear of darkness will vanish and drunkenness and depravity increase.
5. From the viewpoint of the police: The horses will get frightened and the thieves emboldened.
6. From the point of view of national economy: Great sums of money will be exported to foreign countries.
7. From the point of view of the common people: The constant illumination of streets by night will rob festive illuminations of their charm.
Gas lamps first introduced in Baltimore, USA. It isn't known if this is the first installation in the USA or just Baltimore.
The Lighting And Watching Act (1833) passed. This act has allowed Parish Councils to become Lighting Authorities in their
own right (unless the Public Health Act (1875) is being enforced).
The Metropolis Management Act (1855) requires the Metropolitan Boroughs to provide adequate street lighting in their districts. Therefore
some London boroughs are legally required to provide street lighting.
The Public Health Act (1875), Section 161 permits County Boroughs, Municipal Boroughs and Urban Districts to provide equipment for the lighting
of streets and public buildings at their own expense and to enter into agreements for the supply of gas and electricity. (If this act is in force, the 1833 Lighting and Watching act
ceases to apply).
The Public Health Act (1875), Section 276 allows Rural District Councils to obtain the power to light roads or delegate their
lighting powers to the Parish Councils in their area.
Jablochkoff Candle, a form of arc light, introduced in Paris. (Illustration below shows a street lit by them.)
Arc lamps installed along the Holborn Viaduct, London and Victoria Embankment after a committee examined those which
had been in use for some time in Paris. This is the first use of electricity in the UK for public lighting. There are
six arc lamps connected in series.
Joseph Swan demonstrates the incandescent lamp.
Thomas Edison, working independently of Swan, demonstrates the incandescent lamp. He
also introduces it commercially and it uses a carbonized bamboo fiber filament. 25,000 are made and sold in this
year. They have an efficiency of approximately 2 lumens/watt.
Public Square of Cleveland, USA, is illuminated by Brush with 12 open carbon-arc lamps. The open arc
lamp does has number of serious inherent defects: unsteady light source, poor distribution of light and the necessity of
daily trimming. Despite this, it becomes extremely popular until made obsolete by the closed arc lamp.
First high mast installation when six 80 ft. masts, each having one arc lamp in a clear globe are erected in front of
the Bank Of England, City Of London. Masts are constructed from light iron trellis work.
The City Of London is the first to light streets with the Edison incandescent lamp when Holborn Viaduct
and neighbouring streets are lit.
Siemens trial arc lamps on 80 foot lattice poles outside the
Royal Exchange, City Of London.
The local authorities at Wimbledon conduct a series of experiments with the incandescent
or glow system of electric lighting for street illumination. A mile of lamps is erected
using Woodhouse And Rawson 50-candle power glow lamps. It is found that
suspension of the lamps at 20' with 100' spacings gave the best results.
The best diffuser is found to be Trotter's Dioptric
reflector. The "Dioptric Shade" is moulded from clear flint glass into innumerable little prisms,
which causes considerable diffusion of the light and obviates glare.
Welsbach Street Lighting Company introduce the Welsbach gas mantle in the USA. The 5-ft. open-flame burner previously
used produced but 15 to 20 candle power, whereas the Welsback mantle is rated at 60 candle power for the same consumption of gas.
The illustration shows the "boulevard type" with upward mantle burner and chimney (left). This design is superceeded by the inverted mantle (right) which has slightly
improved efficiency, is more durable and doesn't require a chimney.
Incandescent lamp having a filament of carbonized cellulose is introduced. This has an efficiency of 3 lumens/watt.
Private Street Works Act (1892) require frontages on to a private street to provide proper means of lighting before the
street is adopted as a Public Highway by the council.
The enclosed-arc lamp is developed in the USA. It only needs trimming once a week, and replaces the open arc in many
installations, although the efficiency of light production is lower.
The Bremer flaming-arc lamp is introduced (USA) which mounts the electrodes at angles with their tips projecting into an "economizer". This
limits the amount of oxygen supplied to the arc and increases the life of the electrodes. An electromagnet is required to "blow" the arc downwards
to prevent it from damaging the economizer and to increase its surface.
Electric Lighting Clauses Act (1899) requires where a supply of electricity is required by a Lighting
Authority for a lamp within 75 yards of a distributing cable, the supply authority must provide a supply.
The City Of London is the first to introduce powers authorising street lighting apparatus to be fixed to buildings
and thus saving valuable space on footpaths and improving aesthetic amenities.
BS 8: Tubular Steel Traction Poles (this would later have great influence on street lighting columns).
Horstmann Gear Company produce the first commercial gas controller which uses quick action gascocks for use
with incandescent burners (there were crude gas controllers before this, but were used to control "Batswing" flames).
The Horstmann Gear Company are also the first to design and patent an astronomical dial (now called a solar dial).
The direct-current magnetite-arc lamp is developed (in the USA) and replaces the flame-arc design.
The gem or metallized-filament lamp is introduced. This has an efficiency of 4 lumens/watt. Experiments continue with
different filaments and osmium (too scarce) and tantalum (too low resistance) are tried.
The tungsten-filament lamp is introduced in the USA.
The GEC are the first in England to manufacture drawn tungsten filament lamps after many years of making
carbon filament lamps.
The Mazda C lamp is introduced in the USA. This gas-filled lamp with coiled tungsten filament
operates in the inert gases nitrogen and argon at an efficiency of 20 lumens/watt. It is the first gas-filled incandescent
lamp to be sold in the USA.
The more concentrated filament of the gas-filled lamp makes the application of prismatic refractors possible and development
starts for street lighting.
In the London Metropolitan Police District, from 1913 to 1915, the recorded non-fatal accidents occuring in the daytime increase
by 34%, while non-fatal accidents at night increase by 63%. Similarly fatal accidents in the daytime increase 6% while fatal accidents
at night increase 21%. The increase in daytime accidents is largely attributable to the increase in the amount of traffic; the
greater increase in night accidents is the result of reduced street illumination (due to extinguished or carefully screen lanterns
to reduce danger of air-raids).
The GEC establish the first industrial research laboratory in the British Empire to engage in fundamental research.
The Britannia Lamp Factory in Preston is taken over by Siemens.
At the Bingley Hall, Birmingham, September 1923, 10 people meet found the the APLE (according to Wilkie - however this
seems opposed to the 1924 start!)
At the British Industries Fair in Birmingham, 15th Febuary 1924, Captain W.J.Liberty A.Inst.Gas.E, Lighting Engineer of the
City Of London. calls some lighting engineers together to form the APLE.
Mr. Sam B. Langlands J.P., Lighting Superindendent Of Glasgow, becomes first President, and becomes affectionally known in later years as The Grand Old Man.
Those present at this initial meeting included Liberty, Langlands, J.F. Colquhoun, C.S.Shapley, Thomas Wilkie, Harold Davis, C I Winstone, Alex C. Cramb and Haydn Harrison.
Concrete Utilities install the first reinforced concrete columns in Europe in Liverpool.
Concrete Utilities also make the first fluted concrete columns in Europe for the
Gas Light and Coke Company.
Concrete Utilities also make the first 25' concrete column for Blackpool.
The GEC develop and introduce the first Rough Service Lamps using vibration and shock resistant
thoria tungsten wire - known universally for several years as Magnet Wire.
BS 307: Street Lighting. Based on the simple principles of the uniform
illumination of road surfaces. The relatively low efficiency of the filament lamps and other economic
considerations make it necesssary to concentrate the maximum proportion of the available light on to
the carriageway and this standard specifies a test point and certain minimum illumination values (which
comes to be regarded as a figure of merit for an installation). It encourages some very highly directional
reflectors and refractors which give narrow beams of high intensity, leading to glare and streakiness on
the road. (Furthermore the idea of test points vs. general uniform lumination, the idea of two lanterns
vs. each in the road building up the lumination and the development of the discharge lamp made this
Light Distribution Emphasis: High Peak Intensity
The APLE hold their first conference in Sheffield, where 51 different installations conforming to the various classes of the BS 307 (1927) are erected.
The principles of street lighting by accentuated contrast is discovered at the Research Laboratories of the GEC
and is applied using tungsten street lighting.
Requirements of Street Lighting by Ward Harrison, O. F. Haas and Kirk M. Reid (USA):
- To provide sufficient illumination to facilitate the movement of vehicles and pedestrians through all the streets of
a city without danger of accident or fear of molestation.
- To supply this illumination with equipment which does not detract from the appearance of the streets either by day or by night.
- To secure this illumination at an expenditure comparable with the funds that can be had for the purpose.
British Standard Specification for Street Lighting (BSS 307-1927) revised. It continues the idea of
test points and direct illumination. It would shortly be declared obsolete. (It (a) encourages illumination of test
points (b) is based on direct illumination (c) is based on pairs of lanterns working together (d) and doesn't anticipate the
forthcoming discharge lamps).
GEC demonstrate the MA lamp in clear glass globes in East Lane, Wembley, London.
250W and 400W versions are made commercially available.
Philips demonstate the sodium bulb in Purley Way, Croydon, London on the 8th December. The installation is comprised of 60 100W Philora DC bulbs.
G. H. Wilson presents a paper to the Association Of Lighting Engineers introducing
Commerical AC sodium bulbs are introduced by Philips.
As sodium lanterns are considered to have less glare than mercury, then early lanterns are open with little more
than simple reflectors (the so-called 'seagull-reflectors').
A cut-off lantern is developed (the Wardle Liverpool) which utilised mirror reflectors. It required
suspending over the centre of the carriageway.
The world's first commerical installation of medium pressure mercury vapour lamps and lanterns are installed by
the GEC in Watford Road, Wembley.
Road Traffic Act: introduces the 30 m.p.h speed limit, tests for drivers and pedestrian crossings.
Road Traffic Act Section 23: County Councils can enter into agreements with lighting authorities for the lighting of County roads and the provision of necessary equipment.
There are 2.4 million vehicles licensed in the UK. Road casualties at 99 per 1000 vehicles.
The Horstmann Gear Company introduce the Comet Automatic Gas Ignitor which make the use of a permanent pilot light unnecessary and therefore
give a significant saving in running costs.
Philips demonstrate the an experimental MB lamp in the UK for the first time (it's believed
this was a water cooled version). Commericially produced MB lamps were still two years away.
The Minister Of Transport appoints a Deptartmental Commitee "to examine and report what steps could be taken for
securing more efficient and uniform street lighting, with particular reference to the convenience and safety of
traffic and with due regard to the requirements of residential and shopping areas, and to make recommendations."
The MOT then publish interim report on street lighting. This covered the lighting of main roads.
BTH introduce the 150W Madza Mercra MA lamp.
GEC introduce the 150W Osira MA lamp.
Siemens market the Siray Dual Lamp (MAT).
REVO introduce Progress (250-400W MA/V).
Sugg light the Great West Road in London with Rochester Gas Lamps.
Parkinson introduce Maxill gas lamp.
The South Metropolitan Gas Company introduce the Supervia Gas Lamp to light the streets of Wandsworth. It used thin flat mantles instead of cylinderical ones.
Oldham lit with 150W sodium lamps.
400W Osira lamps in Tunbridge Wells lanterns (GEC) used to light Richmond.
Other areas to use Osira lamps are: Newport, Reading, Tunbridge Wells, Lewisham, Lambet and Norwich.
The original Purley Way installation is replaced and increased with 235 150W Philora sodium lamps in the Wardle Liverpool fitting. The lanterns are suspended centrally on wires.
The APLE publish the first issue of Public Lighting.
The APLE hold their conference in Cheltenham.
10,000 MA lamps are already in use.
Trunk Roads Act: Section 6: MOT may enter into agreements with the lighting authorities over lighting of trunk roads where the MOT will contribute 50% of the cost of installation and subsequent maintenance.
High pressure mercury lamp (MB) developed. 125W and then 80W versions offered by various manufacturers.
400W mercury fluorescent lamps (MAF) is introduced by the GEC, which uses a zinc cadmium sulphide phospor. It has several problems: (a) Additional red inadequate to correct spectrum (b) partly absorbent to blue light (c) sensitive to heat requiring a large outer envelope.
Refractor panels are used with sodium lamps for the first time.
Stanton start production of spun concrete columns.
In August, the MOT publish the final report on street lighting. As well as main roads, side roads and junctions are considered.
It is based on the concept of "perspective geometry" and "silhouette vision". This, together with the introduction of gaseous
discharge lamps, results in this final report.
Recommendation For The Lighting Of Traffic Routes (Group "A")
- Mounting Height. To centre of light source, 25 ft.
- Spacing. Generally not greater than 150 ft., but under occasional span may be as much as 180 ft.
Where economically possible, spacing at 120 ft. may be adopted.
For cut-off lighting, a figure substantially below 150 ft. is required.
- Overhang. Maximum distance between the two rows should not exceed 30 ft.
Maximum overhang of 6 ft.
