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ilp archive : journals

public lighting no. 48 vol. 12
October-December 1947

Editorial p131
Don't Stop p131
It is not surprising that disappointment is felt for the temporary "hold-up" of important installations of street lighting caused by the economic restrictions. This period of trial and inconvenience will pass. Through all these days of seemingly unending difficulties and "hold-ups" the work of preparation and planning must proceed together. For the lighting engineer in particular, his work is one of planning and preparing now for better lighting.
Lighting: Future

The City of London Leads Again p131
In the next issue, brief details will given of an experimental installation of fluorescent street lighting in Gresham Steret, London. London city has pioneered in street lighting and this latest development is but a prelude to more extensive schemes within the city boundary. [Note: this scheme is not mentioned in subsequent issues]
Lighting: Installations

Conference of 1948 p131
The next conference will be in Eastbourne. The date is fixed for 13th-17th.
APLE: Conference

Contributions for Discussion p131
The Council of the A.P.L.E. will be considering shortly the subjects for discussion at the next Conference. An invitation is extended to all members to come forward with offers and with suggestions.
APLE: Conference

REVO Blended Sodium Lighting in Bolton, Lancs. p132
Blended sodium lighting has been installed in Victoria Square. The unique visibility and evenness of illumination is obtained by 16 REVO C12122 fittings, each with one 140W Philips sodium lamp and two 150W gasfilled lamps, and in Newport Street are 11 similar units fitted with 140W sodium and 100W gasfilled lamps. The units are spaced at 120 ft. to 180 ft. in Victoria Square and 110 ft. to 150 ft. in Newport Street, mounted on existing poles. The height to light centre is 23 ft. and 25 ft. respectively.
The Lighting Committee of Bolton Corporation intend to complete the lighting of the town centre with similar equipment. of the 144 units to be installed some 78 are already in use. The roads in the town centre will then link up with the nine outgoing roads from town which radiate like the spokes of a wheel and white are equipped with plain sodium lighting. The scheme minimises abrupt changes in lighting intensity. The town centre is the brightest area due to the additional Tungsten filament colour correcting lamps in each unit. Two bus stations in the town have also been lighted by REVO blended sodium equipment at the request of the Transport Department.
The REVO C12122 unit has been specially produced for this scheme and is an open-type fitting, comprising heavy weatherproof cast iron canopy and frame, housing silvered mirror reflector for the sodium lamp and white vitreous enamelled reflectors for the gasfilled lamps which are situated at each end. Specially designed refractor panels are fitted in each end.
Lighting: Luminaires, Lighting: Installations

A Message from Malta p132
Seasons greetings from L. Aguis the Lighting Engineer of Malta.

Errata p132
Correction to a photo caption.

