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ilp archive : journals

public lighting no. 47 vol. 12
Special Conference Issue, November 1947

Editorial p91
The Street Lighting Demonstration at Southport Conference
"Best lighted town in the Country" - so said a reporter of the lighting demonstration. It was an attraction for both delegates and to visitors still enjoying their holidays in Southport. It was a matter of special interest to listen to the opinion expressed by the passers-by - opinions on colour, brightness and otherwise. The illumination of the road to the standards set down by the MOT Final Report (1937) can be obtained either by gas or by electricity. The post-war equipment marks a great advance over the pre-war period. It may be stated with accuracy that the Annual Conferences of the APLE do intensify a keeness on the part of the manufacturers to keep apace with modern requirements of Local Authorities. Southport has both gas and electrical departments - both owned and controlled by the Corporation, each department having a separate Committee. With the exception of the main high roads and the promenade, street lighting is by gas, which, although not unsatisfactory, needed bringing up to date, and for this purpose the Gas Committee had schemes of improvement in hand, which had to be put into cold store upon the outbreak of war. Since the close of the recent Conference, several of the gas installations have been taken over and now remain.

Electric Lighted Streets
Lord Street is well lighted by electricity, 750 watt gas-filled lamps fitted in artistic lanterns with suitable glass refractors. The Promenade is lit by similar lanterns, the double carriage way to North End, with centrally placed standards and double arm brackets. A few of the special installations proved startling to the people of Southport for the high efficiency displayed: the tubular fluorescent lighting in Hoghton Street, Nevill Street and Coronation Walk in particular, where the roads took a daylight effect. It was regretted that in a few hours after the Conference, the "new order" again took effect, "a 50% cut on pre-war."

Lamp Column Demonstration
An avenue of lamp columns was erected in the gardens facing the sea at Southport. Several had approval from the Royal Fine Art Commission. The general opinion was, the modern lamp column presented a more graceful appearance over those of an earlier period. Slender, with graceful curves, and in many cases a streamlining with the lamp and the lantern itself, showed that this essential item in street furniture could be made attractive and unobtrusive. In addition to the columns, Gowshall Ltd displayed a small group of illuminated guard posts. It was agreed generally that a display of columns provded invaluable to lighting engineers who had schemes in hand, as it enabled them to compare types in situ.
APLE: Conference

The Design of Lamp Columns and the Royal Fine Art Commission by Mr. A. B. Knapp-Fisher, F.R.I.B.A., F.S.A., Hon. A.R.C.A. p93
Reproduction of the paper The Design of Lamp Columns and the Royal Fine Art Commission.

Mr. A. E. N. Taylor (Ministry of Transport): A committe of manufacturers had been formed in collaboration with the Ministry of Transport to discuss what steps should be taken to secure an improvement in the design of lamp columns, and the Secretary of the APLE was the secretary to this committe, which was actin as a clearing house for the Royal Fine Art Commission. It was hoped that there would be available to lighting engineers and authorities a fair range of lamp column designs recognised by the best authorities in the country and representing really good design. It was hoped that when these designs were available, lighting authorities would seriously consider using these for lighting schemes.

Councillor H. Eastwood (Manchester Lighting Committee): Important aspects were vista and colour. Most were tempted to look at a single lamp column as a sample of what they were going to buy. But this should be viewed from a broader angle and the effect noted when looking at a long stretch of road. Experiments were being carried out with colour: in heavy traffic aluminium was ideal but in a rural area a kind of natural green would be better. He feared there was a tendency adopting a design or colour of lamp columns according to the personality of the salesman or the hospitality of the manufacturer.

Mr. H. S. Allpress (Simplex Electric Limited): As an engineer he often found it very difficult to understand the views and wishes of the artist in matters of design. He understood that designs could be approved and assessed on their merit, not so much on their artistic lines and curves but on their functional performance. The great essential of lamp column design was that the columns should be self supporting and have the centre of gravity in the right place.

Mr. F. Sage (Borough Surveyor, Watford): In his view, the column and the lamp must be related. The column and the lantern must be part of one functional design.

Mr. W. H. Burham (North Middlesex Gas Company): Far too often the column was designed as a separate unit and that was a great mistake. There was nothing more painful to look at than a massive column with a very small lantern suspended from it. Also it did not seem right that a colun should come straight out of the ground without a base to anchor it. Obviously that was not "fitness for purpose."

Mr. T. Burrows (Borough Surveyor, Cambridge): Expressed disapproval of the almp columns in the City of London being painted aluminium colour, to which was added, a big yellow band - what was The Fine Art Commission going to do about that? It was interesting to hear from the representative of the Ministry of Transport that it was hoped to prepare a group of standard columns for trunk roads. In Cambridge, there were trunk roads passing throught and it was highly doubtful whether any of the standardised columns of the Ministry would suit the trunk roads passing through the College area. The whole gist of the discussion had been to make columns as inconspicuous as possible, but the question of doing without columns altogether seemed to have been carefully avoided. What about suspension wires?