This is to allow the lighting of kerb, pavements and adjoining property.
- Amount Of Light. For a carriageway of not more than 40 ft. in width, luminous output per 100 ft. linear of road should be between 3,000 and 8000 lumens.
- Distribution Of Light. Available light should produce the maximum contrast between brightness of the object to be used, and its background.
- Glare. With non-axial distribution, ratio of peak candle-power to the average of the values in all directions downward from the source and lying between 30 and 45 from the vertical should not exceed 6.
With axial distribution, the ratio should not exceed 5.
- Siting Of Columns. Single side lighting should be avoided except on bends and central suspension.
Recommendation For The Lighting Of Group "B" Roads (Non Traffic Routes)
Owing to wide variations that exist for these roads, general guidelines rather than specific guidelines are given.
Light Distribution Emphasis: Total Light Output most important.
- Mounting Height. Between 13 ft. and 15 ft.
- Spacing. Not greater than 120 ft, with maximum of 150 ft. in exceptional cases.
Where economically possible, spacing at 100 ft. should be adopted.
- Amount Of Light. Between 600 and 2500 lumens per 100 ft. linear of road.
- Distribution Of Light. As Group 'A'.
- Glare. For Non-Axial fittings, the ratio should not exceed 4.
With axial distribution, the figure should not exceed 3.
- Siting Of Columns. Staggered system recommended, with special care at junctions and intersections.
The APLE hold their annual conference in Folkestone.
Metropolitan Vickers start producing street lighting, entering the market with the Trafford,
the first British lantern to use an enclosed deep trough refractor. It was passed by the Royal Art Commission.
There are 3.1 million vehicles licensed in the UK.
Fluorescent lamps introduced.
The GEC produce and market the first high pressure mercury lamp with a silica envelope with a
fluorescent coating - this is the forerunner of the MBF/U.
Just before The Second World War, the chief form of illumination in the City Of London
was the arc lamp.
Leamington Spa was lit entirely by gas; they were just introducing high pressure gas lamps.
Defence Regulation 56A (1939) is introduced; it limits the capital available for new street
lighting. Schemes require the sanction of the MOT and Civil Aviation Authority.
The 80W tubular fluorescent lamp is introduced.
British Standard 161 published: Tungsten Filament General Service Electric Lamps. This allows manufacturers
to replace universal focusing adjustments with stepped adjusters as bulb size is now standardized.
REVO introduce cut-off, semi-cut-off and non-cut-off lanterns for sodium lamps.
September 17th, 1944: Black-out rules relaxed in the UK. I believe this was replaced with the 'dim-out'.
BTH introduce Warm-White fluorescent lamp (a phosphor mix which produces 'sunlight quality').
Metrovick introduce Ealing and Aldwych lanterns
REVO introduce C9777 (sodium cut-off), C10735 (sodium semi-cut-off), C10766 (mercury semi-cut-off) and C10724 (ornamental).
Dim-out lighting is being used in many cities.
All manufacturers were gearing up to providing new lanterns and services.
Leamington Spa switches back on its gas lighting, thanks to sterling efforts by the Gas Undertaking, but the decision is made to convert them to electricity.
APLE celebrates its twenty-first birthday.
Over three million motor vehicles are licensed.
The first fluorescent street lighting scheme is installed in Eglington Street, Dublin in August. Semi-trough reflectors are used.
First installation of fluorescent lanterns in the UK.
BTH light Rugby High Street with the second installation of fluorescent street lighting in August
(Dublin was the first the previous year). This time, scientifically designed lanterns are used.
Old Bond Street becomes the third street to be lit with fluorescent, with an installation installed on the 1st September.
The GEC install the first UK installation of 5 ft. fluorescent tube lanterns in Brompton Road, Kensington.
APLE hold their conference in London where a paper on fluorescent lighting was
given and equipment was demonstrated. It was feared that maintenance costs would be high, as would the cost of the lanterns.
It was after seeing this exhibition that the lighting engineer of Leamington Spa decided to trial fluorescent lighting.
British Standard 1308 published: Reinforced Concrete Street Lighting Columns.
Lantern and column design examined by the Scottish and English Royal Fine Arts Commission on
behalf of the MOT. For MOT grant schemes, only lanterns and columns 'passed' may be used. (This
activity is later taken over by the Council Of Industrial Design).
The use of steel is restricted, so concrete columns become popular.
Minister of Transport becomes the Central Authority responsible for street lighting.
Even though the Code of Practice won't be published for several years, most installations carried out
from now until 1952 are in accordance with the "draft" code.
There are now 3.5 million motor vehicles on roads.
Metropolitan Vickers introduce the SO-50 which is the first lantern made almost entirely
from Perspex. It is passed by the Royal Art Commission.
City Of London decides to use fluorescent lighting to relight its streets. Original idea was to use fluorescent lights on span wires - but this caused maintenance problems
due to the congested streets. Therefore the wall mounted City Of London lantern was designed - although it wasn't possible to use a parallel mounted
lantern (to the road) as it would've blocked up window space.
Siemens introduce the Wilton Sieray MFC lantern. It has a four bolt
fixing system and internal cantilever. The first installation is in Fishergate, Preston.
Sugg introduce the Group-B Southport lantern.
REVO install the first installation of wall mounted tubular fluorescent lanterns fixed horizontally
in a public thoroughfare in South Street, Southampton where the light source is parallel to the road.
Siemens install the new square designed Sieray fluorescent lantern (probably the Sunray)
British Standard 1788 published: Street Lighting Lanterns. Covers the mechanical and constructional features of lanterns
with regards to safety, durability and easy of maintenance, but does not cover photometric requirements.
British Standard 1249 published: Cast Iron Steet Lighting Columns.
"Light The Streets" film with John Snagge commentary shown at the APLE Annual Conference. Deplicts modern
methods required by the Code Of Practise and examples on how to light roundabouts, T-junctions,
The annual cost of gas starts to increase. Some authorities (e.g. Northampton) abandon gas for electricity on
Crompton Aries lanterns on Stanton 6B columns (156 units) used to light the Sutton Bypass.
British Standards Code Of Practise (BSCP) 1004 Part One: "Street Lighting Part I - Traffic Routes" published. It refines the MOT Report for Group 'A' roads (1937).
Light Distribution Emphasis: Total downward light the most important. Also takes into account subsequent developments in light sources and road surfaces, gives more recognition to "Cut-Off" lighting,
allows some reduction in the spacing of columns, and permits slight tolerance in mounting heights. It is decided to implement the Report by an advisory guide rather than a
specific specification. Also the report is designed to produce installations that are "forward thinking" i.e. it should be possible
to periodically "modernise" an installation, both easily and economically by refurbishing with new lanterns and/or light
sources. The code is produced under the chairmanship of Dr. J. W. T. Walsh.
British Standard 1840 published: Tubular Steet Columns for Street Lighting. Four mounting heights are given: 30', 25', 15' and 13'. Tubes should be welded or seamless. Basic requirements for strength and deflection are stated.
British Standard 161 (1940) modified.
A British Standard for tubular fluorescent tubes is published (might be BS 1853).
The 60W GLS bulb was decreased in size to the same size as the 40W GLS.
The Council Of Industrial Design now approves the design of lighting columns (taking over
from the Royal Fine Art Commission).
The lighting on the Great North Road in Baldock is upgraded. Originally there were 31
gas lamps with two-light No. 2 burners on short cast iron columns. These were
replaced by 70 Concrete Utilities Avenue 3D and Avenue 3DN columns with Arc II
brackets and Crompton Parkinson Corona II 140W SO/H lanterns.
BTH introduce the new SLX3535 for 80W fluorescent tubes.
BTH introduce the Sapphire for MA/U or MA/V.
BTH install 500W tungsten lanterns on Stanton columns in Sowerby, West Riding.
BTH sodium lanterns used to light Tavistock.
BTH install 5ft. fluorescent lighting in Eltham, London.
BTH are marketing the SL3500 lantern.
BTH exhibit the SL3535 (aluminium canopy, one-piece perspex bowl, internal cantilever), the Horizontal Sodium Open Lantern and the Sapphire.
BTH export the SL3500 to Australia (Fitzroy Bridge, Rockhampton, Queensland).
BTH export the SL600 series lantern to Iraq (Kiruk, Northern Iraq).
Crompton Concept introduced. Uses Concrete Utilities and Stanton concrete columns. Accepted by the Council of Industrial Design. Concept One available with Plain Arc, Arc II or Swan Neck bracket - fitted to CU Estate Minor or Major columns.
Crompton Corona II introduced, and used for lighting trunk roads in Leeds.
Crompton are makreting their Crompton Lamps
Ediswan marketing the sodium SSA/1 lantern for 85W and 140W SO/H.
Ediswan exhibit a new two-tube fluorscent lantern and the brand new BT22.
ELECO introduce the Welwyn, Lancaster, Letchworth and Golden Ray Mark III (all comply with BS 1788).
Falk Stadelmann add two new sodium lanterns to their Fulmar range (side entry and top entry).
GEC are marketing the Two-Forty, Viatron, Blown Glass cut-off (400W MB/U), Enclosed Sodium and Three-Eighty
GEC contracted to relight Plymouth: mercury and fluorescent replacing tungsten in the city centre, whilst mercury is used elsewhere. "Three Eighty" (Z8381) 5 foot 80-watt fluorescent lanterns, GEC "Blown Gas" cut-offs and GEC "Dioptrions"
GEC used for lighting of the A6 in Chorley and Kendal.
GEC marketing the Brookvale Lanterns.
GEC are marketing the Two-Forty, Viatron, Dioptrion, Enclosed lanterns for sodium lamps, "Two-Eighty" and Z8580.
GEC are marketing the Z5500/1/2B (Brookvale), Z5630/1/2, Z5565/6/7SB, Z9720, Z9456, Z5643, Z8442 (Forty-Forty) and Z8247/8.
Holophane marketing post-top lighting for Group-B roads.
Holophane exhibit the two post-top lanterns (Group B), a sodium cylindrical refractor lantern (Group A), horizontal mercury discharge lantern, a single piece bowl lantern and a prototype Cylindrical Refractor Lantern (for MBF bulbs).
MV SO-50 lanterns mounted on existing trolleybus poles in Middlesbrough.
MV SO-52 lanterns (replacing an installation of metal filament lamps) light Salford, Lancs.
MV are marketing the new Trafford II, and the SO-50, SO-51, SO-52 and Borough.
Parkinson And Cowan introduce Maxilla and Maxilla Junior.
Parkinson And Cowan introduce Maxilla Festival.
REVO light Dudly with Silverblue mercury lanterns and Vertical Fluorescent Lanterns (Festivals). First installation of vertical fluroescent on concrete columns.
REVO light the centre of London with Wornum lanterns.
REVO exhibit the C14372 (New Sol-e-tern), C12627/8 (with aeroscreen), C13723, C13660 (cut-off), C13740, C13214 (Critchley), C12423/AL, C12422/AL, C13285/AL, C13594 (Silver blue) and Festival.
Siemens produce City Of London vertical Fluorescent lantern (3x80W MCF). 5 prototypes are installed in King Street.
Siemens are marketing the Bracknell lantern.
Siemens exhibit the City (vertical wall mounted lantern), Capital (trolley bus pole mounting lantern), Bracknell and Cathay (post-top lantern).
Sugg develop gas lighted flashing beacons for pedestrian crossings.
Sugg market the London lantern.
Sugg are marketing the Southport lantern.
Sugg exhibit the Group-B Southport lantern (sealed refractors now used, new burner design), Group-A Southport and the 8000 (available with various forms of mounting). The Rochester now has perspex shades
Wardle are marketing the Atholl and Stuart lanterns and exhibited them at the APLE conference.
Wardle are marketing the Gordon, Atholl, Melville and Palatine lanterns.
There are 650,000 gas lighting units installed in the UK.
Aspec are marketing the Kingsland K1 and K3 time switches.
Automatic Light Controling Ltd are marketing the Gunfire controller and celebrating 50 years.
Automatic Telephone and Electric Co. Ltd. introduce new control switch (type 46) especially designed for street lighting.
Automatic Telephone and Electric Co. Ltd. exhibit their Rythmatic ripple control system. An installation is planned to control 20,000 street lights. The system caters for "All-Night", "Half-Night" and "Prior-Dawn."
Automatic Telephone and Electric Co. Ltd. Rythmatic control system controls 426 lanterns in central London.
British, Foreign and Colonail Automatic Light Controlling Co. Ltd are marketing their Gunfire controller.
BTH introduce new phosphors into their MBF/V lamps. This eliminates the colour distortion.
Concrete Utilities marketing the Avenue 3D column.
Horstmann celebrating producing 1,500,000 times switches. They exhibit the Y switch which has 12 hours spring reserve.
Metropolitan Gas Meters Ltd are marketing the Duplex time switch.