The A.P.L.E Annual Luncheon p133
The annual luncheon, which was attended by six hundred delegates and guests, was held in the Floral Hall, Southport, on Wednesday, September, 17th.
Dr. N. A. Halbertsma, adviser to the Dutch Ministry of Works on matters relating to public lighting, proposed the toast of "the Association". As far back as 1667, a Dutch artist called Jan van der Heyden invented a street lantern using oil, which was subsequently adopted in Amsterdam and many other cities in Western Europe including Brussels, Leipzig and Berlin. Jan ver der Heyden became City Inspector of Lighting in Amsterdam and a booklet was issued giving instructions to lamplighters and inspectors. Another pioneer of street lighting was Lavoissier, a chemist and experimented with mirrors for street lighting, but unfortunately was executed by the guillotine. Then there was A. P. Trotter who designed the first refractor lantern in 1883 to improve the distribution of arc lamps. It was fortunate that sodium and mercury vapour lamps were introduced for street lighting as they would undoubtedly have been a failure if they were installed for home lighting. He expressed the view that street lighting was not just a branch of illuminating engineering but a separate profession in itself, and commenting on the use of gas and electricity for street lighting, he parodied Rudyard Kipling by saying "Gas is gas and electricity is electricity and never the two shall meet." However whilst that was generally true, there was now a closer relationship between those responsible for these two forms of illumination and this was largely due to the work of the Association of Public Lighting Engineers.
The President in response again regretted the restriction that was being placed upon public lighting and said that it would hamper social intercourse generally, it was bound to have a bad result in the long run. He thought they were unreasonable. The restriction to 50% of pre-war lighting represented 500,000 tons of coal per annum, which seemed a lot, but was not. It was the amount that had been lost in the recent Grimethrope colliery strike, or about two weeks output of outcrop coal. Moreover the restriction brought in other factors which were of great importance: it would result in increased road accidents and crime, and he hoped it would not be long before the restriction was cancelled and that public lighting engineers would be free to go ahead. Too much emphasis was often laid on the cost of public lighting but it was relatively very small when compared with the effect of the other factors that were involved.
Mr. A. E. N. Taylor (Ministry of Transport) sympathised with the position in which public lighting engineers found themselves but the decision to cut street lighting by 50% had been taken at the highest possible level and was not the decision of any Ministry.
APLE: Conference, Lighting: Energy, Lighting: History, Lighting: Legal Statistics: Road Data

Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies, Ltd. p134
Demonstrated an installation of eight Sieray mercury discharge lamps in Eastbank Street. The firm made use of existing poles although they were in no way ideally sited for a street lighting demonstration (as six were on one side of the road). The mounting height was 25' to light source and the spacing averaged 105'. Sieray MA/V 250W lamps were burnt horizontally with Sieray magnetic arc deflectors mounted above them to centalise the arc of the discharge tube. The lamps were housed in the newly-designed Euston-Sieray. The brackets, which were specially designed for this particular installation, were fixed to the pole by means of clamps and the Sieray control gear was housed in sheet steel boxes which again were clamped to the existing columns. Special adaptors were made up to fit into the G.E.S. holders of the existing fittings so that the dismantling of the existing lantern was unnecessary. The light output per 100 ft. linear of roadway was approximately 4500 lumens that is towards the lower end of the Group "A" range.
The lantern employs a Holophane prismatic dish refractor in conjunction with reflectors of anodised aluminium to control the light distribution - the use of the horizontal burning lamp and the design of the optical system ensuring a broad beam of light in the horizontal plane. The lantern body is constructed of silicon aluminium alloy and its lines are in keeping with present-day trends. It is designed primarily for side entry but can be suitable for pendant mounting - the exterior contour of the body being altered so it presents a symmetrical appearance. In the side entry position the lantern is fixed on to the bracket by means of a boss on the lantern which is tapered internally and into which will fit a split brass cone. This cone is pulled up tightly on to the bracket arm by means of a running screwed plug and the lenth of the boss ensures an adequate bearing surface. The framework, which carries the prismatic glass refractor, is hinged for access to to the lamp for replacement purposes - the wing nut fixing being captive.
APLE: Conference, Lighting: Installations, Lighting: Luminaires

Side Street Lighting by R. W. Steel, A.M.I.E.E. (Borough Electrical Engineer, Cheltenham) p135
Reproduction of the paper Side Street Lighting.