Mr. A. B. Knapp-Fisher: Aluminium paint might be alright in certain towns but not in rural ares. Green was a difficult colour to deal with. He preferred curves to angles. The central of gravity should be in the right place and the column and lantern should be designed together with one unit. A column should have a base and not appear as if it came direct out of the ground. The yellow bands on the lamp columns in the City of London were a temporary measure for traffic control. He could not give the views of The Royal Fine Art Commission on the subject of suspensions wires; it was rather a controversial subject.
Lighting: Columns, Lighting: Design

Lamp Columns In Holland p95
At the conference, M. Baart de la Faille, Electrical Engineer for the City of Amsterdam, described the difficulties that confronted public lighting engineers in his country particularly the soft nature of the sub-soil. It was difficult to maintain heavy standards in a perpendicular condition. He expressed a preferenec for centrally suspended lamps when possible.
Lighting: Columns

The Ayrshire Ripple Control Installation p96
This was activated on August 10th, 1947, where street lights in as far as Largs, Ardrossan and Ayr were controleld from the central location of Kilmarnock. It utilises the existing distribution network and through step-up and step-down transformers thus extending the range. It is the largest ripple control network in this country and extends over 1100 square miles. For the present, control is exercised in respect of street lights and load shedding of water heaters.

The control from Kilmarnock extends 28 miles north to Largs and 50 miles to Ballantrae to the south. It is anticipated that there will be over 10,000 relays operating within the network.

Direct Capacitor coupling of the ripple control current is applied to the two section of the 11kV system, the ripple frequency current being fed from the ripple alternator via a line-isolation transformer and tuning inductors to the capacitors. The maximum transformation is 11kV, 22kV, 33kV, 11kV, 3.3kV and 240V i.e. five transformations. The equipment has an initial capacity for eight different signals. The lighting load in the area served totals 3,000 kW initially and the area is dividied into four zones. Each zone has a separate "on" signal, and the switching "on" is in sections to minimise the instantaneous load. Switching "off" is effected in two stages.

The injected ripple current is generated by a motor alternator rated at 50kW, 485 cycles. A sheet steel cubicle houses all the control gear. The controlling signals are initiated from a "transmit" push button and two nine-position rotary switches. Each of the latter has one "off" position and eight signal positions.

The "Rythmatic" relays operate efficiently at voltages varying from 0.4 to 5.0 volts and discriminate between signals by means of two types of filter, one mechanical and the other electrical. These consist of a spring-controlled oscillatory galvanometer and an electrical resonant circuit respectively. The secondary mechanical filter is employed to guard against interference and to give additional signal discrimination.

The resonant circuit accepts the signal frequency and rejects the 240 volts 50 cycles potential. The signal current is then rectified and applied to the galvanomenter relay which swings at the fixed periodicity or "rhythm" determined by its spring. When a number of pulses in harmony with the natural periodicity of the relay has been received, the swing of the armature builds up in amplitude to the point at which the galvanomenter movement closes a contact, thus completing a circuit to a mechanically-locking switch which operates and performs the selected switching operation.
Lighting: Control , Lighting: Installations

New Standards for Steel Tubes and Tubulars p97
A new British Standard Specification 1387-1947 has recently been issued, giving details of new standards for screwed and socketed steel tubes and tubulars for gas, water and steam services. Under the new standards manufacturers are making available a wider range of thicknesses than has ever been available before. They have also introduced a new lightweight quality tube which will afford a considerable saving of steel, a matter of great importance in these days of world-wide steel shortages.
Tubes are now known as Class A (previously "Gas"), Class B (previously "Water") and Class C (previously "Steam"). The colours are now "Brown" (Class A), "Yellow" (Class B) and "Green" (Class C).
Lighting: Materials

The Evolution of an Electric Lamp p97
This lecture was given to the Liverpool Section of the Illuminating Engineering Society on October 21st by J. N. Aldington, B.Sc., Ph.D., F.R.I.C., F.Inst.P, F.I.E.S. of the Siemens Research Laboratories, Preston. He showed the gradual process by which technological developments advance by a series of small contributions with only an occasional major step forward illustrated by reference to work on electrical discharge through gases. The theoretical possibilities of the new "Gas Arc" were explored.
Lighting: Lamps

Special Gas Lighting In Southport p98
Night pictures of two Conference installations.
APLE: Conference, Lighting: Installations

APLE Conference Southport p99
Descriptions of the gas and electric installations at the Conference.
APLE: Conference, Lighting: Installations