ICI experiment with acrylic plastics for street lighting use.
ICI design refractor system for Siemen's City Of London lantern.
Philips have installed over sixty miles of sodium lighting in the city of Liverpool.
Poles Limited exhibit their Adastra columns, approved by the Council Of Industrial design. The Beta column was shown for the first time.
Sangamo Weston market the SS (synchronous time switch) and SSC (synchronous time switch with solar dial).
Seeboard (South-Eastern Electricity Board) experiment with high mounted street light units.
Standard Telephone And Cables Limited introduce DC Bias system in Southampton.
Standard Telephone And Cables Limited are marketing the DC Bias Control System.
Stanton are marketing the 8D, 8F column. The Council of Industrial Design have approved a wide range of their columns.
Stewarts And Lloyds are marketing the Gb. 503, Gb. 508, Gb. 557 and Gb. 583.
Venner marketing Half-Night Control (MSDC) time-switch for fluorescent lanterns.
Venner are marketing the TJSSP time-switch (with nine hours spring reserve).
The APLE conference was held in Liverpool.
The APLE start work on their Diploma scheme.
Regional sections of the APLE are being founded. The
Scottish and Lancashire & Yorksire Sections are already formed and having meetings.
The Midlands Section holds its inaugral meeting this year.
The tubular 125W MBF/U is exhibited at the conference for the first time. The bulb had been available in Europe for some years previous.
The trends since the Second World War were:
The current trends are:
- Larger sizes of discharge lamp were used, disposed horizontally in enclosed lanterns, to
give broad-beam distribution.
- Extension of the use of sodium lamps for main road lighting.
- Fluorescent lanterns introduced in city streets and town centres.
- Group-B roads tend to toatally enclosed lanterns with 100 GLS lamps.
- Post-top lanterns gradually make headway, using fluorescent tubes, normally decorative.
- Perspex is used for enclosing bowls, refractor plates and the lantern body itself. Tubular
vertical refractors are now being made for smaller sizes of filament lamp, although currently only of
- Steel is in short supply, so concrete columns are installed in large numbers.
- Increasing scrutiny by the Council Of Industrial Design
- New town developments. (In one case a column was selected, and manufacturers were asked to design a lantern for it).
- Architects have specified entire column and lanterns combos (leading to post-top mushroom designs).
- Decorative post-top fluorescent lanterns are appearing, opalised on one side of the bowl.
- Swan neck brackets are considered ugly.
The damage on highways due to accidents and insurance claims was estimated at £150 million per annum.
Accident statistics showed:
These can only be attributed to bad visibility.
- More that 95% of all road accidents occurred between 7AM and midnight.
- Two and a half times as many adult pedestrians were killed an hour at night as an hour during the day.
- Almost twice as many motor drivers were killed an hour at night as an hour durin the day.
- Almost twice as many adult pedestrians were seriously injured an hour at night as during the day.
Over five million motor vehicles are licensed.
In Belgium, it had become the practise to tilt fluorescent lanterns at 15o. It was thought that the tilt lit the centre
of the road better. The practise started to appear in the UK; for no other reason than it was the continental way of doing things.
The Institution of Municipal Engineers carry out a survey of street lighting in England, Wales and Scotland:
- Some form of lighting exists on 90% of roads: 53% electricity and 37% gas.
- Of the 53% electric lamps, 70% lights main roads.
- Nearly 100% of authorities had already decided to light all future schemes by electricity.
- Amount of sodium and mercury lighting in use on main roads was about the same.
- Less than 10% of main roads lighted by filament lighting, although oer 50% of residential roads used it.
- Over 95% of installations were being designed with the new Code Of Practise.
- 49% of street lighting operated from "dusk to dawn".
- Manually wound time clocks used by 93% of lighting authorities.
New 80-125 MBF/U bulbs are introduced in the UK. Lanterns start to appear for them.
100W GLS bulbs are to be decreased in size as specified by the new BS 161 (1952).
BTH introduce new 80W and 125W MBF/U bulbs. They have better colouring and are smaller.
Philips are advertising their sodium lighting.
GEC are marketing the Post-Top Small Wembley Lantern.
ELECO market the Welwyn, Lancaster, Letchworth and Golden Ray Mark III (all comply with BS 1788).
Falk Stadelmann are advertising their street lighting.
Holophane marketing a two-lamp MBF/U lantern (after the introduction of the smaller 125W MBF/U) bulb and the Post-Top lantern.
MV are marketing the new Trafford II, and the SO-50, SO-51 and SO-52.
REVO light Durham and Dudley with fluorescent lanterns.
Wardle are marketing the Atholl and Stuart lanterns.
Automatic Light Controling Ltd are marketing the Gunfire controller.
Automatic Telephone and Electric Co. Ltd. are marketing their type 45a Rythmatic Ripple Control Unit.
Horstmann are marketing their gas and electric time switches.
Parkinson And Cowan Instruments are marketing the Kingsland K1 and K3 (they were formally Aspec Limited).
Poles Limited are marketing their Adastra columns.
Siemens are advertising in general.
Standard Telephone And Cables Limited are marketing the DC Bias Control System.
Stanton are marketing the 8F column approved by the Council of Industrial Design.
Stewarts And Lloyds are marketing the Gb. 503 and Gb. 557. All comply with BS 1840.
Venner are marketing their MSSP time-switch.
Concrete Utilities marketing the Avenue 3D column.
The APLE hold their conference in Eastbourne.
Members of the Road Research Laboratory give a paper on road surface characteristcs.
The new BS 161 standards give rise for concerns in lanterns e.g. temperature effects and
effects on light distribution.
Siemens install 50 Kuwait lanterns in Preston Market Square, the first installation of these
lanterns in the UK.
Some notes by Waldram on street lighting:
Accident statistics showed:
- Making the road surface bright
Shortage of money means we make "a little go a long way". This must not be taken too far; a poorly lighted street may be more dangerous than an unlighted one.
Silhouette lighting: most convenient, safest, least expensive way of revealing objects.
Single lantern, mounted on column, produces a bright patch on road surface. Size, shape and brightness depends on nature of road surface, light distribution of lantern and mounting height.
Important facts about the patch:
- Lies between the observer and the foot of the column. Never extends beyond the foot.
- For cut-off distribution (maximum intensity 75°, no light emitted above 80°), patch will be ellipse shaped with long axis across road.
- For non-cut-off distribution (maximum intensity 80° appreciable light emitted to horizontal), patch will be "T" shaped with tail extending along road to observer.
- Luminance of patch very dependent on the reflector factor of the road at glancing angles of incidence and view.
- Spacing And Arrangement Of Lanterns
- Main Roads
Cut-off lantern mounted 8M high over kerb will light road 10M wide, kerb to kerb. Therefore central suspension of single line of lanterns at 30M spacing is satisfactory. Gives adequate road brightness; freedom from glare; safe and pleasant driving conditions. However, most costly and less flexible than non-cut-off.
Non-cut-off lantern, patch width is less. Preferred arrangement, mount lanterns on columns kerb-side, at 40M spacing (50M max) in staggered arrangement. Larger spacing possible because of longer bright patches. Arrangement of lanterns places patches side-by-side so merge to creat uniform path of light. Brightness of the road surface high, but so is dazzle.
Lanterns placed on outer kerb around bends; use siting guage to determine locations so patches merge.
Layout of lanterns for non-cut-off requires skill and ingenuity.
Dual carriageways: can use lanterns emitting light towards the traffic (uni-directional), therefore reducing wattage of lanterns by half. Or mount pairs of cut-off lanterns on central columns.
- City Streets
Amenities of the neighbourhood should be preserved. Vertical lanterns are good as they emit much light above the horizontal to light buildings and improve general appearance.
For crowded streets and squares, bright road surfaces are less important so lanterns should be spaced more closely to achieve a higher direct illumination.
- Side Roads
To reduce cost, lanterns at 200W or less are used; mounted 3-5M high; spaced at 40-50M.
Light distribution similar to main road non-cut-off.
Aim is not to light the road for the benefit of the motorist - but for the pedestrian and general amenity.
Lanterns should be easy to maintain, attractive, of low brightness and proof against small boys.
- Choice Of Light Source
Made on personal preference on colour and comparative costs.
GLS: relatively cheap to install, expensive to operate.
MCF: cheap to operate, costly to install (gear, large columns, large lanterns).
Most new main road installations in the UK are MB or SO. No experimental evidence has been published to support a preference (although recently determined that MB more glaring than SO - but not conclusive).
- Lantern Design
Must fulfil purpose for 10 to 20 years.
Must be easy to maintain.
Adjustments - such as focusing devices - should be as few as possible.
All parts should be robust.
Design should not be sensitive to manufacturing tolerances.
- Optical Design
Reflector systems must be made to greater tolerances than refractor systems.
Light control should be by main controlling system and an auxiliary system.
Optical system determined by light distribution required e.g. cut-off achieved by specular reflectors.
Refractors and reflectors can be used equally for non-cut-off systems. However refractors prefered because (a) less sensitive to manufacturing tolerances (b) more freedom for the design (c) glass and acrylic plastic more stable and corrosion resistant.
- Mechanical Design
Should be robust and simple.
Use die-cast aluminium, pressed glass or platic refractors for high resistance to corrosion.
Re-paint as soon as undercoat shows.
Keep moving parts greased.
Lantern constructed from unsuitable materials may be cheap to purchase but costly to maintain.
The use of Perspex has allowed large lanterns to be constructed, and because it can be welded to itself, refractor plates can be attached with the prismatic surfaces completely concealed.
- Lantern Testing
Performance over years can be forecast using laboratory testing.
Use a photometer to measure the intensity in candelas over a range of angles.
Results are plotted as lines of equal intensity (Isocandle Diagram)
The performance of the lantern can be estimated from this diagram.
- Durability Tests
Forced tests for resistance to corrosion are not normally reliable.
Test stations are set up in different places and samples or complete lanterns exposed.
Corrosion may vary from place to place.
Dirt forms the centre of attack.
Exposure tests include combinations of metals, painting, treatments, greases.
- Vibration Tests
Most lanterns suffer from vibration (severe case of 15cms at frequency of 200 per minute observed).
Therefore lanterns tested on a shaking machine.
Frequency and amplitude can be adjusted; tests run for 100 hours (equivalent to several years service).
- Thermal Tests
Thermal tests take the greatest amount of effort: glass or Perspex, lamp cap and leads must not overheat, the lamp must start and operate in all weather conditions.
Temperature measurements made in enclosure with double walls by thermocouples.
Schlieren technique used to study heat streams around a lantern.
Weaterproofing tested with a water spray test; proves water tightness and ability of glassware to withstand thermal shock.
- Night-time road journeys result in much higher proportions of deaths and serious injuries than day-time journeys.
- Pedestrians suffer very heavily for inadequate street lighting: with a night-time death rate two or three times that by day.
- Roads are three times dangerous by night as by day to each road user.
- The continuing increase in vehicular traffic is being reflected in a disproportionate increase in night time casulaties
- The major cause of the serious night-time accident situation is street lighting, whose improvement has not kept pace with the increase in road traffic.
Defence Regulation 56A (1939) which limited the capital available for new street lighting
is finally lifted.
Aberdeen's Union and Castle Street are relit using cold-cathode wall and pole mounted vertical
fluorescent lamps designed by the GEC. This is the first installation of its type in the UK.
Some notes from Charles Winning of Stewarts and Lloyds:
Steel tubes have been demanded for over 50 years.
In early parts of century, wrought iron or steel available. Now only use steel.
Prior to the First World War, cast iron columns of low mounting heights were in general use.
With the advent of fast moving and heavy motor traffic, more adequate street lighting was necessary, so mounting heights were increased. Steel prefered over cast iron as it doesn't fracture on impact.
Modern columns covered by BS 1840 (1952).
1. Sectional Column: Join lengths of tube of different sizes.
2. Stepped Column: One length of tube reduced, or stepped down, by drawing through dies.
3. Combination: Sectional base section (for control gear) and stepped shaft portion.
Council Of Industrial Design approve designs for Group A roads (needed to qualify for an MOT grant).
CoID also act as advisory body on questions of aesthetic design.
CoID do not deal with Group B.
- Standard Columns
Columns standardized as per BS 1840.
Bracket lengths are not standardized - outreaches vary widely.
- Column Features
1. Base Section: Made to minimum standard size as agreed with gear manufacturers.
2. Root: Can be made straight or cranked (to avoid other services).
3. Base Ornamentation: MOT opposed to use of added ornamental parts. CoID will not approve them. Ornamentation causes corrosion. Most councils have smashed off cast iron ornamentation from existing columns (collars, coat-of-arms etc.)
- Shaft Section
Ususally stepped down.
Larger diameters can be used if double fluorscent lanterns to be used.
Available as plain or fluted.
- Bracket Arms
Fabricated from steel tubes.