Mr. E. C. Lennox (Newcastle-Upon-Tyne): He did not like any deprecation of the M.O.T. Report and was sorry the author had introduced the idea of a third group of streets. There was plenty of room for sub-groups within the two groups mentioned. The mounting heights, too, were sufficient and would result in due course in standardisation and a cheaper pole, and an encourement to local authorities properly to light their traffic routes. As for cost, he saw no reason why non-traffic routes could not be lighted with 120-ft. spacing with 150W lamps which would give excellent lighting at a much lower cost than if electric discharge lamps were used. The saving per lamp in such roads might be used to provide very much better lighting for important traffic routes. The Private Street Works Act could be adopted in which the capital cost of new street lighting was borne by the people developing estates.
Mr. C. C. Smith (Liverpool): Refererd to the use of cut-off fittings and this was a policy used in Liverpool. He believed it was the best type and, in time, many other people would agree. The great argument in the past against cut-off or semi-cut-off fittings was cost. He supported Mr. Lennox in regard to the mounting heights. In regard to narrow streets in Liverpool they were endeavouring to make greater use of brackets attched to houses and so eliminate poles. Lighting authorities had powers to attach such brackets provided the owners were notified.
Mr. H. S. Allpress: He also intended to make a plea for a greater use of brackets attached to houses particularly in terraces.
Mr. R. Parker (Aberdeen): He agreed with Mr. Lennox. He found that a 15 ft. mounting height was quite satisfactory for traffic routes provided the spacing of the lamps was kept down. He thought the spacing was too great for a 15 ft. mounting height, and the average spacing should be 100 ft. There should be more consultation between those responsible for planting trees and those responsible for the lighting.
Mr. N. A. Halberstsma (Holland): For old big trees there shuold be more lopping to prevent the casting of shadows. A much more serious problem was the planting of new trees. There needed to be cooperation with the departments concerned.
Mr. J. C. Christopher (GEC): It was unnecessary to have a third class of roads. The problem with the M.O.T.'s Committee's recommendations for 3000 lumens per 100 ft. was that in some cases it was too much and in others it was only just about adequate. Any reduction in mounting height or modifications of any other factor would cause confusion to the motorist. The trouble with side-street lighting was that it was based on the lighting of traffic routes. The same lanterns with very much the same distributions were used, although the mounting heights were reduced and cut-off employed to reduce glare. But in his view side-street lighting was primarily for the pedestrian and for police purposes, and the motorist was called upon to use his headlights. If this view was accepted then there did not seem to be much future for cut-off lighting for side streets. In the future there might be a type of side-street lighting which would make no attempt at producing uniform road brightness but would concentrate largely on lighting from the pedestrian point of view i.e. the house fronts, gardens and pavements.
Mr. R. S. Shurrock (Hyde Corporation): He took the view that the M.O.T. Report was stressing the opinion that a lighting system was either adequate or inadequate for driving without the use of headlights and should indicate clearly to the motorist whether he should use headlights or not. Individual motorists varied greatly in what they considered to be adequate visibility and any intermediate systems between the two advocated in the Report would lead to indecision and different judgements by different drivers. Therefore, intermediate systems should be avoided.
Mr. L. T. Minchin: Was very glad that reference had been made to the undesirability of lighting Class B roads as on the same basis at Class A roads. It was a source of a great deal of trouble to use similar lamps on short columns for side streets just because high angles had been recommended for 25-ft. mounting. Cut-off lighting could be very good for side-street lighting if it were properly carried out.
Councillor E. Roscoe (Worsley): During the war the searchlights were a valuable asset to both pedestrians and motorists and wondered if the idea could be developed for street lighting. It would be quite practicable to have a dozen searchlights centred on a town and light up the whole place. These would be supplied from independent generating sets and therefore would not come on to the public generating plant which was at present overloaded.
Mr. H. T. Duke (Grimsby): When considering the lighting of side streets, the possibility of them becoming traffic routes should be considered. The installation should be planned accordingly.
Councillor J. Willbury (Nottingham): The people who lived in the side streets were the bulk of the ratepayers and they should have more consideration than they had hitherto. In the past, too much consideration had been given to the question of cost by lighting committees but in future he urged these committees to rely more on the expert advice of their lighting engineer. If action was not taken along these lines it would mean that new estates built in teh near future would quickly deteriorate.
Mr. F. C. Smith (Gas, Light and Coke Co.): There was growing up a school of thought in this country in favour of more than two mounting heights, and this was due to the vast difference in so-called "other" roads. The problems of side streets were entirely different and he felt it was up to the B.S.I. Committee to consider again the peculiar problems of side streets.
R. W. Steel, A.M.I.E.E.: He could not emphasise too strongly that the purpose of side-street lighting was very different from that of the traffic routes. The intensity of the lighting could be reduced and special attention must be paided to the particular circumstances and sufficient lighting provided to aid in teh prevention of crime and enable the pedestrian to get about. It was important to make sure that the lighting of footpaths, verges and entrances to them was sufficient to prevent accidents. Many speakers had missed the point about the third class of road: he was suggesting there were roads in which the 15-ft. mounting height should no longer apply and there should be freedom to go up to 20 ft. He did not suggest that the illumination should be reduced; he wished to make it as good as possible.
Written Contribution to Discussion: Corrections for lamp efficiencies, mention of a side-road fluorescent street lantern already installed in Rugby, and mention of lamp running temperatures during cold temperatures by G. K. Lambert of the B.T.H. Research Laboratory.
Lighting: Anti-Social Behaviour, Lighting: Columns, Lighting: Control, Lighting: Future, Lighting: History, Lighting: Luminaires, Lighting: Maintenance, Lighting: Materials, Lighting: Specifications