Demonstration Street Lighting at Southport p100
Details of each of the lanterns used in the installations at the Conference. These include the Eclipse by William Edgar & Son, Majestic by Elm Works, Elmax by Elm Works, Alpha by Foster & Pullen, Sideways by Foster & Pullen, Stellaris by C. H. Kempton & Co, The Burham Prism by Lighting Trades & Welsbach, Southport by Sugg, 8000 by Sugg, 8000 by Sugg, Cranford by Willey, Maxilla by Parkinson & Cowan, Sol-Etern by REVO, Mazdalux Fluorescent by BTH, Hilux by Falks, Dilux by Holophane, Euston-Sieray by Siemens, Gowshall, W Lantern by BLEECO, Trafford Lantern by Metropolitan-Vickers, 15/4/3A and 15/3A/COM controllers by Horstmann, Type SS and Type S controllers by Sangamo, Kingsland controller by Gas Meter, Columns by Stewarts & Lloyds, Streamline Lantern by BLEECO, Columns by Stanton, Golden Ray by ELECO, Solar by Wardle, Four Eighty by GEC, Adastra Columns by Poles Limited and Columns by Broads Limited.
APLE: Conference, Lighting: Columns, Lighting: Luminaires

Trade Literature p110
Brief description of the GEC's Conduit, Conduit Fittings and Accessories catalogue.
Lighting: Publications

'Traffic Signals' take over at busiest City Crossing p111
The name "Bank Complex" has been given to the junction of Threadneddle Street, Cornhill, Lombard Street, King William Street, Princes Street, Queen Victoria Street, Poultry and Mansion House Street. A specification for traffic signals to control the traffic was prepared by the Ministry of Transport with the City of London Police. The Mayor switched on the controls and ended the task of the familiar City policeman - the "Robot" had taken over control.
The signals operate on a plan which ensures efficient control of the "Complex." A further feature is that other junctions in the immediate vicinity are controlled by the same master timer.
35,000 vehicles use the junction each 12 hours and most of the approaches are narrow. To deal with this heavy volume it had been arranged that traffic flow in four main stages. The general principle of allowing east and west bound traffic to flow and then permitting the north and south bound to move has been followed. In addition to the main stages there's also a number of minor stages.
The whole system is "Electro-matic vehicle actuated" opering on the "flexible-progressive" principle under control of a dual-master-timer. Vehicle detectors will be used in each approach to the "Bank Complex."

Novel Lighting of a Bournemouth Roundabout p112
Early this year a new roundabout was constructed at "The Lansdowne", Bournemouth, which carries considerable traffic, being the junction of six roads, four of which are used by trolley buses. The approach roads both rise and fall away from it and the presence of trolley poles on the centre island and roundabout perimeter make it undesirable to install further lighting standards.
It was suggested 5-ft. fluorescent tubes might be adaptable and the GEC when approached made up four sample reflectors, so arranged that they could be carried on bracket arms mounted on the existing trolley poles above the spanwires. The tests with these lanterns were so satisfactory that it was decided immediately to complete the roundabout and also put two additional units in the immediate vicinity of the roundabout in the approach roads to cater for crossing pedestrians. Twenty-five units were made in all.
The installation was lit on the 1st June. The standard of lighting is extraordinarily high for the current consumption of 2¼k.w. including choke losses, whilst the evenness of brightness is most remarkable. At a subsequent date test point and brightness readings were taken on the roundabout and on the kerb edges between 2 and 3 f.c. were obtained in nearly all positions.
Many visiting engineers expressed the opinion that it is probably the finest roundabout lighting that has been seen for years and they were particularly impressed by the absence of glare, due to the cut-off distribution and the low brightness of the light sources.
Lighting: Installations, Lighting: Luminaires

Ford 25-ft. 3-Stage Tower Wagon p113
Description of the 25-ft. Tower Wagon which was loaned to the APLE for the Southport Conference.
Lighting: Equipment

Adverts: The General Electric Co., Ltd, Gowshall Ltd., Stanton Ironworks Co., Ltd, Siemens Electric Lamps And Supplies Ltd., Automatic Telephone And Electrical Co., Ltd., Broad And Co. Ltd., REVO Electric Co., Ltd., Philips Electrical Ltd., The British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd., Stewarts And Lloyds Co., Ltd., Sangamo Weston Ltd., Willey And Co. Ltd., British, Foreign And Colonial Automatic Light Controlling Co., Ltd., Falk, Stadelmann Co., Ltd., Parkinson And Cowan Ltd., William Sugg And Co., Ltd., Engineering And Lighting Equipment Co. Ltd., Concrete Utilities Co., Ltd. and Poles Ltd.