There are three types:
1. Straight tubular arm supported by tierods and clips. Bracket arm is crewed into a half coupler welded onto the pole.
2. Straight and curved tubular arms, with thin plate on underside to improve appearance. Welded to a tubular sleeve which fits over pole top. Sleeve held in position by three Allen screws.
3. Bracket arm in form of single bent tube. Lower end has connector sleeve welded on. Fits over pole top. Held in position by three Allen screws.
Poles can support outreaches up to 15'. When outreach exceeds 15', some form of side bracing is required.
- Columns For Large Lanterns (Fluorescent)
Design of the bracket arm dependent upon the make of the lantern.
Some form of bracing against side wind load is desirable.
As per BS 1840 (1952)
Danger to anyone in vicinity of struck column is extremely slight.
Steel columns neither break nor disintegrate on impact but merely bend.
- Surface Protection
To prevent corrosion, two forms of surface protection are used:
2. Metallic Coatings (usually zinc in the form of hot dip galvanising).
- Advantages Of Steel
1. Withstand fairly rough treatment.
2. Do not break or fracture under shock.
3. Slender and comparatively light for the strength provided.
4. No real erection problem.
5. Strength can be determined fairly accurately.
6. Base section just sufficient to house electrical gear.
7. Painted to suit any colour scheme.
8. Approved standard designs in accordance wtih BS 1840 are of sound design with simple grace.
Number of miles of road having street lighting:
Manufacturers of both electric lamps and fittings for street lighting are able to offer a wider selection than ever before.
- 23,100 miles: Tungsten filament (much is below standard)
- 20,000 miles: Gas
- 3,060 miles: Mercury vapour discharge
- 1,570 miles: Sodium discharge
- 250 miles: Fluorescent
Since the war, the popularity of sodium discharge has increased with respect to mercury vapour.
Fluorescent lamps have advanced so that critisms of high maintenance and running costs no longer apply.
Great ingenuity has been shown in the design of lanterns; plastic, plastic bowls, internal refectors, external refractors, side and/or top entry.
There is a gratifying general trend towards horizonal lanterns.
Open fittings are now obsolete.
Vertical lanterns for fluorescent lamps have been developed for mounting on columns or buildings; the later especially useful where narrow streets and pavements make columns undesirable.
Where all-round distribution is required, vertical post-top fluorescent lantern can form an elegant feature.
The choice of lamp standard or column of new lighting schemes have provoked much hostile comment (even in the National Papers).
Regulation 56A of the Defence (General) Regulations 1939 lifted in November. This limited new lighting schemes during the war and immediate post-war years.
At the APLE conference, Harris and Christie of the Road Research Laboratory quoted a 29% reduction in personal-injury accidents on
eight main roads in the London area.
BTH introduce a new tube mount in their MA lamps.
GEC push Osram soidum lamps and point out they're used in the largest street lighting installations.
The GEC also develope the first integral (SOI/H) low pressure sodium lamps - with an efficacy of 85 lm/W.
Philips are advertising their sodium lamps as saving costs and lives.
Philips introduce a new 400W MBF/U lamp. (The 80W and 125W MBF lamps were introduced first).
Philips introduce the new 250W MBF/U lamp.
Atlas announce their new range of lanterns.
BTH are pushing the Sapphire, Amber and Diadem lanterns and their Trefoil column.
Holophane are marketing a new lantern for the new 125W MBF fluorescent bulb and the Side Of House lantern.
ELECO introduces the Universal 100 lantern.
Falks advertise the Fulmar VII.
Metropolitan-Vickers are showing off their all plastic SO 50 lantern.
REVO advertise their lighting by reminding everyone they were chosen to light Parliament Square with Grey Wornum lannterns.
REVO introduce the Haddington lantern.
Siemens introduce the Kuwait lantern.
Wardle are marketing the Atholl and Stuart sodium lanterns.
Automatic Light Controlling Co. Ltd. are marketing the Gunfire controller.
Automatic Telephone and Electric Co. Ltd. are marketing their Rythmatic Ripple Control for all-night, half-night and prior-dawn switching.
The EDA continue to push for adequate modern lighting.
Crompton market the Concept, pushing its grace and simplicity.
CU continue advertising Tarslag's "cigar shaped" lighting column.
ELECO remind everyone they've been in the business for 60 years and can help solve all street lighting problems.
Horstmann are marketing their gas and electric time switches.
Londex are marketing photo-electric night switches alongside their timeswitches.
Metropolitan Gas Meters Ltd now also offer a repair service for gas controllers and time switches.
Poles Limited are marketing their Adastra columns.
Standard Telephone and Cables Limited are advertising their DC Bias Control Systems.
Stanton are marketing the 8F and 8K columns approved by the Council of Industrial Design.
Stewarts And Lloyds are advertising their Gb 507, Gb 522, Gb 583, Gb 585 and Gb 111 columns and brackets.
Venner are marketing their TJSSP time switches.
The APLE hold their annual conference in Folkestone.
J M Waldram is inducted as APLE president: the first time someone associated with research becomes president.
The South Western section meets for the first time.
Ediswan SSA/1 street lighting lanterns installed in Queensferry Road, Dunfermline.
Crompton Corona II lanterns on Concrete Utilities 3DNX columns installed on the A13 at Pitsea and Vange (now Basildon).
REVO and Stewarts & Lloyds provide lanterns and columns for the relighting of the A1 through Stamford. This includes 15 lanterns of "facade" type lighting (fluorescent, 80W, 2-tubes) with the lanterns parallel with the axis of the road. This is the first time instances of this type of lantern have been used to light a trunk road.
340 REVO cut-off sodium lanterns (C13660), suspended in pairs from steel catenary wires, supported by 25 ft. steel columns, erected to light the Birmingham-Wolverhamton new road. It is claimed to be some of the best street lighting in the country.
REVO cut-off sodium lanterns (C13660) used again, this time suspended singley from catenary wires, along Burgess Road, Southampton.
The GEC supply VHF radio receivers for tower wagons and maintenance vans belonging to the Newcastle Corporation. This allows direct two-way communication with the control facility.
The GEC complete an installation in Blackburn which includes 400W MBF/U lamps.
Bright Son & Co start a "hospital" for electric time switches and gas controllers.
BTH install 140 sodium street lighting lanterns on the main roads of Salford. Sodium enclosed lanterns on Concrete Utilities Avenue 3D columns at 25 ft. were used.
Lighting continues to be upgraded in Leeds with Crompton Corona II lanterns (SG305EX) lanterns being installed on existing traction poles.
Siemens, REVO and Poles Ltd win the contract to supply street lighting to Kuiwait.
Siemens design the Orton lantern (60W SO/H) with "Birmabright" reflector for Midsomer Morton. 300 are installed.
183 all-perspex Metrovick SO-50 lanterns installed at Grangemouth, with plans to install more. 31 Gower lanterns installed by the firm within the Grangemouth Refinery.
GEC provide 39 Z9425 lanterns, mounted on Macfarlands Limited columns, installed on the Northam Bridge, Southampton.
There are 6.4 million vehicles licensed in the UK. Road casualties at 41 per 1000 vehicles.
Earl of Selkirk, whilst debating the forthcoming Road Traffic Act (1956), expresses the government view
that there are too many lighting authorities. Larger authorities needed to deal with road lighting and achieve greater
Philips state their sodium lamps make the roads safer.
The GEC install the worlds first integral sodium lamp installation in the world at St. Pancras, London.
A C Ford are advertising their products for Group A and B roads.
AEI are now directly marketing the Sapphire, Amber and Diadem.
Atlas have introduced the new Beta Two lantern.
The GEC market the Plastifractor lantern with its one-piece injection moulded refractor bowl and various post-top fluorescent lanterns.
Falks advertise the Fulmar I.
Hume Atkins introduce their Area lanterns.
Holophane advertise the Side Of House lantern and announce a new refractor for the 250-400W MBF/U lamp.
Metropolitan-Vickers continue to advertise their lanterns.
Phosco are marketing the Phosware SO140 enclosed sodium lantern along with several other lanterns.
REVO light the Birmingham's main shopping centre with special new lanterns.
Siemens Kuwait is being marketed with the Court, Carpenter, Crawley and Coventry lanterns.
Wardle market the Dielikon plastic refractor and the Murray lantern which uses it.
Automatic Light Controlling Co. Ltd. are marketing the Gunfire controller and a repair service.
Concrete Utilities suggest the painting of metal columns is a waste of rate players money. They're also advertising their Highway X column with a Phosware F3-80/H lantern.
Horstmann are marketing their gas and electric time switches.
Metropolitan Gas Meters Ltd now also offer a repair service for gas controllers and time switches.
Poles Limited are marketing their Adastra columns.
Sangamo are advertising their time switches.
Stanton are marketing the 8K, 8D and 9D columns approved by the Council of Industrial Design.
Standard Telephone and Cables Limited are advertising their DC Bias Control Systems.
Stewarts And Lloyds are offering their new catalogue.
Venner are advertising time switches.
British Standards Code Of Practise (BSCP) 1004 Part Two published which refined the MOT Report for Group 'B' roads.
Light Distribution Emphasis: Light distribution in plan should be suited to the environment. The code is produced under the chairmanship of Dr. J. W. T. Walsh.
Road Traffic Act passed.
Northampton's lighting engineers complete 75% of their relighting plan. This is triumphed by the EDA.
Chislehurst/Sidcups main roads relit with BTH Amber lanterns and BTH Diadem lanterns (High Streets).
REVO Sol-Etern selected to light main roads in the City Of Westminster.
Government recognise the roads are inadequate to deal with modern traffic: are carrying on a programme of road improvements with priority to the elimination of black spots.
Government seeks to introduce a system of compulsory testing of vehicles under the new Road Traffic Bill.
Vast majority of accidents are due to human error of judgement.
John Betjeman in a public speech referred to bye-laws requiring street lights to be of greater heights and accuses
unscrupulous firms of putting Passed By The Royal Fine Art Commission on their catalogues. He also accused borough surveyors of
working by rule of thumb.
The Royal Art Commission indicates between 1955-56, 75 individual lighting schemes were considered. This doesn't stop authorities referring
to the Royal Art Commission, somewhat backing up Betjeman (see also Ian Nairn).
Some notes on Venner time-switches by W. A. Devon:
British Standard BS 1853 published. This is a revised version of the 1952 standard for tubular fluorescent lamps. Applies
to MCF/Y tubes with pre-heated cathodes in switch-start circuits, details testing specification, and an appendix
features detailed requirements of the colour, appearance and colour rendering of the light.
- Clock types:
- 14-day hand-wound movement
Advantange: Freedom from mains variations
Advantange: No need for mains supply
Disadvantage: Fortnightly visits required to rewind it
- Synchronous Motor
Cheapest and most popular
Advantage: Can be left almost indefinintely
Disadvantage: Affected by power cuts
- Synchronous Clock With Spring Reserve
A spring-driven clock maintained full wound by a motor drive.
In the event of a power cut, the spring reserve takes over.
Disadvantage: Still requires visits to adjust for natural losing or gaining rate of the escapement.
- Sodium street lighting requires a modification to the solar curve calculations to allow 15 minutes lighting up time.
- Double circuit switching allows multiple tubes in fluorescent lanterns to be individually controlled. This allows for reduced lighting levels afer midnight.
- Multi-Switching (known as the G.P. switch) allows many lighting units to be controlled and switched at different times. Used for the lighting of flats.
- Selective Switching also uses a day selector dial which allows for lighting not to be used as weekends.
The APLE conference is held in Blackpool.
Some notes on the development of lantern design by Holmes and Souter:
- Principle Factors In Lantern Design
- Street Lighting Policy
- Light Source
- Lighting Technique
- Lantern Design
- Optical System
- Mechanical Construction
- Competitive Tenders For Lanterns
- Type Of Light Source
- Incandescent Filament (GLS)
- Sodium (SO/H)
- Discharge (MA/V, MA/H, MB/U)
- Blended (MBT/V)
- Bulb Fluorescent (MBF/U)
- Tubular Fluorescent (MCF/U)
- High Pressure
- Low Pressure
- Type Of Lighting
- Prestige And Display
- B.S. Code Of Practise
- Group A
- High Angle
- Medium Angle
- Group B
- Narrow B1
- Wide B2
- Tree lined
- Optical System
- Axial Asymmetric
- Non-Axial Asymmetric
- Means Of Control
- Vitreous Enamel
- Glass Or Plastics
- Single Piece
- Sealed Two Piece
- Processed Sheets
- Injection Moulding
- Mechanical Construction
- Specifications (BS:1788:1951)
- Provision For Control Gear
- Lantern Body
- Fabricated Box
- Silicon Aluminium
- Plastics Moudling
- Heat Dissipation
- Weather Protection
- Surface Treatment
- Mechanical Protection
- Lamp Replacement
The 400W MB/U lamp is now so efficient that it is classed entirely out of the British Standard for street lighting e.g. it gives more
than 8,000 lumens per 100 ft. of roadway with lanterns of 120 ft. spacing. This assumes a lantern of high efficiency but begins to
show that the BS specifications already need attention.