Concrete Utilities Ltd Put Up A Good Display Of Columns At Southport p148
On the demonstration site at Princess Park, Concrete Utilities Ltd. erected 10 Group "A" columns with "Arc II" and "Avenue" type brackets, ranging from 2 ft. 6 ins. to 6 ft. outreach. They also demonstrated two columns with 2 ft. 6 ins. double arm brackets and four types of Group "B" columns. The firm can offer delivery from four works at Ware, Cardiff, Ipswich and Liverpool. With the exception of one column, all exhibited showed the rubbed cement finish. Although a ground finish can be supplied, atmospheric corrosion will remove free cement and give a natural pitted appearance - this is not detrimental to the column and enables it to weather to tone with the surrounding buildings. Also exhibited were columns designed to take the latest designs of fluorescent lanterns by the General Electric Co. Ltd. and British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd.. William Sugg & Co. Ltd. have also been developing brackets with the firm and the Sugg C.U. Avenue 2D Column with special bracket arm was shown.
Lighting: Columns, Lighting: Manufacturers

Ancient Burgh Installs Electric Street Lighting p148
Details of the installation in the Burgh of Cupar, Fifeshire.
Lighting: Installations

New Members p148
List of new members of the APLE.
APLE: Organisation

The Open Forum p149
This was an experiment where there was "an opportunity to members and delegates to raise any matters they wished." It was so successful that it will take place at the next conference.
Councillor H. Eastwood (Manchester): Papers were too technical. How far was the Association behind separate lighting departments of local authorities?
Alderman J. Kegie (Gateshead): There should be consultations with the engineers and surveyors responsible for road construction.
Alderman J. Herbert (Preston): The Ministry of Transport should be 100% responsible for the main roads of the country to make them safe at night.
Mr. Carrinton: Manufacturers were always open to suggestions and welcomed the co-operation of lighting engineers and their Committees.
Alderman F. Doggett (Mayor of Cambridge): He looked forward to the day when something would be done to prevent glare from motor car headlights and motorists should be prohibited by law from using their headlights on roads which were lighted to the Ministry's requirements.
Mr. A. E. N. Taylor (Ministry of Transport): Active research into glare was taking place at the Road Research Laboratory and an interim report would be published soon. There was a committee under the chairmanship of Sir. Clifford Paterson which was considering road safety in relation to street lighting, it had just held its first meeting and one of the subjects considered was accident statistics which were considered to be inadequate and reliable figures were needed.
Councillor H. T. Duke (Grimsby): The annual general meeting of the Association should be confined to members and associate members so that matters of a domestic nature could be discussed more freely (than when ladies and non-members were present).
Councillor A. Barton (Gosport): Authors of papers reviewed them before the full Conference and then they were subdivided into eight groups which discussed the papers in separate meeting rooms. Leaders took notes, these were reported to full Conference where the authors replied. At the present Conference the maximum number of speakers was 14, under this secheme a very much larger number were able to discuss the papers. Mercury lighting should be improved to remove the 'corpse' effect.
A Delegate: The demonstration installations in Southport indicated the enormous improvemetn that has taken place during the last few years. Anyone who had seen the fluorescent type of lighting would agree there was a great deal to be said for it. The only thing against fluorescent lighting was the cost and he had some figures. In terms of one or two-lamp fittings, fluorescent lamps compared very favourably in the matter of cost.