There is a need for a higher wattage sodium lamp. In Holland, they avoided going to 140W SO/H by using lanterns fitted with
two 85W SO/H lamps - this also had several other advantages.
Atlas introduce the new Alpha Three at the APLE exhibition.
British Standard 1308 revised: Reinforced Concrete Street Lighting Columns.
1st November: Granville Berry (Coventry City engineer and surveyor), in a paper to the
Institute Of Highway Engineers, reported the results of analysis of investigations of the
Road Laboratory Research Committee As a result of the installation of lighting standards within
the County of London, there was a reduction of between 20% and 30% in the road accident rate. After installing their
complete scheme of fluorescent lighting, Northampton achieved a reduction of road accidents by 30%. In the USA,
14 states claim tha improved lighting on their main roads reduced accident rate by 60%. A similar reduction has
taken place on the main trunk roads of Paris.
Main points from his paper:
Street lighting is debated in Parliament (19th Dec 1957). Opened by Arthur Moyle MP:
- Due to rapid development of motor traffic, road lighting has become more important.
- Legalisation for the provision of lighting is permissive and there's no legal obligation to provide it (except in some parts of Scotland and London).
- County Councils, although Highway Authorities, are not lighting authorities (except in Scotland). They are permitted under Section 23 of the Road Traffic Act (1934) to enter into agreements with lighting authorities for the lighting of County roads. In practice, this has proved unworkable.
- For Trunk Roads, the Ministry Of Transport, although not the highway authority, is not the lighting authority. The lighting authority carries out the work and maintains the equipment whilst MOT contributes 50% of approved costs of installation and subsequent maintenance.
- There are nearly 3,500 lighting authorities in Great Britain. In addition there could be at least a further 5,000 if Parish Councils becoming lighting authorities for their areas (if they adopt the Light and Watching Act, 1833).
- There are in excess of 1½ million street lights in Great Britain. Cost of maintenance is £12 million a year. MOT contributed £113,358 in 1955-56 for Trunk Roads.
- During the last 10 years, 5,000 miles of public highways have been provided with new or improved lighting. Total capital expenditure in this period is in the region of £20 million.
- Many engineers responsible for both highways and lighting feel Government should accept responsibility for the whole cost of the lighting of trunk roads.
- Relighting of classified roads is seriously delayed by lack of financial assistance and is still outside the Improvement Grant System. The improvement an authority can carry out is determined by the rates.
- There are over 150 lighting authorities in London alone. It is suggested some form of Joint Lighting Authorities could be formed.
- Improvement Grant System should include the provision of new and improved lighting on classified roads, where carried out in accordance to CP 1004, and to increase from 50% to 100% the Ministry's contribution of Trunk Roads and Motorways.
- Economic justification of national system of motorways must depend on "around the clock" use so they should be as safe by night as day i.e. they should be lit.
- Road Research Laboratory have made detailed "before" and "after" studies of personal injury on eight traffic routes in London. Results indicate an overall accident reduction of 35% during hours of darkness.
- Similar investigations have indicated accidents are down 30% with "good lighting".
- In the USA, Street and Highway Safety Lighting Bureau report "before" and "after" studies on 28 installations in 14 states and show a reduction of night fatalities of over 60%.
- Lighting of sections of the Paris Autoroute de l'Ouest has indicated an accident reduction of up to 30%.
- Road Research Laboratory calculates the average cost of personal injury accident is £500 - therefore the savings on accidents is more than the cost of providing lighting to Code of Practise CP 1004.
- Total cost of lighting all roads in urban areas estimated as an extra £5 million a year, and on the assumption of an accident reduction of 20-30%, there seems little doubt as to the economic justification of lighting traffic routes.
- During last 30 years, conception of the need and purpose of lighting has changed from a simple warning light to the provision of adequate and sufficient illumination to ensure safe movement of pedestrian and vehicular traffic, as well as reasonable standard of protection for both persons and property.
- Before the introduction of discharge lamps, it had not been readily or economically possible with gas and incandescent to provide really adequate lighting on traffic routes.
- Discharge lighting came shortly after the 1931 revision of BSS 307 and made apparent some of the difficulties designing installations using "Direct Illumination" - htis lead to the adoption of the "Road Brightness" theory.
- Therefore lighting engineers began to look at roads "in perspective" rather than "in plan".
- This made lighting schemes more economicially possible and efficient, and laed to the Ministry of Transport Departmental Commitee Report of 1937, which emerged as the British Standard Code Of Practise (CP 1004: 1952).
- Traffic Routes (Group "A")
- All roads on which standard of lighting should provide an ample margin of safety for road users without the necessity of headlights on motor vehicles.
- Fittings at 25' to light source, with maximum spacing of 150' in "non-cut-off" installations.
- Lanterns have a light output between 3,000 and 8,000 lumens for every 100 linear feet of road.
- Width of carriageway does not exceed 40 feet.
- Other Roads (Group "B")
- All other roads, including residential, and varies emphasis from needs of the vehicle driver to pedestrian.
- Standard of lighting cannot be relied upon under all conditions for safe movement of motor vehicles without use of headlights.
- Fittings at 15' to light source. Average spacing of 120' feet.
- Lanterns have a light output of between 600 and 2,500 lumens every 100 linear feet of road.
- Group B1
- Streets in heavily built up urban areas where footways, forecourts and front gardens are narrow.
- No trees.
- Group B2
- Streets in suburban residential areas. Generally tree-lined and wide footways, deep front gardens
- Additional factors affecting design of various systems of lighting (over the Code Of Practice)
- Selection Of Light Source
- Main factors: luminous efficiency, lamp life, brightness, colour rendering.
- White light being increasingly used for traffic routes that pass through built-up areas using fluorescent lamps or colour corrected high pressure mercury vapour.
- Monochromatic yellow light of sodium vapour renders it unsuitable for shopping areas on traffic routes.
- Type Of Lantern
- Determines the distribution of light to give the necessary road brightness.
- 1. Non-Cut-Off System
- Angle of maximum intensity between 75° and 80° from the downward vertical.
- Lamp either wholly or partly unscreened.
- Most widely used system in country for filament and mercury vapour lighting.
- Lanterns can be spaced widely. Spacing not critical.
- Glare reduced by using horizontal burning lamps.
- Fluorescent lighting schemes almost invariably non-cut-off.
- 2. Semi-Cut-Off System
- Light distribution above the main beam controlled as to fall away sharply at angles approaching the horizontal.
- Closer spacing of lanterns required.
- Satisfactory lighting scheme with little glare, and counteracts the "tunnel" effect of full-cut-off.
- Particularly suitable for central suspension lighting.
- 3. Cut-Off System
- Maximum light output at an angle of less than 75° from the downward vertical with a very marked reduction in intensity above this angle.
- Glare is almost completely eliminated.
- Spacing of lanterns much closer and critical.
- Used primary with central suspension.
- 4. Unidirectional System
- Occasionally used for dual-carriageway lighting on main traffic routes.
- Each road lighted as a separate one-way road; light from the lanterns only given out in the same direction as the traffic flow.
- General illumination outside the carriageway is not good - other road appears to be unlit.
- Type And Condition Of Road Surface
- Type and condition of road surface has a very significant effect on the efficiency of any lighting installation.
- Coarser textured surfaces had reduced the preferential component of reflection from road surfaces.
- Road surfaces were frequently unsatisfactory from a lighting viewpoint in wet weather.
Therefore it's hoped that something will be done:
- There is a lack of uniformity of lighting installations. No legal obligation for any lighting authority to consult with neighbours.
"Motorists who have to pass from the amber flood of sodium flare lighting into the glare of the mercury vapour system and
then perhaps into the comparative darkness of an area equipped with insufficient of the ordinary electric lights,
all sometimes along the same stretch of road, known only too well how great a strain is to drive at night in
this country." Why not establish joint standing committess of neighbouring local authorities, especially in the
conurbation areas, so uniform lighting could be discussed?
- There is a lack of tidy administration and organisation in the lighting authorities. In England and Wales there
are no fewer than 3200 different lighting authorities. If the 5000 Parish Councils were to take independence and became
lighting authorities then there would be over 8000. County councils, although not lighting authorities, are empowered to make grants
within their own county area for schemes which are approved, but they have never done this.
- There is a lack of finance. £12 million a year spent by local authorities on lighting whilst contibution by the MOT was not more than £133,000. (Although MOT can only provide grants for trunk roads).
It is utterly unreasonable that local ratepayers should be saddled with the cost of lighting installations which are part of the national service.
[He then quotes Granville Berry's results (see above). The cost of road accidents to the nation is about £170 million per year, the cost
of a fatility being about £500. If adequate lighting was installed on main roads within the urban areas alone, the estimated cost would not be
more than £5 million per year.
- Lack of uniform and continious lighting along main roads is one of the major causes of road accidents.
There were 273,858 casualties on the roads including 5,550 killed and 63,706 seriously injured.
- To try and import some order and administration into the provision of adequate lighting.
- To co-ordinate the activities of the local authorities through joint standing committees.
- About the financial aspect of the matter.
Crompton have improved performance of their mercury lamps.
GEC are highlighting the benefits of the SOI lamp and introduce the 280W SOI lamp (which has two inner tubes in a 140W sized bulb).
Philips are advertising their lamps for use with floodlighting.
Siemens Ediswan are advertising their lamps.
AEI introduce the Amber MK IV, Kington, Newton, Ashby and Kirby lanterns along with the Leader column.
Atlas are advertising their Alpha One which won the Gold Medal at the 1957 Milan Triennale and the Alpha Three. They also introduce the new Gamma Four and Beta Four at the APLE exhibition.
ELECO picture their Silver Ray lanterns.
Falks show off their Beaufort range.
GEC introduce the Z8430 and Z8430CM for the new mercury fluorescent lamp.
Holophane have introduced the new oval bowl unit refractor for Group 'A' roads.
Phosco are highlighting their Georgian and SO 140/S Enclosed Sodium lanterns.
Siemens Ediswan are advertising their Kuiwat Unitary System.
Wardle are advertising their Murray lantern and newly remodelled Atholl.
AEI introduce their new aluminium columns for Group B roads (the Leader range).
Concrete Utilities are marketing their concrete columns, especially the Highway X.
ELECO are advertsing their newly introduced ELECOSlim range of columns.
Horstmann are marketing their time switches which have been used in Crawley New Town.
Hunts advertise their capacitors for lighting applications.
Metal Developments are advertising their Lucerna columns.
Metropolitan Gas Meters Ltd continue repairing gas controllers and time switches.
Parmar are advertising their control gear.
Poles Limited are marketing their Adastra columns.
REVO have installed floodlighting at Molineux and are advertising their street lighting.
Stanton are marketing the 8F columns approved by the Council of Industrial Design, advertised the entire 9 range, and introduced the 10 range.
Stewarts And Lloyds are advertising their lighting columns (specifically the Gb.583, Gb.591 and Gb.825) and floodlighting towers.
TMC introduce a new range of power correction capacitors.
Venner are advertising their time switches.
Wardle are advertising their floodlight units.
REVO is now a Duport company and is also a member of the British Lighting Council.
12 top-entry AEI Amber cut-off lanterns are installed on Stewart And LLoyds
GB.581 at Balloch Roundabout, Dunbartonshire.
39 AEI Amber lanterns installed on Springbank C
concrete columns on the Edinburgh-Stirling A9 trunk road at Plean.
406 GEC Two-Forty (Z8245) lanterns installed on GEC
Brevis columns in Richmond. In addition, 350 have been installed in Hammersmith.
68 Atlas Alpha 2 lanterns installed in Witham, Essexon the A12
London-Great Yarmouth trunk road. Fluorescent lighting is to be used for main and trunk roads through
British Standard (1308:1957) for Concrete Street Lighting lanterns has been revised: scope of the standard
has been extended to included columns of prestressed concrete, specification details and the purchasing function.
Specially designed post-top lanterns and concrete columns installed in Crawley New Town by the GEC.
A new post-top "mushroom" fitting was designed at the request of the Crawley Development Corporation and takes
two 2ft. 40W fluorescent tubes. Specially designed Two-Forty lanterns are installed in other areas
of the town. The new GEC Brevis II B will be used throughout the shopping area.
And in other areas, main roads will be lit with GEC Two-Eighty fluorescent lanterns.
Croydon embarks on a five year programme to relight all its streets which will involve 3,500 140-watt sodium
lanterns. The first two stages of the programme have been completed with 850 columns to be now erected.
London Road, from Norbury to Purley, will be lit using ELECO lanterns. REVO
obtained the second contract (for 550 columns). And 1100 columns are being erected with GEC and REVO lanterns.
All the columns are manufactured by Stewart And Lloyds (although some existing columns have been
reused). It will be the largest installation in Britain using the new SOI lamp.
REVO have supplied 50 newly designed C15074 fittings for the city of Coventry mounted
on REVO Slender-line steel columns which have a special underground box in cast
iron which holds switches, gear etc. This box is watertight and the lid fits flush with the surface of the
Tilbury Docks in London are lit with Holophane Acorn lanterns with 400W MBF/U bulbs.
The lanterns employ both a prismatic refractor bowl and internal band refractor. They are mounted on Stanton 6B columns.
Skegness is replacing all its street lighting. Roman Bank has had 98 GEC Two-Eighty (Z8281) fluorescent lanterns installed (80W fluorescent)
on GEC concrete Altus pre-stressed concrete columns. These replace gas lanterns. A decorative GEC lantern is installed in Lumley Square which takes 24 2-foot Osram 40W fluorescent tubes (it is a traditional post top lantern).
North and South Parades are lit by 60 GEC Four-Forty post-top lanterns mounted on Stanton 7 columns.
The GEC Z5643 lantern is used to light the towns tree-lined Group B roads: 100 have been ordered.
The last section of Westgate, Leeds, is opened. 33 Stanton 8 columns support
16 twin Siemens Edison Swan Kuiwait unitary System lanterns and 17 single lanterns. There are
four 80W fluorescent tubes in each lantern.
BEDA have published a followup of A Matter Of Light Or Death which is called
More Matters Of Light Or Death.
The APLE publication, Public Lighting, is 21 years old and is issued in a smart new format.
Street lighting a sound investment from a financial and well as from a safety and health point of view. It reduces road accidents,
aids trffic circulation (therefore assisting productivity), increases the effectivity of the police force, curbs criminal activities and boost morale and encourages social progress.
B.S. Code Of Practise (CP 1004) - Traffic Routes requires changing (i.e. some revision and extension). Bulbs are becoming so efficient
they are classed entirely out of the specification as greater mounting heights are not specified. The lighting of the new motorways,
other main roads and junctions, overpasses and underpasses are new problems to overcome. "Super Group A" (for arterial routes and motorways) and
"Super Group B" (for bus routes through Group B areas - for which the Carpenter Lantern was designed) have been suggested.
Ian Nairn's Outrage and Counter Attack have been published. The industry feels this is a problem with the lowest
Much of the street lighting in the UK is now over 40 years old and requires replacing.
Street lighting is debated in The House Of Lords (23rd Jan 1958). Opened by Lord Hampton:
The debate continued:
- Attention was called to the diversity and often inadequacy of lighting on trunk and through-traffic routes in and around London and other cities.
- (i) "Much of the economic justification of motor roads lies in the 'around-the-clock' use that can be expected
of them, and such roads must be made as safe by night as by day." (ii) "The cost of completing the modernisation of
our entire road lighting system is through to be in the region of £6 million extra per year which is a small price to pay
for the improved safety it would give our road system." - Granville Berry - "Lighting The Roads"
- There is a lack of coordination and planning between many local authorities: there were nearly 3500 lighting
authorities as against 145 road authorities. In addition, 5000 Parish Councils could become lighting authorities if
they decided to adopt the provisions of the Watching Act of 1833. But lighting authorities do their job well: in the
last ten years, 5000 miles of road were relit.
- "The Road Research Board, on whose Street Lighting Sub-committee I also serve, has been doing much useful
work in the street lighting field for some years and recent researches indicate that an accident reduction of not less
than 20% can be expected to follow the introduction of improved lighting and so far as the relighting of main trunk
routes is concerned, the savings accuring due to accident reduction appear to be greater than the cost of providing
the lighting itself, the estimated cost of road accidents today being in the region of £170 millions." - Granville Berry
The reply by Earl Bathurst:
- Surely it is too early to standardise on one particular type? Until there is complete agreement on the ideal lighting
for all types of road and in all conditions of weather, it would be premature to try and insist on a standardisation.
- Grants can only be paid for trunk roads. This seems a wholly inequitable system. It should not be for the ratepayers
of an area to stand the whole cost of lighting improvements.
- There is no policy for the lighting of motorways. Motorways should be lit to a modern standard along their length.
- Improvement in street lighting a long term police and no quick and easy solution could be expected. It was one
form of capital investment and capital had to be shared between competiting demands.
- Much new and improved lighting had been installed in the recent years.
- Highway authorities would be asked to make a survey of classified roads and to report the extent to which
improvements or new street lighting was still needed.
- Power to provide street lighting was a power and not a duty. It had been suggest that street lighting should
be looked after by the highway authority. Some smaller authorities could not afford Group "A" lighting on main
roads which traversed their area (even with grants from the MOT and Civil Aviation).
- Steps had been taken to invite lighting authorities in the London area to a conference with a view to setting
up a consultative committe, and this was the start of some form of coordination of lighting systems.
Points raised by W. Robinson in his Street Lighting Today article in Public Lighting:
The Maintenance and Economics of Street Lighting by T. C. Holdsworth numerates the following points:
- Traffic density has doubled since 1937. The current British Standard Code Of Practise was based on the earlier
MOT Report of that year but hasn't significantly changed. More people are driving after dark in the summer months
and the accident figures are rising.
- The 40 MPH speed limit has been introduced, and some lit roads have no speed limits. Concern raised that the BSCP
assumes 30 MPH and no headlights.
- In some boroughs of London, there have been pitched battles between local protective associations and their
borough councils over the installation of new street lighting. The residents have even asked to pay for the
older equipment to be kept in service.
- As lamps improve, the debate between non-cut-off and cut-off lighting should be reappraised.
Electric Lamps Used For Street Lighting by J. W. Howell:
- Capital Charges
- Columns and brackets
- Lamps and associated gear for Discharge Lamps
- Erection Costs
- Control gear (time switch or relay unit)
- Wiring costs
- Capital contribution to Supply Authority (if any)
- Revenue Charges
- Lamp renewels (and jackets for sodium lamps as necessary).
- Tariff charges
- Transport costs
- Patrolling or Scouting
- Administration charges
There are over 1.5 million street lamps in use of the roads of Great Britain. In the past 10 years, over 5000 miles of roads has been provided with new or improved lighting.
The cost of these new ligthing schemes are in the region £20 million and the annual cost of lighting and maintenance has been £12 million.
- Tungsten lamps
Many local authorities are replacing gas sources with tungsten, mainly on economic grounds.
In terms of older systems is highly efficient at 12 lumens per watt (but inefficient when compared to discharge lamps).
Approximately 84% of electrical energy dissipated as heat.
A 5% over volting increases the light output by 20% and decreases the life of the lamp by 40%.
Light output initially 5% above the "average throughout life" figure.
At the end of 1000 burning hours it is 5% below.
Burning lamps other than cap up will result in the blackening of the bulb.
The great majority of lamps burn out close to their rated life of 1000 hours.
Lamps should conform to B.S. 161.
Used mainly for Group "B" lighting and street bollards, speed limit signs and beacons (although 8W
fluorescent tube is starting to find application here).
- Mercury lamps
Lamp life increased to 5000 burning hours.
MA: glass envelope loaded above 10 watts/cm of arc length.
MB: quartz envelope loaded below 100 watts/cm of arc length.
MC: glass envelope loaded below 10 watts/cm of arc length.
F: Fluorescent outer bulb used.
V,D,H,U: vertical cap up, vertical cap down, horizontal, or any position.
A choke must be used to limit discharge current. Whilst power factor of lamp is almost unity, the
choke reduces the power factor, so a capacitor is required.
Type MA: available as 250W and 400W. Time to reach full brightness is 6 minutes. Magnetic deflecting
devices have to be used for lamps burned horizontally which are not of type 'H' design. Should a lamp
be switched off after a period of burning, it will not restrike until the the vapour pressure has fallen
to the correct value.
Type MB: Outer envelopes of pearled because of the arc brightness. As the lamps are similar in size to
tungsten lamps, a third pin is added to base to prevent entry into an uncontrolled circuit. Developed
as smaller wattage MA lamps would be very ineffecient.
All mercury discharge bulbs are deficient in red.
Lagging power factor of .8 to .85 is acceptable.
Efficiency of approximately 32/39 lumens per watt.
- Colour corrected mercury lamps
Type MAF/MBF: 3-4% of electrical energy supplied to MA/MB lamps emitted as long wave ultra violet.
This can be used to stimulate fluorescent materials which emit a colour addition or complimentary to the
discharge. In MA lamps, zinc cadminium sulphide powders increase the red output to 5% (from 1%) but lower
the efficiency by 12%. In MB, this can be corrected to 7% red.
- Sodium lamps
Supplied in four sizes: 45, 60, 85 and 140W.
Have high luminous efficiency of 70 lumens per watt.
But have serious colour limitations.
Full efficiency varies between 10 and 20 minutes from starting.
Must be used in the horizontal position (except for the 45W lamp).
If mains voltage is too high or two low, premature failure will occur.
One size of transformer is suitable for the three smaller sizes.
The power factor of lamp and tranformer is approximately 0.3.
The integral sodium lamp has just been introducted which gives a 10% increase in light output (140W size only).
- Fluorescent lamps
Average life of the tube is 5000 hours.
Have relatively high efficiency, long life and little colour distortion.
New street lighting is being installed in Chelsea. The main roads are being lit with 400 lanterns each housing three 5 ft. 80W Osram fluorescent tubes on
GEC octagonal steel columns. For the main streets Three-Eighty tapered fluorescent lanterns on special arc brackets at 12.5° above the horizontal have been
used. For the tree-lined Embankment, Three-Eighty cut-off lanterns supsended centrally on catenaries carried on GEC octagonal steel columns have been used.
AEI lanterns have been exported to Kuala Lumpur to light three roads. 42 Sapphire lanterns (250W MBF/U) have been used to light the two
main streets with 54 Starcone lanterns (80W MBF/U) for the side street.
Fifty 140W low pressure sodium Orson lanterns from Siemens Ediswan have been exported to Wellington, New Zealand.
The old gas lighting in Newtownabbey, Belfast is being replaced. The Group 'A' scheme uses 200 Atlas Alpha 2 lanterns and
200 Alpha 4 lanterns. They will be mounted at 25 ft. on existing trolley poles and new concrete columns. The Group 'B' scheme involves 450 Beta 2
lanterns. This is the first large street lighting installation in the British Isles to use the Alpha 4 with three 4 ft. flourescent tubes. The lighting levels
are well within the Code Of Practise. It allows the size of the lantern to be considered where aesthetic considerations indicate that
the 5 ft. fluorescent lantern would be too large.
The Royal Burgh of Kirkcaldy, Scotland, embarks on a twelve-year conversion programme for the lighting of its roadways. In the last
12 months, 398 new columns have been erected. In some roads, they've used Stewarts And Lloyds Gb. 965 steel
columns with Siemens Ediswan Kuwait lanterns; in others Concrete Utilities DNN Type 3 concrete columns
with BLEECO 140 watt sodium lanterns; with Concrete Utilities Midway columns and
BLEECO 60-watt sodium lanterns for the side streets.
Southport starts converting its gas street lighting. 690 AEI
150W tunsten SS51 lanterns will be installed. The centre of the town and all major roads
have been fitted with SO50 lanterns.
AEI have lit Whitehouse Road, Swindon, a road passing under five low railway bridges
with 19 SLX 3600 instant start Residential lanterns.
Siemens Ediswan have lit the town centre of Ballymoney, Co. Antrim, with
Chester vertical wall mounting fluorescent lanterns. The main approach roads have been
lit with Carpenter lanterns with important junctions lit with Kuwaits.
Crawley lanterns were used for Group B lighting.
There are now 7.5 million motor vehicles on roads. The number of road casualities has increased by over 100,000 per year.
The total cost of reported road accidents in Great Britain is in the region of £170 million per year. After lighting has been
provided, there is a reduction in personal-injury accidents at night of about 30%.
Traffic delays are costing Britain nearly £500 million a year and the average speed in the central area of London
is only 10 m.p.h. The effect of street lighting on speed and traffic capacity doesn't exceed 2.5%, but that would allow
an increase of 1 m.p.h and save £30 million a year.
The cost of improving lighting in accordance with the Code Of Practice varies between £2,500 to £3,000 per mile of road (depending on the width and class of
road and the lightin equipment installed).
There are no plans to light any of the new motorways being constructed (only slip roads and roundabouts to be lit). It is estimated that the
cost per mile to light a motorway is £4000. The Council of the APLE have asked the MOT if an experimental installation on the Preston Bypass could
be erected to get first hand experience of the lighting of motorways.
A Joint Advisory Committee is set up of 107 lighting authorities in London to co-ordinate the lighting in London.
It is hoped this will lead to greater continunity and more uniform standards of lighting on the roads of Greater London.