Councillor Hammond (Vice-Chairman, Works Committee, Coventry): There should be an afternoon or morning set aside at the Conferences for laymen only.
Councillor E. Roscoe (Worsley): Complained that a much needed scheme to reduce accidents was turned down by both the Ministry of Supply and the Ministry of Transport.
Mr. J. Stanley (Poole): There should be a reorganisation of the Association and some measure of decentralisation. Many people could not attend the annual Conferences and had to rely on Public Lighting which was only published quarterly. At present lighting engineers, borough engineers and surveyors and members of Committees did not have sufficent opportunities to meet each other during the year, and he asked the Council to consider setting up Regional Centres or Local Sections which could hold frequent meetings during the year and discuss both technical and other matters.
Councillor J. G. Devine (Chairman, Lighting Committee, Wandsworth): Urged the necessity for planning of side streets that it would be unnecessary for motorists to switch on their headlights in any built-up area.
Councillor W. D. Reid (Aberdeen): He was sceptical of the value of such conferences but now he was convinced that it was to the great advantage of the local communities that the members of Committees should attend.
Mr. Dunmow (Egham): A list of members and delegates attending the Conference should be published in the Handbook. (Reply: This has been done in the past but the information did not come in time. It was hoped to include this list next year).
Councillor W. Berwick (Southport): Expressed appreciation of the manner in which the manufacturers had put up the demonstration installations. He hoped that as a result of their visit it would be possible to do something to improve the lighting of Southport. He agreed with the lack of adequate illumination in the side streets. What had been said at the Conference supported his Committee's intentions when the time was opportune to improve this lighting.
Councillor Berwick: Paid compliment to the work of the Secretary, Mr. Davies and his staff in connection with this Conference.
Alderman Thraves (Sheffield): Would it be in order to suggest that out of gratitude to Southport, the manufacturers should be asked to leave their demonstration installations. [Laughter]
Alderman D. Harvey (Waltham Holy Cross): His authority had already had pressure applied by the Ministry of Transport to cut out one lamp in three, but as Chairman of the Highways Committee he had refused to comply with that demand, and nothing more had been heard in the matter. In his view, a resolution of protest should go from this Conference against the 50% reduction.
Councillor Eastwood (Manchester): It was not fair, when people had been leaving, that a resolution of this kind should be put. It was not fair that such a resolution should be put to such a small number of members and delegates.
APLE: Conference

Adverts: Poles Ltd, Londex Ltd, Stanton Ironworks Co., Ltd, Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd., Automatic Telephone And Electrical Co., Ltd., Broad And Co. Ltd., British Gas Council, Brighton Lighting & Electrical Engineering Co., Ltd., Holophane Ltd., Stewarts And Lloyds Co., Ltd., REVO Electric Co., Ltd., British Electrical Development Association, Inc, The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd., Concrete Utilities Co., Ltd., Parkinson & Cowan (Gas Meters) Ltd., Gowshall Ltd., The Association Of Metal Sprayers, Engineering And Lighting Equipment Co. Ltd., Walter Slingsby and Co., Ltd., Willey And Co. Ltd., British, Foreign And Colonial Automatic Light Controlling Co., Ltd., Falk, Stadelmann Co., Ltd., The Horstmann Gear Co., Ltd., William Sugg And Co., Ltd., Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd, Sangamo Weston Ltd. and The General Electric Co., Ltd.