The introduction of an experimental 40 m.p.h. speed limit for 80 miles of London's roads have prompted a review; it is suggested that the
illumination levels and mounting heights should be higher.
Points from BEDA:
- Street lighting costs 7/2d. per head of the population per year and represents only 3% of local Government expenditure.
- 80% of the Metropolitan Boroughs have all-night lighting.
- 50% of County Boroughs have all-night lighting.
The first motorway (The Preston Bypass) is opened on the 5th December. However the APLE is not happy that no lighting has been provided on the motorway itself.
"We are all behind the Minister in the excellent work he is doing in providing motorways in this country, byt we are anxious that they will be safe over
the whole 24 hours of each day. Headlights cannot be expected to prvide safe driving at speed and the only way to ensure safety is to install continous lighting
throughout their length and not only at flyovers and multi-level junctions. The extra cost involved in the lighting of our motorways would only be in the
region of 1 to 2 per cent of the cost of the road itself - a negligible amount when compared with the safety and economy that it would make possible"
The London And South Eastern Section of the APLE is formed.
AEI have converted Eton's "Burning Bush" lantern from gas to fluorescent. The rest of Eton has been lit with fluorescent and
colour corrected mercury discharge lighting (including Sapphire lanterns).
AEI introduce a 15-foot light-alloy aluminium street lighting column called the Leader for Group B roads. This has been made possible by a new extrusion technique operated exclusively by the company. It was designed by Jack Howe, F.R.I.B.A., F.S.I.A.
The AEI Kington lantern is introduced. It takes three five-foot 80W fluorescent lamps. It has been designed for use with the AEI Trefoil column.
The AEI Newton lantern is introduced. It takes the new Madza color-corrected 250-400W mercury lamp.
The AEI Ashby lantern is introduced. It was designed by Jack Howe, F.R.I.B.A., F.S.I.A. for use with the new Leader column.
The AEI Kirby lantern is introduced in two forms; one with the traditional refractor dome enclosed in a stippled Perspex bowl and the other with a diffusing opal Perspex bowl.
AEI introduce the first linear sodium lamp, the 200W SLI/H.
GEC are highlighting the benefits of the SOI lamp and introduce the 280W SOI lamp.
Philips are advertising their lamps for use with floodlighting.
Atlas are advertising the Alpha Three.
Falks show off their Beaufort range.
Phosco are highlighting their SO 140/S Enclosed Sodium lanterns.
REVO are advertising their street lighting.
Siemens Ediswan are advertising their Kuiwat Unitary System.
Wardle are advertising the remodelled Atholl lantern.
AEI are marketing the Leader column.
Concrete Utilities are marketing their concrete columns, especially the Highway X.
Holophane are advertising a range of street lighting refractors and reflectors.
Horstmann are marketing their time switches.
Hunts advertise their capacitors for lighting applications.
Metropolitan Gas Meters Ltd continue repairing gas controllers and time switches.
Poles Limited are marketing their Adastra columns.
Sangamo are advertising their time switches.
Stanton are marketing the 8 columns approved by the Council of Industrial Design.
Stewarts And Lloyds are advertising their lighting columns (specifically the Gb.825).
Venner are advertising their MSQP time switches.
BEDA are citing an accident reduction rate of 30% with good street lighting in their advertisements.
Trials of a low mounted lighting scheme is carried out by the Scottish Home Department. A length of dual carriageway near
Longniddry, East Lothian (A 198) is chosen. On each side of the carriageway, 12 2x80 watt 5-foot fluorescent tube lanterns of the
sort normally used for horizontal wall mounting are erected on tubular steel stands. Discomfort glare and flicker are found to be
intolerable at some angles and heights. Silhouette lighting is only achievable through the use of a very carefully controlled cut-off
whilst direct lighting causes problems seeing more than 20' ahead. Economically the scheme has a capital cost four or five times a conventional
scheme with maintenance estimated as three to four times higher.
The Illuminating Engineering Society celebrated its golden jubilee.
The lighting of the east-west traffic route through Leeds is completed with more Kuwait style lanterns at Eastgate,
Headrow and Westgate. The light output of each lantern is reduced by 50% at 11.30PM. 100 Cathay pole-top coloured lanterns
are installed in shopping areas, walkways and other areas.
A new lighting scheme relighting the whole of the borough of Acton is switched on. 110 of the new REVO
Sol-etern lanterns with three 80W MBF/U tubes are used to light the shopping centre whilst the remaining traffic
routes are lit with 640 REVO Sol-D'Or 140W SO/H lanterns. The Group-B installation consists of
1875 REVO Post Top fluorescent lanterns mounted on REVO Council
cast-iron columns together with 225 REVO C15152 60W SO/H lanterns. All are switched by Venner
AEI transfer all lamp and lighting factories of BTH, Rugby to the AEI Lamp and Lighting Co. Ltd.
at Leicester. This groups all manufacturing, engineering and selling facilities under a single control. This amalgamates
the lamp and lighting marketing organisation of BTH, Edison Swan and MV.
AEI supply Aberdeen Corporation with 50 Leader columns and Ashby lanterns.
Birmingham Public Works Department, under the direction of Sir Herbert J. Manzoni C.B.E. have designed a new post-top
lantern for the city's new inner ring road. This will give a higher intensity of illumination than any other roadway in the UK.
The lighting will be of 30,000 lumens per 100 ft. of roadway. Columns will be mounted in opposite pairs on the outer kerbs only at
100 ft. intervals. Many types of high intenstiy lighting fittings were trialled before it was decided to design a whole new unit
housing three 400W MBF/U lamps. The GEC produced a prototype which has been accepted. The first order of 100 units
for Hurst Street to the Market Hall has been placed with the GEC. The lanterns are mounted on steel poles at 30 ft.,
and the light output from each will be 36,500 lumens. The columns have special long bases to accommodate three sets of control gear.
326 GEC Z8430CM lanterns housing 400W Osram MBF/U lamps have been installed along sections of the
Great West Road and Great South-West Road. Stewarts And Lloyds supplied the columns. The lanterns are spaced at 120 ft.
and mounted at 25 ft. It replaces a tunsten lighting scheme.
Feltham have finished a relighting scheme started in 1956. After three trial installations are installed by the GEC
(tubular fluorescent, high pressure mercury vapour and low pressure sodium vapour) in 1957, members of the council decided
that all Class I and Class II roads to be lit with fluorescent tubes. The council sent out tenders for 363 lanterns to house 5 ft.
80W tubes which was accepted by the GEC. Therefore Three Eighty lanterns are installed on
Stewards And Lloyds columns. Existing gas units are replaced by 97 low pressure sodium fittings (Z9465
lanterns). In March 1958, the scheme is extended by an addition 150 Three Eighty lanterns, 54 of which have a special
cut-off distribution due to the proximity of the A312 to London Airport.
50 Siemens Edison Swan Carpenter lanterns are installed in Adelaide Street, Albert Road, Palatine Road
and Regent Road, Blackpool. The lanterns are named after the town's Illuminations and Public Lighting Officer Harry Carpenter, M.I.E.E., F.I.E.S.
They each take four 3 ft. 30W fluorescent tubes. Trials were required to determine the correct lantern height; 16 ft. 6 in. was originally
trailled, but 20 ft. with a spacing of 120 ft. was found best. The lanterns were designed to meet a special need between Group A and
Group B lighting.
100 Siemens Edison Swan Orson Group B lanterns with a 60W SO/H lamp have been supplied to Bootle.
After studying the Leed's Siemens Edison Swan Kuwait scheme, a major relighting of Middleton using
these lanterns is planned.
69 GEC Z8387AB Three Eighty fluorescent lanterns are installed on the quays and esplanades of
Guernsey. They are mounted on GEC Altus cincrete columns.
The inaugural meeting of the Lonon And South Eastern Section of the APLE is held.
The first experimental installation of the 200W SLI/H lamp is erected on the Coventry by-pass. The new Siemens Ediswan
Oline lantern is used.
The Consultative Committee on the Lighting Of Traffic Routes within the London Conurbation issue an Interim Report.
Stella are advertising their range of lamps.
Philips are advertising the use of their lamps in the Lanark installation (probably the 280W SOI/H which featured two 140W/H inner tubes back-to-back).
The GEC introduce a gold film as a heat reflecting layer for low pressure sodium lamps - this gives up to 100 lm/w efficacy.
The Atlas Gamma 4 and Gamma 5 won Design Centre Awards from the Council of Industrial Design.
AEI are advertising the Amberline lantern.
Atlas are highlighting their Alpha Three and Gamma Four lanterns.
ELECO are highlighting their Silver Ray lanterns.
GEC introduce their new post top lantern specifically designed for the new Birmingham Inner Ring Road. It takes
three 400W MBF/U lamps providing a light intensity of 30,000 lumens when spaced at 100 feet and mounted at 30' height.
Holophane are advertising a range of street lighting refractors and reflectors.
Siemens-Ediswan introduce their Osprey and Oline lanterns for linear sodium lamps.
Concrete Utilities introduce the New Highway column which has a mounting height of 35'.
Horstmann are marketing their time switches.
Hunts advertise their capacitors for lighting applications.
Parmar are advertising their control gear.
Poles Limited are marketing their Adastra columns.
Sangamo are advertising their time-switches.
Stanton are marketing the 8G columns approved by the Council of Industrial Design.
Stewarts And Lloyds are advertising their new 35' lighting columns (specifically the Gb.995) as used in the
Lanark and Whitchurch installations.
TMC are marketing their capacitor range.
The first 35' lighting columns in the UK are introduced in Lanark. 52 columns are installed along a ¾-mile stretch of the main
Glasgow-Edinburgh road. They are manufactured by Stewarts And Lloyds and have bracket
arms giving an outreach of 10'. ELECO Golden Ray 280 lanterns are fitted. (It is believed these took the
unique Philips 280W SOI/H bulb which was two 140W inner tubes in a single linear bulb).
Siemens Ediswan Osprey and Oline lanterns are used to light the
Coventry by-pass. They're housed on 35' columns produced by Poles Limited.
AEI Amberline lanterns are used to light the entrance to Britain's first motorway: the Thurlaston Roundabout,
Dunchurch leading to the M1. However, no lighting is installed on the actual motorway itself.
An experimental installation in Coventry is increasing the lighting levels at peak hour on conjested city centre routes. This is to
determine whether safety and traffic flow is improved.
The Importance Of Road Lighting to the Highway System. Talk given to the Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Branch of the
Institution of Highway Engineers at Leeds in December 1959 by Granville Berry:
- Administrative difficulties delaying the completion of the lighting of the road system:
- Multiplicity of lighting authorities (over 3,500).
- The financial inability of 75% of lighting authorities to carry out the work satisfactorily.
- The inadequacy of the Grants to local authorities for the lighting of MOT Trunk Roads (50% only).
- The need for the provision of lighting on Classified Roads to be included within the Improvement Grant System.
- This was discussed in the House Of Commons where the administrative difficulties and the need for continuity and more uniform standards
was discussed. The Minister then undertook:
- To ask Divisional Road Engineerings to make a survey of street lighting on all trunk and classified roads.
- To ask D.R.E.s to consult lighting authorities which are in large conurbations and adjacent to each other to form some local joint
advisory committee to co-ordinate street lighting in the whole area.
- The Joint Parliamentary Secretary, early in 1958, called together representatives of the 107 Local Authorities in the Greater London
area and examined ways of achieving co-ordination in the lighting of "through" traffic roads. As a result the Consultative Committee on the Lighting
Of Traffic Routes within the London Conurbation was set up, and in July it issued its Interim Report. Consideration is being given for similar
committees in other parts of the country.
- With the development of road transport, particularly in the last 40 years, the purpose and importance of road lighting has changed. Prior
to World War I it was concerned with the lighting of footpaths in order to safeguard the individual; its importance as a means of lighting the
road was unknown, and grew out the rapid increase in motor vehicles. The number of vehicles on the road is expected to double in the next 10 years.
400 miles of high-speed motorways will create new problems.
- Along with the increase in traffic has gone a rise in the number of road accidents. In 1958, 293797 people were injured with 5970 killed.
Unless more is done to make streets safe at night, then the rising toll will continue. The risk of death or serious injury on the roads is still
might higher at night than day.
- It is now well established that reductions in the order of at least 30% can be anticipated when lighting is installed.
- Road accidents in 1959 cost the country £190 million, and each personal injury accident cost in the region of £500. The cost of lighting
on Classified Roads is £2500 to £3000 per mile so the savings due to less accidents will generally be greater than the cost of providing
lighting installations. Therefore, it is one of the quickest and cheapest form of road improvement available to local authorities. Motorway
lighting may cost around £4000 per mile, but the cost of personal injury accidents is likely to be higher than Classified roads; so the
cost of the installation is not likely to be fully met until traffic increases to about 25,000 vehicles per day.
- Much of the economic justification of the Motorway system would depend on "round the clock" use and it is essential that motorways are
made "as safe as night as by day." It is already becoming apparent from M.1. (listed as the Preston Bypass) that motorways are going to be
more dangerous at night due to the greater average speeds. There will be glare from vehicles moving in the opposite direction and headlamps
are not able to provide safe driving at the speeds expected.
- Only a limited number of Continental and American motorways are lighted; but on the Paris Motorway (Autoroute de l'Ouest) a low-powered
high-mounted lighting installation as reduced accidents by 40%; whilst higher reductions have been claimed in the USA. It would seem that
lighting motor roads in urban areas of the country would reduce night accidents from 40%-50%.
- The cost of installing motorway lighting at about £4000 per mile would only be 1½% of the total cost - an insignificant figure when
compared with the saving of life that would result.
- The recent development of high wattage linear sodium lamps is making possible increased levels of illumination with the employment of
higher mounting heights and wider spacing of columns and may provide the economic solution to the problem of lighting motorways. These lamps
are being used experimentally on sections of the Coventry By-Pass (200W linear sodium, mounted 35 ft., staggered formation, 200 ft. spacing
- There are many other advantages: improved driver comfort, easier and safer overtaking, better visibility under poor weather conditions.
It also improves traffic flow by discouraging drives from "hugging" the centre of the road.
There are now 1½ million street lamps in nightly use in the UK.
Tottenham Borough Council have erected 171 Atlas Alpha One lanterns on Stanton concrete columns on the Great Cambridge Road (A10),
Downhills Way and Westbury Avenue. Old mercury vapour lanterns on trolleybus poles on Green Lanes, Seven Sisters Road, Lordship Lane
and High Road have been replaced with 248 Atlas Alpha One lanterns on Highway "X" lighting coulmns.
AEI install 20 Teheran lanterns made by Siemens Ediswan on the new bridge over the River Karun at the Persian port of Khorramshahr. They're mounted on
Stewarts And Lloyds columns.
700 Atlas Alpha Threes have been exported to Australia to illuminate the main highway between St. Kilda and Melbourne.
Poles Limited have produced a 35' Adastra street lighting column called the Curlew. The first examples have been installed on the
Coventry By-Pass. These support the new Siemens Ediswan Oline lanterns which can take one or two 200W SLI/H lamps.
Ten Siemens Ediswan Cathay lanterns are installed in Winston Square shopping centre,
Barry, Glamorganshire. They are mounted on timber columns (Malayan Kapur), which was selected as there would be no
The GEC supplied the street lighting for the New Ferry Bypass, Birkenhead. It comprises of 97
Z9455 lanterns, each housing a 140W SOI/H lamp, on Stewarts And Lloyds GB.586
and GB.594 steel columns.
The Haddington lighting scheme received a commendation by the Civic Trust under the County Amenity Award Scheme for 1959.
Lisburn, the first town in Northern Ireland to have fluorescent street lighting, is embarking on part two of a plan to change
over from filament lighting to fluorescent. Siemens Ediswan Carpenter lanterns have been used
to complete the scheme. In Banbridge, Carpenter lanterns have been installed at 20' with the housing estates
being lit by Crawley lanterns at 15'. Limavady's main street is being relit with Chester lanterns,
with the remainder of the town being lit by Crawleys.
The first full-scale installation in Wales of lighting using the new Mazda sodium linear lamp has been completed on the
Whitchurch Bypass near Cardiff. 78 Amberline lanterns are mounted at 35' on Stewarts And Lloyds
Gb 1008 steel poles. The illumination level is 10,000 lumens per 100 ft. linear.
Southport is the first town in the world to have Sodium Linear street lighting with an installation of 8 AEI
Amberline lanterns burning 200W SLI/H along Chapel Street. Existing columns were extended to 32½'.
140 SOI/H lanterns have been replaced by 200W SLI/H Amberline lanterns in Camden Town. Existing columns have
been extended to 27'.
It is clamined that the linear sodium lamp will lead to cheaper street lighting. 31 AEI Amberline
lanterns mounted at 35' and spaced at 170' intervals will light a mile of trunk road to a better standard than 44
traditional 140W lanterns (mounted at 25' and spaced at 120').
AEI supplied 37 SLX.3521 Post Top Lanterns to light the entire length of the Roker
Seafront. They are mounted on ALFA Spun Concrete Columns.
Wardle announce the Aureole lantern, designed for Group A and Group B installations.
Prototype high pressure sodium (HPS) and mercury iodide (MBI) lamps are demonstrated at
the annual conference of the APLE.
Under the chairmanship of J. M. Waldram it is decided to extend and divide the Code Of Practice into
nine parts to deal with the different classifications of road lighting. They will be:
British Standards Code Of Practise (BSCP) 1004: 1963: Part 1 (General Principles) and
British Standards Code Of Practise (BSCP) 1004: 1963: Part 2 (Lighting for Traffic Routes) published.
- Part 1: General Principles
- Part 2: Lighting for Traffic Routes (Group A)
- Part 3: Lighting for Lightly Trafficked Roads and Footways (Group B)
- Part 4: Lighting for Single-level Road Junctions including Roundabouts
- Part 5: Lighting for Grade-separated Junctions
- Part 6: Lighting for Bridges and Elevated Roads
- Part 7: Lighting for Underpasses and Bridged Roads
- Part 8: Lighting for Roads with Special Requirements
- Part 9: Lighting for Town and City Centres and Areas of Civic Importance
- Part 10: Lighting for Motorways (added later but never implemented?)
British Standard Lantern Specification 1788:1964 is published. This superceeds the 1951 specification.
The GEC install the first motorway lighting in the UK on the elevated section of the M4 between Chiswick and
Langley. 200W linear sodium lamp lanterns are used.
The first trial installation of mercury iodide (metal halide) lamps takes place at Shaw, Manchester by the GEC.
The GEC install the first UK installation of high mast lighting in the Cumberland Basin, Briston, using
25 meter masts and 1000W MBF/U lamps.
In Jaunary, the GEC install a prototype installation of high pressure lamps along a
1,450 ft. section of East Lane, Wembley. Fifteen 400-watt Mark I hand-made Solorcolor lamps are installed
in conventional Z8526 lanterns. The lanterns are mounted at 35 ft. at an average spacing of 100 ft.
The test is designed to test the operational life of the bulbs.
The 400W HPS Solorcolor lamp is demonstrated at the APLE's conference in Blackpool. Eighteen lamps
in six post-top lanterns are installed outside Blackpool's North Station.
The City Of London become the first authority to trial the new HPS lamp for a major street lighting program.
Concrete Utilities install the first British made high masts which are installed at the
Severn Bridge approaches.
The GEC install the first UK installation of high mast lighting using low pressure sodium lamp lanterns
at the Brent Cross Flyover in Hendon, London. It comprises of 30 meter masts with 180W SOX lamps.
The GEC begin commercial production of their Solorcolor
HPS lamp. Philips and BLI are not far behind with the
production of their versions.
The first HPS installation in the UK is at Southend-On-Sea, Essex by the GEC when they light their new new ring
road with 54 Solorcolor lamps.
In June, the City Of London starts their relighting scheme using HPS. The lanterns used are
GEC Z8426 lanterns (with modified bowl) and BLI Alpha Threes (with modified bowl). The first installation
is along Moorgate, Princes Street and King William Street.
British Standards Code Of Practise (BSCP) 1004: 1967: Part 4 (Lighting for Single-level Road Junctions including Roundabouts) published.
British Standards Code Of Practise (BSCP) 1004: 1967: Part 6 (Lighting for Bridges and Elevated Roads) published.
British Standards Code Of Practise (BSCP) 1004: 1967: Part 8 (Lighting for Roads with Special Requirements) published.
Philips introduce the first ever public lighting competition open to all UK lighting authorities. Final
judging takes place every two years at the APLE Conference and Exhibition, when delegates are invited to cast votes for their
choice of scheme in three categories: street lighting, public building and works lighting, and public amenity lighting.
The GEC invent and market the first plug-in high pressure sodium Solarcolour lamps (310W and 360W) to replace
400W mercury lamps without a change of control gear.
The GEC install the first motorway lighting in Scotland at the M8 in Renfrew. Cut-off lanterns using 135W SOX lamps are used.
The GEC also install the first UK installation of high mast lighting using high pressure sodium lamps at Huddersfield. 25 meter masts and 400W lamps are used.
Phosco introduce the first variable geometry lantern.
British Standards Code Of Practise (BSCP) 1004: 1969: Part 3 (Lighting for Lightly Trafficked Roads and Footways: Group B) published.
British Standards Code Of Practise (BSCP) 1004: 1969: Part 9 (Lighting for Town and City Centres and Areas of Civic Importance) published.
Under the chairmanship of Harry Carpenter, its decided to review street lighting practice. Therefore revisions start on Parts 1, 2 and 3 of the
Phosco pioneer single piece injection moulded refractor bowls for Group B sodium lanterns.
British Standards Code Of Practise (BSCP) 1004: 1971: Part 7 (Lighting for Underpasses and Bridged Roads) published.
Concrete Utilities install the longest high mast installation in the world near Melbourne in Australia.
Concrete Utilities also installed the first world design of a double drum winch for high mast columns.
The first Frangible Joint Columns as developed by the Road Research Laboratory are manufactured by Concrete Utilities and
installed on the A1 near Doncaster.
Philips provide lighting equipment for the first major catenary lighting schemes on motorway and major
trunk roads in the UK e.g. The Worsley Braided Interchange on the M62 and the A4 in Hounslow.
Philips also light the largest motorway interchange in Europe with low pressure sodium lamps and lanterns.
(The Gravelly Hill interchange or Spaghetti Junction).
Fisher-Karpark Limited design the first negative ratio control utilising a purpose made integrated circuit for their photocells.
Fisher-Karpark Limited also develop the first NEMA standard socket to pass the British Standard finger test for safety and which incorporates a weatherseal cap
to prevent moisture ingress where the control is fitted as a last operation.
Fisher-Karpark Limited also design the first electronic control specifically for motorway lighting systems incorporating a low voltage injection signal for
remote over-ride during daytime fog conditions. Developed in September 1972, it is installed and operation at Scratchwood on the M1 in November 1972.
Philips provide high mast high pressure sodium lighting for the urban motorway into Leed's city centre.
British Standards Code Of Practise (BSCP) 1004: 1973: Part 5 (Lighting for Grade-Separated Junctions) published.
British Standards Code Of Practise (BSCP) 1004: 1973: Part 1 (General Principles) is published in a revised form.
Philips introduce three new low pressure sodium lanterns onto the UK market (the MA50, MA60 and MA90). The outstanding feature of the new lanterns is that the
combine both semi-cut-off and cut-off light distribution in one lantern, giving substantial cost and convenience benefits.
British Standards Code Of Practise (BSCP) 1004: 1974: Part 2 (Lighting for Traffic Routes (Group A)) is published in a revised form.
BS 5489: Part 3: 1977 (Code Of Practice for Road Lighting: Part 3: Lighting For Subsidiary Roads) is published in a revised form.
A change at the BSI means the code is given a new BS number; it would've been British Standards Code Of Practise (BSCP) 1004: 1977: Part 3. Consideration
is being given to change the numbering of the other parts of the code to match.
The standard makes provision for two categories of Group B road lighting: Distributor Roads (Group B8) and Access Roads (Group B5/6). Group B8 replaces the
old Group A3 (1963) requirements for minor traffic routes which was excluded from the revised Part 2 (1974) as being inappropriate for
all-purpose traffic routes. Group B5/6 lighting is for all otehr minor roads, such as access and residential roads.
Urbis launch the ZX1, the first lantern to feature the
company's revolutionary SealSafe optical system. Three versions of the optical
system are provided: the 1027, 1200 and 1211. The first installation is in Wandsworth.
A modified full cut-off flat glass version of Urbis' ZX1
lantern is designed for British Rail.
Urbis introduce the first IP66 rated SealSafe optic. The
1317 metalised plastic reflector is sealed to the refractor bowl.
BS 5498: Road Lighting (10 parts) is revised and republished.
The Urbis 1543 SealSafe reflector introduced for
better illuminance performance with high level of uniformity and low glare after trials with
Devon County Council.
Urbis introduce the SealSafe 1627 reflector which gives more
The first electronic gear is used with the Urbis ZX1.
Urbis win the Queen's Award For Enterprise: Innovation For 2001.
The Sealsafe and ZX1 play the major role in the awards.
Urbis introduce the SealSafe 1770 reflector which gives more
BS EN 13201, the new European Standard, is published. This superceeded many clauses in
the ten parts of BS 5489:1992 which are then withdrawn. It has three parts.
BS 5489:2003 is published which facilitates BS EN 13201:2003 in the UK. It has two parts.
The Urbis ZXU1 is launched. This includes an integral post mounting
PD CEN\TR 13201-1 is published which sets out the new lighting classes.